# English

Here you can find my english pages. When there are enough of them, they might get the same or a similar structure as the german ones.

You can view these pages like a blog by checking the

< < new english posts (weblog) > >

- they also feature an RSS-Feed.

Also you can find some more of my english writings by looking at the blog-entries in LJ which I tagged english.

Best wishes,
Arne

Here you can find my english pages. When there are enough of them, they might get the same or a similar structure as the german ones. You can view these pages like a blog by checking the &nbsp;&lt; &lt; new english posts (weblog) &gt; &gt;&nbsp;

# A tale of foxes and freedom

Singing the songs of creation to shape a free world.

One day the silver kit asked the grey one:

“Who made the light, which brightens our singing place?”

The grey one looked at him lovingly and asked the kit to sit with him, for he would tell a story of old, a story from the days when the tribe was young.

“Once there was a time, when the world was light and happiness. During the day the sun shone on the savannah, and at night the moon cast the grass in a silver sheen.

It was during that time, when there were fewer animals in the wild, that the GNUs learned the working of songs of creation, deep and vocal, and they taught us and everyone their new findings, and the life of our skulk was happiness and love.

But while the GNUs spread their songs and made new songs for every idea they could imagine, others invaded the plains, and they stole away the songs and sang them in their own way. And they drowned out the light, and with it went the happiness and love.

And when everyone shivered in cold and darkness, and stillness and despair were drawn over the land, the others created a false light which cast small enclosures into a pale flicker, in which they let in only those animals who were willing to wear ropes on their throats and limbs, and many animals went to them to escape the darkness, while some fell deeper still and joined the others in enslaving their former friends.

Upon seeing this, the fiercest of the GNUs, the last one of the original herd, was filled with a terrible anger to see the songs of creation turned into a tool for slavery, and he made one special song which created a spark of true light in the darkness which could not be taken away, and which exposed the falsehood in the light of the others. And whenever he sang the song, those who were near him were touched by happiness.

But the others were many and the GNU was alone, and many animals succumbed to the ropes or the ropers and could move no more on their own.

To spread the song, the GNU now searched for other animals who would sing with it, and the song spread, and with it the freedom.

It was during these days, that the GNU met our founders, who lived in golden chains in a palace of glass.

In this palace they thought themselves lucky, and though the light of the palace grew ever paler and the chains grew heavier with every passing day, they didn't leave, because they feared the utter darkness out there.

When they then saw the GNU, they asked him: "Isn't your light weaker than this whole palace?" and the GNU answered: "Not if we sing it together", and they asked "But how will we eat in the darkness?" and the GNU answered "you'll eat in the light of your songs, and plants will grow wherever you sing", and they asked "But is it a song of foxes?" and the GNU said: "You can make it so", and he began to sing, and when our founders joined in, the light became shimmering silver like the moon they still remembered from the days and nights of light, and they rejoiced in its brightness.

And whenever this light touched the glass of the palace, the glass paled and showed its true being, and where the light touched the chains, they whithered and our founders went into the darkness with the newfound light of the moon as companion, and they thanked the GNU and promised to help it, whenever they were needed.

Then they set off to learn the many songs of the world and to spread the silver light of the moon wherever they came.

And so our founders learned to sing the light, which brightens every one of our songs, and as our skulk grew bigger, the light grew stronger and it became a little moon, which will grow with each new kit, until its light will fill the whole world again one day.”

The grey one looked around where many kits had quietly found a place, and then he laughed softly, before he got up to fetch himself a meal for the night, and the kits began to speak all at once about his story. And they spoke until the silver kit raised its voice and sung the song of moonlight1, and they joined in and the song filled their hearts with joy and the air with light, and they knew that wherever they would travel, this skulk was where their hearts felt home.

PS: I originally wrote this story for Phex, a free Gnutella based p2p filesharing program which also has an anonymous sibling (i2phex). It’s an even stronger fit for Firefox, though.

PPS: This story is far less loosely based on facts than it looks. There are songs of creation, namely computer programs, which once were free and which were truly taken away and used for casting others into darkness. And there was and still is the fierce GNU with his song of light and freedom, and he did spread it to make it into GNU/Linux and found the free software community we know today. If you want to know more about the story as it happened in our world, just read the less flowery story of Richard Stallman, free hackers and the creation of GNU or listen to the free song Infinite Hands.

PPPS: License: This text is given into the public under the GNU FDL without invariant sections and other free licenses by Arne Babenhauserheide (who has the copyright on it).

1. To make it perfectly clear: This moonlight is definitely not the abhorrent and patent stricken silverlight port from the mono project. The foxes sing a song of freedom. They wouldn’t accept the shackles of Microsoft after having found their freedom. Sadly the PR departments of some groups try to take over analogies and strong names. Don’t be fooled by them. The moonlight in our songs is the light coming from the moon which resonates in the voices of the kits. And that light is free as in freedom, from copyright restrictions as well as from patent restrictions – though there certainly are people who would love to patent the light of the moon. Those are the ones we need to fight to defend our freedom.

*Singing the songs of creation to shape a free world.*One day the silver kit asked the grey one: “Who made the light, which brightens our singing place?”The grey one looked at him lovingly and asked the kit to sit with him, for he would tell a story of old, a story from the days when the tribe was young. “Once there was a time, when the world was light and happiness. During the day the sun shone on the savannah, and at night the moon cast the grass in a silver sheen.

# Emacs

Cross platform, Free Software, almost all features you can think of, graphical and in the shell: Learn once, use for everything. » Get Emacs «

Emacs is a self-documenting, extensible editor, a development environment and a platform for lisp-programs - for example programs to make programming easier, but also for todo-lists on steroids, reading email, posting to identi.ca, and a host of other stuff (learn lisp).

It is also one of the origins of GNU and free software (Emacs History).

In Markdown-mode it looks like this:

More on emacs on my german Emacs page.

> [Cross platform](http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/#Platforms), [Free Software](http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html), almost all features you can think of, graphical and in the shell: Learn once, [use for everything](http://emacswiki.org). » [Get Emacs](http://gnu.org/s/emacs) «Emacs is a self-documenting, extensible editor, a development environment and a platform for lisp-programs - for example programs to make programming easier, but also for [todo-lists on steroids](http://orgmode.org), reading email, posting to [identi.ca](http://identi.ca), and a host of other stuff ([learn lisp](http://www.lisperati.com/casting-spels-emacs/html/casting-spels-emacs-1.html)).It is also one of the origins of [GNU](http://gnu.org) and [free software](/light/english/politics-and-free-software) ([Emacs History](http://emacswiki.org/emacs/EmacsHistory)).In Markdown-mode it looks like this:![Emacs mit Markdown mode](/files/2010-03-24-darum-emacs-markdown-mode.png)

# Babcore: Emacs Customizations everyone should have

## 1 Intro

PDF-version (for printing)

Package (to install)

orgmode-version (for editing)

repository (for forking)

project page (for fun ☺)

Emacs Lisp (to use)

I have been tweaking my emacs configuration for years, now, and I added quite some cruft. But while searching for the right way to work, I also found some gems which I direly miss in pristine emacs.

This file is about those gems.

Babcore is strongly related to Prelude. Actually it is exactly like prelude, just with the stuff I consider essential.

But before we start, there is one crucial piece of advice which everyone who uses Emacs should know:

C-g: abort


Hold control and hit g.

That gets you out of almost any situation. If anything goes wrong, just hit C-g repeatedly till the problem is gone - or you cooled off far enough to realize that a no-op is the best way to react.

To repeat: If anything goes wrong, just hit C-g.

As Emacs package, babcore needs a proper header.

;; Copyright (C) 2013 Arne Babenhauserheide

;; Author: Arne Babenhauserheide (and various others in Emacswiki and elsewhere).
;; Maintainer: Arne Babenhauserheide
;; Created 03 April 2013
;; Version: 0.0.2
;; Version Keywords: core configuration

;; This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
;; modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License

;; This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;; along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

;;; Commentary:
;; Quick Start / installation:
;; 1. Download this file and put it next to other files Emacs includes
;; 2. Add this to you .emacs file and restart emacs:
;;      (require 'babcore)
;;
;; Use Case: Use a common core configuration so you can avoid the
;;   tedious act of gathering all the basic stuff over the years and
;;   can instead concentrate on the really cool new stuff Emacs offers
;;   you.
;;
;; Todo:
;;

;;; Change Log:
;; 2013-02-29 - Initial release

;;; Code:



Additionally it needs the proper last line. See finish up for details.

## 3 Feature Gems

### 3.1 package.el, full setup

The first thing you need in emacs 24. This gives you a convenient way to install just about anything, so you really should use it.

Also I hope that it will help consolidate the various emacs tips which float around into polished packages by virtue of giving people ways to actually get the package by name - and keep it updated almost automatically.

;; Convenient package handling in emacs

(require 'package)
;; and the old elpa repo
;; and automatically parsed versiontracking repositories.

;; Make sure a package is installed
(defun package-require (package)
"Install a PACKAGE unless it is already installed
or a feature with the same name is already active.

Usage: (package-require 'package)"
; try to activate the package with at least version 0.
(package-activate package '(0))
; try to just require the package. Maybe the user has it in his local config
(condition-case nil
(require package)
; if we cannot require it, it does not exist, yet. So install it.
(error (package-install package))))

;; Initialize installed packages
(package-initialize)
;; package init not needed, since it is done anyway in emacs 24 after reading the init
;; but we have to load the list of available packages
(package-refresh-contents)



### 3.2 Flymake

Flymake is an example of a quite complex feature which really everyone should have.

It can check any kind of code, and actually anything which can be verified with a program which gives line numbers.

As alternative you might want to look into flycheck. It looks really cool, but I don’t yet have experience with it, so I cannot recommend it, yet.

;; Flymake: On the fly syntax checking

; stronger error display
(defface flymake-message-face
'((((class color) (background light)) (:foreground "#b2dfff"))
(((class color) (background dark))  (:foreground "#b2dfff")))
"Flymake message face")

; show the flymake errors in the minibuffer
(package-require 'flymake-cursor)


### 3.3 auto-complete

This gives you inline auto-completion preview with an overlay window - even in the text-console. Partially this goes as far as API-hints (for example for elisp code). Absolutely essential.

;; Inline auto completion and suggestions
(package-require 'auto-complete)


### 3.4 ido

To select a file in a huge directory, just type a few letters from that file in the correct order, leaving out the non-identifying ones. Darn cool!

; use ido mode for file and buffer Completion when switching buffers
(require 'ido)
(ido-mode t)


### 3.5 printing

Printing in pristine emacs is woefully inadequate, even though it is a standard function in almost all other current programs.

It can be easy, though:

;; Convenient printing
(require 'printing)
; make sure we use localhost as cups server
(setenv "CUPS_SERVER" "localhost")
(package-require 'cups)


### 3.6 outlining everywhere

Code folding is pretty cool to get an overview of a complex structure. So why shouldn’t you be able to do that with any kind of structured data?

; use allout minor mode to have outlining everywhere.
(allout-mode)


### 3.7 Syntax highlighting

Font-lock is the emacs name for syntax highlighting - in just about anything.

; syntax highlighting everywhere
(global-font-lock-mode 1)


### 3.8 org and babel

Org-mode is that kind of simple thing which evolves to a way of life when you realize that most of your needs actually are simple - and that the complex things can be done in simple ways, too.

It provides simple todo-lists, inline-code evaluation (as in this file) and a full-blown literate programming, reproducible research publishing platform. All from the same simple basic structure.

It might change your life… and it is the only planning solution which ever prevailed against my way of life and organization.

; Activate org-mode
(require 'org)
; and some more org stuff

; http://orgmode.org/guide/Activation.html#Activation

; The following lines are always needed.  Choose your own keys.

; And add babel inline code execution
; babel, for executing code in org-mode.
; load all language marked with (lang . t).
'((C . t)
(R . t)
(asymptote)
(awk)
(calc)
(clojure)
(comint)
(css)
(ditaa . t)
(dot . t)
(emacs-lisp . t)
(fortran)
(gnuplot . t)
(io)
(java)
(js)
(latex)
(ledger)
(lilypond)
(lisp)
(matlab)
(maxima)
(mscgen)
(ocaml)
(octave)
(org . t)
(perl)
(picolisp)
(plantuml)
(python . t)
(ref)
(ruby)
(sass)
(scala)
(scheme)
(screen)
(sh . t)
(shen)
(sql)
(sqlite)))


### 3.9 Nice line wrapping

If you’re used to other editors, you’ll want to see lines wrapped nicely at the word-border instead of lines which either get cut at the end or in the middle of a word.

global-visual-line-mode gives you that.

; Add proper word wrapping
(global-visual-line-mode t)


### 3.10 goto-chg

This is the kind of feature which looks tiny: Go to the place where you last changed something.

And then you get used to it and it becomes absolutely indispensable.

; go to the last change
(package-require 'goto-chg)
(global-set-key [(control .)] 'goto-last-change)
; M-. can conflict with etags tag search. But C-. can get overwritten
; by flyspell-auto-correct-word. And goto-last-change needs a really
; fast key.
(global-set-key [(meta .)] 'goto-last-change)


### 3.11 flyspell

Whenever you write prosa, a spellchecker is worth a lot, but it should not unnerve you.

Install aspell, then activate flyspell-mode whenever you need it.

It needs some dabbling, though, to make it work nicely with non-english text.

; Make german umlauts work.
(setq locale-coding-system 'utf-8)
(set-terminal-coding-system 'utf-8)
(set-keyboard-coding-system 'utf-8)
(set-selection-coding-system 'utf-8)
(prefer-coding-system 'utf-8)

;aspell und flyspell
(setq-default ispell-program-name "aspell")

;make aspell faster but less correctly
(setq ispell-extra-args '("--sug-mode=ultra" "-w" "äöüÄÖÜßñ"))
(setq ispell-list-command "list")


### 3.12 control-lock

If you have to do the same action repeatedly, for example with flyspell hitting next-error and next-correction hundreds of times, the need to press control can really be a strain for your fingers.

Sure, you can use viper-mode and retrain your hands for the completely alien command set of vim.

A simpler solution is adding a sticky control key - and that’s what control-lock does: You get modal editing with your standard emacs commands.

Since I am a german, I simply use the german umlauts to toggle the control-lock. You will likely want to choose your own commands here.

; control-lock-mode, so we can enter a vi style command-mode with standard emacs keys.
(package-require 'control-lock)
; also bind M-ü and M-ä to toggling control lock.
(global-set-key (kbd "M-ü") 'control-lock-toggle)
(global-set-key (kbd "C-ü") 'control-lock-toggle)
(global-set-key (kbd "M-ä") 'control-lock-toggle)
(global-set-key (kbd "C-ä") 'control-lock-toggle)
(global-set-key (kbd "C-z") 'control-lock-toggle)


### 3.13 Basic key chords

This is the second strike for saving your pinky. Yes, Emacs is hard on the pinky. Even if it were completely designed to avoid strain on the pinky, it would still be hard, because any system in which you do not have to reach for the mouse is hard on the pinky.

But it also provides some of the neatest tricks to reduce that strain, so you can make Emacs your pinky saviour.

The key chord mode allows you to hit any two keys at (almost) the same time to invoke commands. Since this can interfere with normal typing, I would only use it for letters which are rarely typed after each other.

The default chords have proven themselves to be useful in years of working with Emacs.

; use key chords invoke commands
(package-require 'key-chord)
(key-chord-mode 1)
; buffer actions
(key-chord-define-global "vg"     'eval-region)
(key-chord-define-global "vb"     'eval-buffer)
(key-chord-define-global "cy"     'yank-pop)
(key-chord-define-global "cg"     "\C-c\C-c")
; frame actions
(key-chord-define-global "xo"     'other-window);
(key-chord-define-global "x1"     'delete-other-windows)
(key-chord-define-global "x0"     'delete-window)
(defun kill-this-buffer-if-not-modified ()
(interactive)
(kill-buffer-if-not-modified (current-buffer))
(abort-recursive-edit)))
(key-chord-define-global "xk"     'kill-this-buffer-if-not-modified)
; file actions
(key-chord-define-global "bf"     'ido-switch-buffer)
(key-chord-define-global "cf"     'ido-find-file)
(key-chord-define-global "vc"     'vc-next-action)



To complement these tricks, you should also install and use workrave or at least type-break-mode.

### 3.14 X11 tricks

These are ways to improve the integration of Emacs in a graphical environment.

We have this cool editor. But it is from the 90s, and some of the more modern concepts of graphical programs have not yet been integrated into its core. Maybe because everyone just adds them to the custom setup :)

On the other hand, Emacs always provided split windows and many of the “new” window handling functions in dwm and similar - along with a level of integration with which normal graphical desktops still have to catch up. Open a file, edit it as text, quickly switch to org-mode to be able to edit an ascii table more efficiently, then switch to html mode to add some custom structure - and all that with a consistent set of key bindings.

But enough with the glorification, let’s get to the integration of stuff where Emacs arguably still has weaknesses.

#### 3.14.1 frame-to-front

Get the current Emacs frame to the front. You can for example call this via emacsclient and set it as a keyboard shortcut in your desktop (for me it is F12):

emacsclient -e "(show-frame)"


This sounds much easier than it proves to be in the end… but luckily you only have to solve it once, then you can google it anywhere…

(defun show-frame (&optional frame)
"Show the current Emacs frame or the FRAME given as argument.

And make sure that it really shows up!"
(raise-frame)
; yes, you have to call this twice. Don’t ask me why…
; select-frame-set-input-focus calls x-focus-frame and does a bit of
(select-frame-set-input-focus (selected-frame))
(select-frame-set-input-focus (selected-frame)))


#### 3.14.2 urgency hint

Make Emacs announce itself in the tray.

;; let emacs blink when something interesting happens.
;; in KDE this marks the active Emacs icon in the tray.
(defun x-urgency-hint (frame arg &optional source)
"Set the x-urgency hint for the frame to arg:

- If arg is nil, unset the urgency.
- If arg is any other value, set the urgency.

If you unset the urgency, you still have to visit the frame to make the urgency setting disappear (at least in KDE)."
(let* ((wm-hints (append (x-window-property
"WM_HINTS" frame "WM_HINTS"
source nil t) nil))
(flags (car wm-hints)))
; (message flags)
(setcar wm-hints
(if arg
(logior flags #x00000100)
(logand flags #x1ffffeff)))
(x-change-window-property "WM_HINTS" wm-hints frame "WM_HINTS" 32 t)))

(defun x-urgent (&optional arg)
"Mark the current emacs frame as requiring urgent attention.

With a prefix argument which does not equal a boolean value of nil, remove the urgency flag (which might or might not change display, depending on the window manager)."
(interactive "P")
(let (frame (car (car (cdr (current-frame-configuration)))))
(x-urgency-hint frame (not arg))))


#### 3.14.3 fullscreen mode

Hit X11 to enter fullscreen mode. Any self-respecting program should have that… and now Emacs does, too.

; fullscreen, taken from http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/FullScreen#toc26
; should work for X und OSX with emacs 23.x (TODO find minimum version).
; for windows it uses (w32-send-sys-command #xf030) (#xf030 == 61488)
(defvar babcore-fullscreen-p t "Check if fullscreen is on or off")
(setq babcore-stored-frame-width nil)
(setq babcore-stored-frame-height nil)

(defun babcore-non-fullscreen ()
(interactive)
(if (fboundp 'w32-send-sys-command)
;; WM_SYSCOMMAND restore #xf120
(w32-send-sys-command 61728)
(progn (set-frame-parameter nil 'width
(if babcore-stored-frame-width
babcore-stored-frame-width 82))
(set-frame-parameter nil 'height
(if babcore-stored-frame-height
babcore-stored-frame-height 42))
(set-frame-parameter nil 'fullscreen nil))))

(defun babcore-fullscreen ()
(interactive)
(setq babcore-stored-frame-width (frame-width))
(setq babcore-stored-frame-height (frame-height))
(if (fboundp 'w32-send-sys-command)
;; WM_SYSCOMMAND maximaze #xf030
(w32-send-sys-command 61488)
(set-frame-parameter nil 'fullscreen 'fullboth)))

(defun toggle-fullscreen ()
(interactive)
(setq babcore-fullscreen-p (not babcore-fullscreen-p))
(if babcore-fullscreen-p
(babcore-non-fullscreen)
(babcore-fullscreen)))

(global-set-key [f11] 'toggle-fullscreen)


#### 3.14.4 default key bindings

I always hate it when some usage pattern which is consistent almost everywhere fails with some program. Especially if that is easily avoidable.

This code fixes that for Emacs in KDE.

; Default KDE keybindings to make emacs nicer integrated into KDE.

; can treat C-m as its own mapping.
; (define-key input-decode-map "\C-m" [?\C-1])

(defun revert-buffer-preserve-modes ()
(interactive)
(revert-buffer t nil t))

; C-m shows/hides the menu bar - thanks to http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2298811/how-to-turn-off-alternative-enter-with-ctrlm-in-linux
(defconst kde-default-keys-minor-mode-map
(let ((map (make-sparse-keymap)))
(set-keymap-parent map text-mode-map)
(define-key map [f5] 'revert-buffer-preserve-modes)
(define-key map [?\C-+] 'text-scale-increase)
(define-key map [?\C--] 'text-scale-decrease) ; shadows 'negative-argument which is also available via M-- and C-M--, though.
(define-key map [C-kp-subtract] 'text-scale-decrease)
map)
"Keymap for kde-default-keys-minor-mode'.")

;; Minor mode for keypad control
(define-minor-mode kde-default-keys-minor-mode
:global t
:init-value t
:lighter ""
:keymap 'kde-default-keys-minor-mode-map
)


### 3.15 Insert unicode characters

Actually you do not need any configuration here. Just use

M-x ucs-insert


To insert any unicode character. If you want to see them while selecting, have a look at xub-mode from Ergo Emacs.

### 3.16 Highlight TODO and FIXME in comments

This is a default feature in most IDEs. Since Emacs allows you to build your own IDE, it does not offer it by default… but it should, since that does not disturb anything. So we add it.

fic-ext-mode highlight TODO and FIXME in comments for common programming languages.

;; Highlight TODO and FIXME in comments
(package-require 'fic-ext-mode)
"helper function to add a callback to multiple hooks"
(dolist (mode mode-list)
(add-hook (intern (concat (symbol-name mode) "-mode-hook")) something)))

(add-something-to-mode-hooks '(c++ tcl emacs-lisp python text markdown latex) 'fic-ext-mode)



### 3.17 Save macros as functions

Now for something which should really be provided by default: You just wrote a cool emacs macro, and you are sure that you will need that again a few times.

Well, then save it!

In standard emacs that needs multiple steps. And I hate that. Something as basic as saving a macro should only need one single step. It does now (and Emacs is great, because it allows me to do this!).

This bridges the gap between function definitions and keyboard macros, making keyboard macros something like first class citizens in your Emacs.

; save the current macro as reusable function.
(defun save-current-kbd-macro-to-dot-emacs (name)
"Save the current macro as named function definition inside
your initialization file so you can reuse it anytime in the
future."
(interactive "SSave Macro as: ")
(name-last-kbd-macro name)
(save-excursion
(find-file-literally user-init-file)
(goto-char (point-max))
(insert "\n\n;; Saved macro\n")
(insert-kbd-macro name)
(insert "\n")))


### 3.18 Transparent GnuPG encryption

If you have a diary or similar, you should really use this. It only takes a few lines of code, but these few lines are the difference between encryption for those who know they need it and encryption for everyone.

; Activate transparent GnuPG encryption.
(require 'epa-file)
(epa-file-enable)


### 3.19 Colored shell commands

A shell without colors is really hard to read. Let’s make that easier.

; colored shell commands via C-!
(defun babcore-shell-execute(cmd)
"Execute a shell command in an interactive shell buffer."
(interactive "sShell command: ")
(shell (get-buffer-create "*shell-commands-buf*"))
(process-send-string (get-buffer-process "*shell-commands-buf*") (concat cmd "\n")))
(global-set-key (kbd "C-!") 'babcore-shell-execute)


### 3.20 Save backups in ~/.local/share/emacs-saves

This is just an aestetic value: Use the directories from the freedesktop specification for save files.

Thanks to the folks at CERN for this.

(setq backup-by-copying t      ; don't clobber symlinks
backup-directory-alist
'(("." . "~/.local/share/emacs-saves"))    ; don't litter my fs tree
delete-old-versions t
kept-new-versions 6
kept-old-versions 2
version-control t)       ; use versioned backups



### 3.21 Basic persistency

If I restart the computer I want my editor to make it easy for me to continue where I left off.

It’s bad enough that most likely my brain buffers were emptied. At least my editor should remember how to go on.

#### 3.21.1 saveplace

If I reopen a file, I want to start at the line at which I was when I closed it.

; save the place in files
(require 'saveplace)
(setq-default save-place t)


#### 3.21.2 recentf

Also I want to be able to see the most recently opened files. Almost every single program on my computer has a “recently opened files” list, and now emacs does, too.

; show recent files
(package-require 'recentf)
(recentf-mode 1)


#### 3.21.3 savehist

And I want to be able to call my recent commands in the minibuffer. I normally don’t type the full command name anyway, but rather C-r followed by a small part of the command. Losing that on restart really hurts, so I want to avoid that loss.

; save minibuffer history
(require 'savehist)
(savehist-mode t)


#### 3.21.4 desktop globals

This is the chainsaw of persistency. I commented it out, because it can be overkill and actually disturb more than it helps, when it recovers stuff I did not need.

;; save registers and open files over restarts,
;; thanks to http://www.xsteve.at/prg/emacs/power-user-tips.html
;; save a list of open files in ~/.emacs.desktop
;; save the desktop file automatically if it already exists
;(setq desktop-save 'if-exists)
;(desktop-save-mode 1)

;; ;; save a bunch of variables to the desktop file
;; ;; for lists specify the len of the maximal saved data also
;; (setq desktop-globals-to-save
;;       (append '((extended-command-history . 300)
;;                 (file-name-history        . 100)
;;                 (grep-history             . 30)
;;                 (compile-history          . 30)
;;                 (minibuffer-history       . 5000)
;;                 (query-replace-history    . 60)
;;                 (regexp-history           . 60)
;;                 (regexp-search-ring       . 20)
;;                 (search-ring              . 2000)
;;                 (shell-command-history    . 50)
;;                 tags-file-name
;;                 register-alist)))

;; ;; restore only 5 buffers at once and the rest lazily
;; (setq desktop-restore-eager 5)

; maybe nicer: http://github.com/doomvox/desktop-recover



### 3.22 use the system clipboard

Finally one more minor adaption: Treat the clipboard gracefully. This is a tightrope stunt and getting it wrong can feel awkward.

This is the only setting for which I’m not sure that I got it right, but it’s what I use…

; Use the system clipboard
(setq x-select-enable-clipboard t)


In case you mostly write free software, you might be as weary of hunting for the license header and copy pasting it into new files as I am. Free licenses, and especially copyleft licenses, are one of the core safeguards of free culture, because they give free software developers an edge over proprietarizing folks. But they are a pain to add to every file…

Well: No more. We now have legalese mode to take care of the inconvenient legal details for us, so we can focus on the code we write. Just call M-x legalese to add a GPL header, or C-u M-x legalese to choose another license.

(package-require 'legalese)


### 3.24 finish up

Make it possible to just (require 'babcore) and add the proper package footer.

(provide 'babcore)
;;; babcore.el ends here


## 4 Summary

With the babcore you have a core setup which exposes some of the essential features of Emacs and adds basic integration with the system which is missing in pristine Emacs.

Now go and see the M-x package-list-packages to see where you can still go - or just use Emacs and add what you need along the way. The package list is your friend, as is Emacswiki.

Happy Hacking!

Date: 2013-04-03,
,
Org version 7.9.2 with Emacs version 24
Validate XHTML 1.0

Note: As almost everything on this page, this text and code is available under the GPLv3 or later.

1 IntroPDF-version (for printing)Package (to install)orgmode-version (for editing)repository (for forking)project page (for fun ☺)Emacs Lisp (to use)I have been tweaking my emacs configuration for years, now, and Iadded quite some cruft. But while searching for the right way to work,I also found some gems which I direly miss in pristine emacs.This file is about those gems.Babcore is strongly related to Prelude. Actually it is exactly likeprelude, just with the stuff I consider essential.But before we start, there is one crucial piece of advice whicheveryone who uses Emacs should know:C-g: abortHold control and hit g.That gets you out of almost any situation. If anything goes wrong,just hit C-g repeatedly till the problem is gone - or you cooled offfar enough to realize that a no-op is the best way to react.To repeat: If anything goes wrong, just hit C-g.

# Custom link completion for org-mode in 25 lines (emacs)

Update (2013-01-23): The new org-mode removed (org-make-link), so I replaced it with (concat) and uploaded a new example-file: org-custom-link-completion.el.
Happy Hacking!

## 1 Intro

I recently set up custom completion for two of my custom link types in Emacs org-mode. When I wrote on identi.ca about that, Greg Tucker-Kellog said that he’d like to see that. So I decided, I’d publish my code.

The link types I regularly need are papers (PDFs of research papers I take notes about) and bib (the bibtex entries for the papers). The following are my custom link definitions :

(setq org-link-abbrev-alist
'(("bib" . "~/Dokumente/Uni/Doktorarbeit-inverse-co2-ch4/aufschriebe/ref.bib::%s")
("notes" . "~/Dokumente/Uni/Doktorarbeit-inverse-co2-ch4/aufschriebe/papers.org::#%s")
("papers" . "~/Dokumente/Uni/Doktorarbeit-inverse-co2-ch4/aufschriebe/papers/%s.pdf")))


For some weeks I had copied the info into the links by hand. Thus an entry about a paper looks like the following.

* Title [[bib:identifier]] [[papers:name_without_suffix]]


This already suffices to be able to click the links for opening the PDF or showing the bibtex entry. Entering the links was quite inconvenient, though.

## 2 Implementation: papers

The trick to completion in org-mode is to create the function org-LINKTYPE-complete-link.

Let’s begin with the papers-links, because their completion is more basic than the completion of the bib-link.

First I created a helper function to replace all occurrences of a substring in a string1.

(defun string-replace (this withthat in)
"replace THIS with WITHTHAT' in the string IN"
(with-temp-buffer
(insert in)
(goto-char (point-min))
(replace-string this withthat)
(buffer-substring (point-min) (point-max))))



As you can see, it’s quite simple: Just create a temporary buffer and and use the default replace-string function I’m using daily while editing. Don’t assume I had figured out that elegant way myself. I just searched for it in the net and adapted the nicest code I found :)

Now we get to the real completion:

<<string-replace>>
"Create a papers link using completion."
(setq file (read-file-name "papers: " "papers/"))



The real magic is in read-file-name. That just uses the file-completion with a custom command prefix.

cleanup-link is only a small list of setq’s which removes parts of the filepath to make it compatible with the syntax for paper-links:

(let ((pwd (file-name-as-directory (expand-file-name ".")))
(pwd1 (file-name-as-directory (abbreviate-file-name
(expand-file-name ".")))))
(setq file (string-replace "papers/" "" file))
(setq file (string-replace pwd "" (string-replace pwd1 "" file)))
(setq file (string-replace ".pdf" "" file))


And that’s it. A few lines of simple elisp and I have working completion for a custom link-type which points to research papers - and can easily be adapted when I change the location of the papers.

Now don’t think I would have come up with all that elegant code myself. My favorite language is Python and I don’t think that I should have to know emacs lisp as well as Python. So I copied and adapted most of it from existing functions in emacs. Just use C-h C-f <function-name> and then follow the link to the code :)

Remember: This is free software. Reuse and learning from existing code is not just allowed but encouraged.

## 3 Implementation: bib

For the bib-links, I chose an even easier way. I just reused reftex-do-citation from reftex-mode:

<<reftex-setup>>
"Create a bibtex link using reftex autocompletion."
(concat "bib:" (reftex-do-citation nil t nil)))



For reftex-do-citation to allow using the bib-style link, I needed some setup, but I already had that in place for explicit citation inserting (not generalized as link-type), so I don’t count following as part of the actual implementation. Also I likely copied most of it from emacs-wiki :)

(defun org-mode-reftex-setup ()
(interactive)
(and (buffer-file-name) (file-exists-p (buffer-file-name))
(progn
; Reftex should use the org file as master file. See C-h v TeX-master for infos.
(setq TeX-master t)
(turn-on-reftex)
; don’t ask for the tex master on every start.
(reftex-parse-all)
(reftex-set-cite-format
'((?b . "[[bib:%l][%l-bib]]")
(?n . "[[notes:%l][%l-notes]]")
(?p . "[[papers:%l][%l-paper]]")
(?t . "%t")
(?h . "** %t\n:PROPERTIES:\n:Custom_ID: %l\n:END:\n[[papers:%l][%l-paper]]")))))
(define-key org-mode-map (kbd "C-c )") 'reftex-citation)
(define-key org-mode-map (kbd "C-c (") 'org-mode-reftex-search))



And that’s it. My custom link types now support useful completion.

## 4 Result

For papers, I get an interactive file-prompt to just select the file. It directly starts in the papers folder, so I can simply enter a few letters which appear in the paper filename and hit enter (thanks to ido-mode).

For bibtex entries, a reftex-window opens in a lower split-screen and asks me for some letters which appear somewhere in the bibtex entry. It then shows all fitting entries in brief but nice format and lets me select the entry to enter. I simply move with the arrow-keys, C-n/C-p, n/p or even C-s/C-r for searching, till the correct entry is highlighted. Then I hit enter to insert it.

And that’s it. I hope you liked my short excursion into the world of extending emacs to stay focussed while connecting seperate data sets.

I never saw a level of (possible) integration and consistency anywhere else which even came close to the possibilities of emacs.

And by the way: This article was also written in org-mode, using its literate programming features for code-samples which can actually be executed and extracted at will.

To put it all together I just need the following:

<<org-papers-complete-link>>


Now I use M-x org-babel-tangle to write the code to the file org-custom-link-completion.el. I attached that file for easier reference: org-custom-link-completion.el :)

Have fun with Emacs!

PS: Should something be missing here, feel free to get it from my public .emacs.d. I only extracted what seemed important, but I did not check if it runs in a pristine Emacs. My at-home branch is “fluss”.

## Footnotes:

1 : Creating a custom function for string replace might not have been necessary, because some function might already exist for that. But writing it myself was faster than searching for it.

> **Update** (2013-01-23): The new org-mode removed (org-make-link), so I replaced it with (concat) and uploaded a new example-file: org-custom-link-completion.el. > Happy Hacking!Table of Contents1 Intro2 Implementation: papers3 Implementation: bib4 Result1 IntroI recently set up custom completion for two of my custom link types in Emacs org-mode. When I wrote on identi.ca about that, Greg Tucker-Kellog said that he’d like to see that. So I decided, I’d publish my code.
AnhangGröße

# Easily converting ris-citations to bibtex with emacs and bibutils

## The problem

Nature only gives me ris-formatted citations, but I use bibtex.

Also ris is far from human readable.

## The background

ris can be reformatted to bibtext, but doing that manually disturbs my workflow when getting references while taking note about a paper in emacs.

I tend to search online for references, often just using google scholar, so when I find a ris reference, the first data I get for the ris-citation is a link.

## The solution

### Making it possible

bibutils1 can convert ris to an intermediate xml format and then convert that to bibtex.

wget -O reference.ris RIS_URL
cat reference.ris | ris2xml | xml2bib >> ref.bib


This solves the problem, but it is not convenient, because I have to switch to the terminal, download the file, convert it and append the result to my bibtex file.

### Making it convenient

With the first step, getting the ris-citation is quite inconvenient. I need 3 steps just for getting a citation.

But those steps are always the same, and since I use Emacs, I can automate and integrate them very easily. So I created a simple function in emacs, which takes the url of a ris citation, converts it to bibtex and appends the result to my local bibtex file. Now I get a ris citation with a simple call to

M-x ris-citation-to-bib


Then I enter the url and the function appends the citation to my bibtex file.2

Feel free to integrate it into your own emacs setup (additionally to the GPLv3 you can use any license used by emacswiki or worg).

(defun ris-citation-to-bib (&optional ris-url)
"get a ris citation as bibtex in one step. Just call M-x
ris-citation-to-bib and enter the ris url.
Requires bibutils: http://sourceforge.net/p/bibutils/home/Bibutils/
"
(interactive "Mris-url: ")
(save-excursion
(let ((bib-file "/home/arne/aufschriebe/ref.bib")
(bib-buffer (get-buffer "ref.bib"))
(ris-buffer (url-retrieve-synchronously ris-url)))
; firstoff check if we have the bib buffer. If yes, move point to the last line.
(if (not (member bib-buffer (buffer-list)))
(setq bib-buffer (find-file-noselect bib-file)))
(progn
(set-buffer bib-buffer)
(goto-char (point-max)))
(if ris-buffer
(set-buffer ris-buffer))
(shell-command-on-region (point-min) (point-max) "ris2xml | xml2bib" ris-buffer)
(let ((pmin (- (search-forward "@") 1))
(pmax (search-forward "}")))
(if (member bib-buffer (buffer-list))
(progn
(append-to-buffer bib-buffer pmin pmax)
(kill-buffer ris-buffer)
(set-buffer bib-buffer)
(save-buffer)
))))))


Happy Hacking!

1. To get bibutils in Gentoo, just call emerge app-text/bibutils

2. Well, actually I only use M-x ris- TAB, but that’s a detail (though I would not want to work without it :) )

## The problem[Nature](http://www.nature.com/) only gives me [ris-formatted](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RIS_%28file_format%29) citations, but I use [bibtex](http://tug.ctan.org/pkg/bibtex). Also ris is far from human readable.## The backgroundris can be reformatted to bibtext, but doing that manually disturbs my workflow when getting references while taking note about a paper in emacs. I tend to search online for references, often just using [google scholar](http://scholar.google.com), so when I find a ris reference, the first data I get for the ris-citation is a link.## The solution

# El Kanban Org: parse org-mode todo-states to use org-tables as Kanban tables

Kanban for emacs org-mode.

Update (2013-04-13): Kanban.el now lives in its own repository: on bitbucket and on a statically served http-repo (to be independent from unfree software).

Update (2013-04-10): Thanks to Han Duply, kanban links now work for entries from other files. And I uploaded kanban.el on marmalade.

Some time ago I learned about kanban, and the obvious next step was: “I want to have a kanban board from org-mode”. I searched for it, but did not find any. Not wanting to give up on the idea, I implemented my own :)

The result are two functions: kanban-todo and kanban-zero.

## kanban-todo

kanban-todo provides your TODO items as kanban-fields. You can move them in the table without having duplicates, so all the state maintenance is done in the kanban table. Once you are finished, you mark them as done and delete them from the table.

To set it up, put kanban.el somewhere in your load path and (require 'kanban) (more recent but potentially unstable version). Then just add a table like the following:

|   |   |   |
|---+---+---|
|   |   |   |
|   |   |   |
|   |   |   |
|   |   |   |
#+TBLFM: $1='(kanban-todo @# @2$2..@>$>)::@1='(kanban-headers$#)


Click C-c C-c with the point on the TBLFMT line to update the table.

The important line is the #+TBLFM. That says “use my TODO items in the TODO column, except if they are in another column” and “add kanban headers for my TODO states”

The kanban-todo function takes an optional parameter match, which you can use to restrict the kanban table to given tags. The syntax is the same as for org-mode matchers. The third argument allows you to provide a scope, for example a list of files.

To only set the scope, use nil for the matcher.

See C-h f org-map-entries and C-h v org-agenda-files for details.

## kanban-zero

kanban-zero is a zero-state Kanban: All state is managed in org-mode and the table only displays the kanban items.

To set it up, put kanban.el somwhere in your load path and (require 'kanban). Then just add a table like the following:

|   |   |   |
|---+---+---|
|   |   |   |
|   |   |   |
|   |   |   |
|   |   |   |
#+TBLFM: @2$1..@>$>='(kanban-zero @# $#)::@1='(kanban-headers$#)


The important line is the #+TBLFM. That says “show my org items in the appropriate column” and “add kanban headers for my TODO states”.

Click C-c C-c with the point on the TBLFMT line to update the table.

The kanban-zero function takes an optional parameter match, which you can use to restrict the kanban table to given tags. The syntax is the same as for org-mode matchers. The third argument allows you to provide a scope, for example a list of files.

To only set the scope, use nil for the matcher.

An example for matcher and scope would be:

#+TBLFM: @2$1..@>$>='(kanban-zero @# $# "1w6" '("/home/arne/.emacs.d/private/org/emacs-plan.org"))::@1='(kanban-headers$#)


See C-h f org-map-entries and C-h v org-agenda-files for details.

## Contribute

To contribute to kanban.el, just change the file and write a comment about your changes. Maybe I’ll setup a repo on Bitbucket at some point…

## Example

In the Hexbattle game-draft, I use kanban to track my progress:

… and so on …

### “Graphical” TODO states

To make the todo states easier to grok directly you can use unicode symbols for them. Example:

#+SEQ_TODO: ❢ ☯ ⧖ | ☺ ✔ DEFERRED ✘
| ❢ | ☯ | ⧖ | ☺ |
|---+---+---+---|
|   |   |   |   |
#+TBLFM: @1='(kanban-headers $#)::@2$1..@>$>='(kanban-zero @#$#)

In my setup they are ❢ (todo) ☯ (doing) ⧖ (waiting) and ☺ (to report). Not shown in the kanban Table are ✔ (finished), ✘ (dropped) and deferred (later), because they don’t require any action from me, so I don’t need to see them all the time.

### Collecting kanban entries via SSH

If you want to create a shared kanban table, you can use the excellent transparent network access options from Emacs tramp to collect kanban entries directly via SSH.

To use that, simply pass an explicit list of files to kanban-zero as 4th argument (if you don’t use tag matching just use nil as 3rd argument). "/ssh:host:path/to/file.org" retrieves the file ~/path/to/file.org from the host.

| ❢ | ☯ |
|---+---|
|   |   |
#+TBLFM: @1='(kanban-headers $#)::@2$1..@>$>='(kanban-zero @#$# nil (list (buffer-file-name) "/ssh:localhost:plan.org"))


Caveeat: all included kanban files have to use at least some of the same todo states: kanban.el only retrieves TODO states which are used in the current buffer.

*[Kanban](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanban) for [emacs](http://gnu.org/software/emacs) [org-mode](orgmode.org).*> **Update** (2013-04-13): Kanban.el now lives in its own repository: [on bitbucket](https://bitbucket.org/ArneBab/kanban.el) and on a [statically served http-repo](http://draketo.de/proj/kanban/) (to be independent from unfree software).> **Update** (2013-04-10): Thanks to Han Duply, kanban links now work for entries from other files. And I uploaded kanban.el [on marmalade](http://marmalade-repo.org/packages/kanban/0.1.1).Some time ago I learned about kanban, and the obvious next step was: *“I want to have a kanban board from org-mode”*. I searched for it, but did not find any. Not wanting to give up on the idea, I implemented my own :)The result are two functions: kanban-todo and kanban-zero.## “Screenshot” :)TODODOINGDONERefactor in such a way that thelet Presentation manage dumb spritesreturn all actions on every command:Make the UiState adhere the list ofTurn the model into a pure state
AnhangGröße
kanban.el5.86 KB

I use Emacs Org-Mode for writing all kinds of articles. The standard format for org-mode is to show the table of contents before all other content, but that requires people to scroll down to see whether the article is interesting for them. Therefore I want the abstract to be shown before the table of contents.

## 1 Intro

There is an old guide for showing the abstract before the TOC in org-mode<8, but since I use org-mode 8, that wasn’t applicable to me.

With a short C-h v org-toc TAB TAB (means: search all variables which start with org- and containt -toc) I found the following even simpler way. After I got that solution working, I found that this was still much too complex and that org-mode actually provides an even easier and very convenient way to add the TOC at any place.

## 2 Solution

#+OPTIONS: toc:nil


Then after the abstract add a TOC:

#+BEGIN_ABSTRACT
Abstract
#+END_ABSTRACT


Done. Have fun with org-mode!

## 3 Appendix: Complex way

This is the complicated way I tried first. It only works with LaTeX, but there it works. Better use the simple way.

Set org-export-with-toc to nil as file-local variable. This means you just append the following to the file:

# Local Variables:
# org-export-with-toc: nil
# End:


(another nice local variable is org-confirm-babel-evaluate: nil, but don’t set that globally, otherwise you could run untrusted code when you export org-mode files from others. When this is set file-local, emacs will ask you for each file you open whether you want to accept the variable setting)

Then write the abstract before the first heading and add tableofcontents after it. Example:

#+BEGIN_ABSTRACT
Abstract
#+END_ABSTRACT
#+LATEX: \tableofcontents

I use Emacs Org-Mode for writing all kinds of articles. The standard format for org-mode is to show the table of contents before all other content, but that requires people to scroll down to see whether the article is interesting for them. Therefore I want the abstract to be shown before the table of contents.Table of Contents1. Intro2. Solution3. Appendix: Complex way
AnhangGröße
2013-11-21-Do-emacs-orgmode-abstract-before-toc.pdf143.29 KB
2013-11-21-Do-emacs-orgmode-abstract-before-toc.org2.23 KB

# Insert a scaled screenshot in emacs org-mode

@marjoleink asked on identi.ca1, if it is possible to use emacs org-mode for showing scaled screenshots inline while writing. Since I thought I’d enjoy some hacking, I decided to take the challenge.

It does not do auto-scaling of embedded images, as far as I know, but the use case of screenshots can be done with a simple function (add this to your ~/.emacs or ~/.emacs.d/init.el):

(defun org-insert-scaled-screenshot ()
"Insert a scaled screenshot
for inline display
(interactive)
(let ((filename
(concat "screenshot-"
(substring
(shell-command-to-string
"date +%Y%m%d%H%M%S")
0 -1 )
".png")))
(let ((scaledname
(concat filename "-width300.png")))
(shell-command
(concat "import -window root "
filename))
(shell-command
filename " " scaledname))
(insert (concat "[[./" scaledname "]]")))))


Now just call M-x org-redisplay-inline-images to see the screenshot (or add it to the function).

In action:

Have fun with Emacs - and happy hacking!

PS: In case it’s not obvious: The screenshot shows emacs just as the screenshot is being shot - with the method shown here ☺)

1. Matthew Gregg: @marjoleink "way of life" thing again, but if you can invest some time, org-mode is a really powerful note keeping environment. → Marjolein Katsma: @mcg I'm sure it is - but seriously: can you embed a diagram2 or screenshot, scale it, and link it to itself?

2. For diagrams, you can just insert a link to the image file without description, then org-mode can show it inline. To get an even nicer user-experience (plain text diagrams or ascii-art), you can use inline code via org-babel using graphviz (dot) or ditaa - the latter is used for the diagrams in my complete Mercurial branching strategy

@marjoleink [asked on identi.ca](http://identi.ca/conversation/97136907#notice-98020110)[^dents], if it is possible to use emacs org-mode for showing scaled screenshots inline while writing. Since I thought I’d enjoy some hacking, I decided to take the challenge.[^dents]: Matthew Gregg: @marjoleink "way of life" thing again, but if you can invest some time, org-mode is a really powerful note keeping environment. → Marjolein Katsma: @mcg I'm sure it is - but seriously: can you embed a diagram[^diagram] or screenshot, scale it, and link it to itself?[^diagram]: For diagrams, you can just insert a link to the image file without description, then org-mode can show it inline. To get an even nicer user-experience (plain text diagrams or ascii-art), you can use inline code via [org-babel](http://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/babel/) using graphviz (dot) or ditaa - the latter is used for the diagrams in my [complete Mercurial branching strategy](/light/english/mercurial/complete-branching-strategy).It does not do auto-scaling of embedded images, as far as I know, but the use case of screenshots can be done with a simple function (add this to your ~/.emacs or ~/.emacs.d/init.el):
AnhangGröße
screenshot-20121122101933-width300.png108.08 KB
screenshot-20121122101933-width600.png272.2 KB

# Minimal example for literate programming with noweb in emacs org-mode

If you want to use the literate programming features in emacs org-mode, you can try this minimal example to get started: Activate org-babel-tangle, then put this into the file noweb-test.org:

Minimal example for noweb in org-mode

* Assign

First we assign abc:

#+begin_src python :noweb-ref assign_abc
abc = "abc"
#+end_src

* Use

Then we use it in a function:

#+begin_src python :noweb tangle :tangle noweb-test.py
def x():
<<assign_abc>>
return abc

print(x())
#+end_src


noweb-test.org

Hit C-c C-c to evaluate the source block. Hit C-c C-v C-t to put the expanded code into the file noweb-test.py.

The exported code looks like this:

def x():
abc = "abc"
return abc
print(x())

noweb-test.py

(html generated with org-export-as-html-to-buffer and slightly reniced to escape the additional parsing I have on my site)

And with org-export-as-pdf we get this:

noweb-test.pdf

Add :results output to the #+begin_src line of the second block to see the print results under that block when you hit C-c C-c in the block.

You can also use properties of headlines for giving the noweb-ref. Org-mode can then even concatenate several source blocks into one noweb reference. Just hit C-c C-x p to set a property (or use M-x org-set-property), then set noweb-ref to the name you want to use to embed all blocks under this heading together.

Note: org-babel prefixes each line of an included code-block with the prefix used for the reference (here <<assign_abc>>). This way you can easily include blocks inside python functions.

Note: To keep noweb-references literally in the output or similar, have a look at the different options to :noweb.

Have fun with Emacs and org-mode!

If you want to use the literate programming features in emacs org-mode, you can try this minimal example to get started: [Activate org-babel-tangle](http://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/babel/intro.html#literate-programming), then put this into the file noweb-test.org: Minimal example for noweb in org-mode * Assign First we assign abc: #+begin_src python :noweb-ref assign_abc abc = "abc" #+end_src * Use Then we use it in a function: #+begin_src python :noweb tangle :tangle noweb-test.py def x(): return abc print(x()) #+end_src[noweb-test.org](/files/noweb-test.org)
AnhangGröße
noweb-test.pdf81.69 KB
noweb-test.org290 Bytes
noweb-test.py.txt49 Bytes
noweb-test-pdf.png6.05 KB

# Org-mode with Parallel Babel

## Babel in Org

Emacs Org-mode provides the wonderful babel-capability: Including code-blocks in any language directly in org-mode documents in plain text.

In default usage, running such code freezes my emacs until the code is finished, though.

Up to a few weeks ago, I solved this with a custom function, which spawns a new emacs as script runner for the specific code:

; Execute babel source blocks asynchronously by just opening a new emacs.
(defun bab/org-babel-execute-src-block-new-emacs ()
"Execute the current source block in a separate emacs,
so we do not block the current emacs."
(interactive)
(let ((line (line-number-at-pos))
(file (buffer-file-name)))
(async-shell-command (concat
"TERM=vt200 emacs -nw --find-file "
file
" --eval '(goto-line "
(number-to-string line)
")' --eval "
"'(let ((org-confirm-babel-evaluate nil))(org-babel-execute-src-block t))' "
"--eval '(kill-emacs 0)'"))))


and its companion for exporting to beamer-latex presentation pdf:

; Export as pdf asynchronously by just opening a new emacs.
(defun bab/org-beamer-export-new-emacs ()
"Export the current file in a separate emacs,
so we do not block the current emacs."
(interactive)
(let ((line (line-number-at-pos))
(file (buffer-file-name)))
(async-shell-command (concat
"TERM=vt200 emacs -nw --find-file "
file
" --eval '(goto-line "
(number-to-string line)
")' --eval "
"'(let ((org-confirm-babel-evaluate nil))(org-beamer-export-to-pdf))' "
"--eval '(kill-emacs 0)'"))))


But for shell-scripts there’s a much simpler alternative:

## GNU Parallel to the rescue! Process-pool made easy.

Instead of spawning an external process, I can just use GNU Parallel for the long-running program-calls in the shell-code. For example like this (real code-block):

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :exports none
oldPWD=$(pwd) cd ~/tm5tools/plotting filename="./obsheat-increasing.png" >/dev/null 2>/dev/null sem -j -1 ./plotstation.py -c ~/sun-work/ct-production-out-5x7e300m1.0 -C "aircraft" -c ~/sun-work/ct-production-out-5x7e300m1.0no-aircraft -C "continuous" --obsheat --station allnoaa --title "\"Reducing observation coverage\"" -o${oldPWD}/{filename} cd - #+END_SRC  Let me explain this. sem is a part of GNU parallel which makes parallel execution easy. Essentially it gives us a simple version of the convenience we know from make. for i in {1..100}; do sem -j -1 [code] # run N-1 processes with N as the number of # pocessors in my computer done  This means that the above org-mode block will finish instantly, but there will be a second process managed by GNU parallel which executes the plotting script. The big advantage here is that I can also set this to execute on exporting a document which might run hundreds of code-blocks. If I did this with naive multiprocessing, that would spawn 100 processes which overwhelm the memory of my system (yes, I did that…). sem -j -1 ensures, that this does not happen. Essentially it provides a process-pool with which it executes the code. If you use this on export, take care to add a final code-block which waits until all other blocks finished: sem --wait  ## A word of caution: Shell escapes If you use GNU parallel to run programs, the arguments are interpreted two times: once when you pass them to sem and a second time when sem passes them on. Due to this, you have to add escaped quote-marks for every string which contains whitespace. This can look like the following code (the example above reduced to its essential parts): sem -j -1 ./plotstation.py --title "\"Reducing observation coverage\""  I stumbled over this a few times, but the convenience of GNU parallel is worth the small extra-caution. Besides: For easier editing of inline-source-code, set org-src-fontify-natively to true (t), either via M-x customize-variable or by adding the following to your .emacs: (setq org-src-fontify-natively t)  ## Summary With the tool sem from GNU parallel you get parallel execution of shell code-blocks in emacs org-mode using the familiar syntax from make: sem -j -1 [escaped code]  /*@licstart The following is the entire license notice for theJavaScript code in this tag.Copyright (C) 2012-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.The JavaScript code in this tag is free software: you canredistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNUGeneral Public License (GNU GPL) as published by the Free SoftwareFoundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option)any later version. The code is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESSFOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU GPL for more details.As additional permission under GNU GPL version 3 section 7, youmay distribute non-source (e.g., minimized or compacted) forms ofthat code without the copy of the GNU GPL normally required bysection 4, provided you include this license notice and a URLthrough which recipients can access the Corresponding Source.@licend The above is the entire license noticefor the JavaScript code in this tag.*/Table of Contents1. Babel in Org2. GNU Parallel to the rescue! Process-pool made easy.3. A word of caution: Shell escapes4. SummaryBabel in OrgEmacs Org-mode provides the wonderful babel-capability: Including code-blocks in any language directly in org-mode documents in plain text.In default usage, running such code freezes my emacs until the code is finished, though.Up to a few weeks ago, I solved this with a custom function, which spawns a new emacs as script runner for the specific code:; Execute babel source blocks asynchronously by just opening a new emacs.(defun bab/org-babel-execute-src-block-new-emacs () "Execute the current source block in a separate emacs,so we do not block the current emacs." (interactive) (let ((line (line-number-at-pos)) (file (buffer-file-name))) (async-shell-command (concat "TERM=vt200 emacs -nw --find-file " file " --eval '(goto-line " (number-to-string line) ")' --eval " "'(let ((org-confirm-babel-evaluate nil))(org-babel-execute-src-block t))' " "--eval '(kill-emacs 0)'"))))and its companion for exporting to beamer-latex presentation pdf:; Export as pdf asynchronously by just opening a new emacs.(defun bab/org-beamer-export-new-emacs () "Export the current file in a separate emacs,so we do not block the current emacs." (interactive) (let ((line (line-number-at-pos)) (file (buffer-file-name))) (async-shell-command (concat "TERM=vt200 emacs -nw --find-file " file " --eval '(goto-line " (number-to-string line) ")' --eval " "'(let ((org-confirm-babel-evaluate nil))(org-beamer-export-to-pdf))' " "--eval '(kill-emacs 0)'"))))But for shell-scripts there’s a much simpler alternative: # Publish a single file with emacs org-mode I often write small articles on some experience I make, and since I want to move towards using static pages more often, I tried using emacs org-mode publishing for that. Strangely the simple usecase of publishing a single file seems quite a bit more complex than needed, so I document the steps here. This is my first use of org-publish, so I likely do not use it perfectly. But as it stands, it works. You can find the org-publish version of this article at draketo.de/proj/orgmode-single-file. ## Table of Contents ## 1 Why static pages? I recently lost a dynamic page to hackers. I could not recover the content from all the spam which flooded it. It was called good news and I had wanted to gather positive news which encourage getting active - but I never really found the time to get it running. See what is left of it: http://gute-neuigkeiten.de Any dynamic page carries a big maintenance cost, because I have to update all the time to keep it safe from spammers who want to abuse it for commercial spam - in the least horrible case. I can choose a managed solution, but that makes me dependant on the hoster providing what I need. Or I can take the sledgehammer and just use a static site: It never does any writes to the webserver, so there is nothing to hack. As you can see, that’s what I’m doing nowadays. ## 2 Why Emacs Org-Mode? Because after having used MacOS for almost a decade and then various visual-oriented programs for another five years, Emacs is nowadays the program which is most convenient to me. It achieves a level of integration and usability which is still science-fiction in other systems - at least when you’re mostly working with text. And Org-mode is to Emacs as Emacs is to the Operating System: It begins as a simple todo-list and accompanies you all the way towards programming, reproducible research - and publishing websites. ## 3 Current Solution Currently I first publish the single file to FTP and then rename it to index.html. This translates to the following publish settings: (setq private-publish-ftp-proj (concat "/ftp:" USER "@" HOST ":arnebab/proj/")) (setq org-publish-project-alist '(("orgmode-single-file" :base-directory "~/.emacs.d/private/journal" :publishing-directory (concat private-publish-ftp-proj "orgmode-single-file/") :base-extension "org" :publishing-function org-html-publish-to-html :completion-function (lambda () (rename-file (concat private-publish-ftp-proj "orgmode-single-file/2013-11-25-Mo-publish-single-file-org-mode.html") (concat private-publish-ftp-proj "orgmode-single-file/index.html") t)) :section-numbers nil :with-toc t :html-preamble t :exclude ".*" :include ["2013-11-25-Mo-publish-single-file-org-mode.org"])))  Now I can use C-c C-e P x orgmode-single-file to publish this file to the webserver whenever I change it. Note the lambda: I just copy the published to index.html, because I did not find out, how to rename the file by just setting an option. :index-filename did not work. But likely I missed something which would make this much nicer. Note that if I had wanted to publish a folder full of files, this would have been much easier: There actually is an option to create an automatic index-file and sitemap. For more details, read the org-mode publishing guide. ## 4 Conclusion This is not as simple as I would like it to be. Maybe (or rather: likely) there is a simpler way. But I can now publish arbitrary org-mode files to my webserver without much effort (and without having to switch context so some other program). And that’s something I’ve been missing for a long time, so I’m very happy to finally have it. And it was less pain that I feared, though publishing this via my drupal-site, too, obviously shows that I’m still far from moving to static pages for everything. For work-in-progress, this is great, though - for example for my Basics for Guile Scheme. I often write small articles on some experience I make, and since I want to move towards using static pages more often, I tried using emacs org-mode publishing for that. Strangely the simple usecase of publishing a single file seems quite a bit more complex than needed, so I document the steps here.This is my first use of org-publish, so I likely do not use it perfectly. But as it stands, it works. You can find the org-publish version of this article at draketo.de/proj/orgmode-single-file. # Read your python module documentation from emacs I just found the excellent pydoc-info mode for emacs from Jon Waltman. It allows me to hit C-h S in a python file and enter a module name to see the documentation right away. If the point is on a symbol (=module or class or function), I can just hit enter to see its docs. In its default configuration (see the Readme) it “only” reads the python documentation. This alone is really cool when writing new python code, but it s not enough, since I often use third party modules. And now comes the treat: If those modules use sphinx for documentation (≥1.1), I can integrate them just like the standard python documentation! It took me some time to get it right, but now I have all the documentation for the inverse modelling framework I contribute to directly at my fingertips: Just hit C-h S ENTER when I’m on some symbol and a window shows me the docs: The text in this image is from Wouter Peters. Used here as short citation which should be legal almost everywhere under citation rules. I want to save you the work of figuring out how to do that yourself, so here’s a short guide for integrating the documentation for your python program into emacs. ## Integrating your own documentation into emacs The prerequisite for integrating your own documentation is to use sphinx for documenting your code. See their tutorial for info how to set it up. As soon as sphinx works for you, follow this guide to integrate your docs in your emacs. ### Install pydoc-info First get pydoc-info and the python infofile (adapt this to your local setup): # get the mode cd ~/.emacs.d/libs hg clone https://bitbucket.org/jonwaltman/pydoc-info # and the pregenerated info-file for python wget https://bitbucket.org/jonwaltman/pydoc-info/downloads/python.info.gz gunzip python.info sudo cp python.info /usr/share/info sudo install-info --info-dir=/usr/share/info python.info  (I also added pydoc-info as subrepo to my .emacs.d repo to make it easy to transfer my adaption between my different computers) To build the info file for python yourself, have a look at the Readme. ### Turn your documentation into info Now turn your own documentation into an info document and install it. Sphinx uses a core configuration file named conf.py. Add the following to that file, replacing all values but index and False by the appropriate names for you project: # One entry per manual page. # list of tuples (startdocname, # targetname, title, author, dir_entry, # description, category, toctree_only). texinfo_documents = [ ('index', # startdocname, keep this! 'TARGETNAME', # targetname u'Long Title', # title u'Author Name', # author 'Name in the Directory Index of Info', # dir_entry u'Long Description', # description 'Software Development', # cathegory False), # better keep this, too, i think. ]  Then call sphinx and install the info files like this (maybe adapted to your local setup): sphinx-build -b texinfo source/ texinfo/ cd texinfo sudo install-info --info-dir=/usr/share/info TARGETNAME.info sudo cp TARGETNAME.info /usr/share/info/  ### Activate pydoc-info, including your documentation Finally add the following to your .emacs (or wherever you store your personal adaptions): ; Show python-documentation as info-pages via C-h S (setq load-path (cons "~/.emacs.d/libs/pydoc-info" load-path)) (require 'pydoc-info) (info-lookup-add-help :mode 'python-mode :parse-rule 'pydoc-info-python-symbol-at-point :doc-spec '(("(python)Index" pydoc-info-lookup-transform-entry) ("(TARGETNAME)Index" pydoc-info-lookup-transform-entry)))  I just found the excellent [pydoc-info mode](https://bitbucket.org/jonwaltman/pydoc-info/) for [emacs](http://gnu.org/software/emacs) from Jon Waltman. It allows me to hit C-h S in a python file and enter a module name to see the documentation right away. If the point is on a symbol (=module or class or function), I can just hit enter to see its docs.![pydoc in action](/files/emacs-pydoc-standardlibrary_0.png) AnhangGröße emacs-pydoc.png52 KB emacs-pydoc-standardlibrary.png34.22 KB # Recipes for presentations with beamer latex using emacs org-mode I wrote some recipes for creating the kinds of slides I need with emacs org-mode export to beamer latex. Update: Read ox-beamer to see how to adapt this to work with the new export engine in org-mode 0.8. Below is an html export of the org-mode file. Naturally it does not look as impressive as the real slides, but it captures all the sources, so I think it has some value. Note: To be able to use the simple block-creation commands, you need to add #+startup: beamer to the header of your file or explicitely activate org-beamer with M-x org-beamer-mode. «I love your presentation»: PS: I hereby allow use of these slides under any of the licenses used by worg and/or the emacs wiki. ## 1 Introduction ### 1.1 Usage #### 1.1.1 (configure your emacs, see Basic Configuration at the end) #### 1.1.2 C-f <file which ends in .org> #### 1.1.3 Insert heading: Hello World #+LaTeX_CLASS: beamer #+BEAMER_FRAME_LEVEL: 2 * Hello ** Hello GNU Nice to see you!  #### 1.1.4 M-x org-export-as-pdf done: Your first org-beamer presentation. ### 1.2 org-mode + beamer = love #### 1.2.1 Code BMCOL Recipes #+LaTeX_CLASS: beamer #+BEAMER_FRAME_LEVEL: 2 * Introduction ** org-mode + beamer = love *** Code :BMCOL: :PROPERTIES: :BEAMER_col: 0.7 :END: <example block> *** Simple block :BMCOL:B_block: :PROPERTIES: :BEAMER_col: 0.3 :BEAMER_env: block :END: it's that easy!  #### 1.2.2 Simple block BMCOL B_block it's that easy! ### 1.3 Two columns - in commands #### 1.3.1 Commands BMCOL B_block ** Two columns - in commands *** Commands C-c C-b | 0.7 C-c C-b b C-n <eTAB (write example) C-n C-n *** Result C-c C-b | 0.3 C-c C-b b even easier - and faster!  #### 1.3.2 Result BMCOL B_block even easier - and faster! ## 2 Recipes ### 2.1 Four blocks - code *** Column 1 :B_ignoreheading:BMCOL: :PROPERTIES: :BEAMER_env: ignoreheading :BEAMER_col: 0.5 :END: *** One *** Three *** Column 2 :BMCOL:B_ignoreheading: :PROPERTIES: :BEAMER_col: 0.5 :BEAMER_env: ignoreheading :END: *** Two *** Four  ### 2.2 Four blocks - result #### 2.2.1 Column 1 B_ignoreheading BMCOL #### 2.2.2 One #### 2.2.3 Three #### 2.2.4 Column 2 BMCOL B_ignoreheading #### 2.2.5 Two #### 2.2.6 Four ### 2.3 Four nice blocks - commands *** C-c C-b | 0.5 # column C-c C-b i # ignore heading *** One C-c C-b b # block *** Three C-c C-b b *** C-c C-b | 0.5 C-c C-b i *** Two C-c C-b b *** Four C-c C-b b  ### 2.4 Four nice blocks - result #### 2.4.1BMCOL B_ignoreheading #### 2.4.2 One B_block #### 2.4.3 Three B_block #### 2.4.4BMCOL B_ignoreheading #### 2.4.5 Two B_block #### 2.4.6 Four B_block ### 2.5 Top-aligned blocks #### 2.5.1 Code B_block BMCOL *** Code :B_block:BMCOL: :PROPERTIES: :BEAMER_env: block :BEAMER_col: 0.5 :BEAMER_envargs: C[t] :END: *** Result :B_block:BMCOL: :PROPERTIES: :BEAMER_env: block :BEAMER_col: 0.5 :END: pretty nice!  #### 2.5.2 Result B_block BMCOL pretty nice! ### 2.6 Two columns with text underneath - code #### 2.6.1B_columns • Code BMCOL \tiny *** :B_columns: :PROPERTIES: :BEAMER_env: columns :END: **** Code :BMCOL: :PROPERTIES: :BEAMER_col: 0.6 :END: **** Result :BMCOL: :PROPERTIES: :BEAMER_col: 0.4 :END: *** Underneath :B_ignoreheading: :PROPERTIES: :BEAMER_env: ignoreheading :END: Much text underneath! Very Much. Maybe too much. The whole width!  \normalsize • Result BMCOL #### 2.6.2 Underneath B_ignoreheading Much text underneath! Very Much. Maybe too much. The whole width! ### 2.7 Nice quotes #### 2.7.1 Code B_block BMCOL #+begin_quote Emacs org-mode is a great presentation tool - Fast to beautiful slides. - Arne Babenhauserheide #+end_quote  #### 2.7.2 Result B_block BMCOL Emacs org-mode is a great presentation tool - Fast to beautiful slides. • Arne Babenhauserheide ### 2.8 Math snippet #### 2.8.1 Code BMCOL B_block #### 2.8.2 Inline B_block $$1 + 2 = 3$$ is clear  #### 2.8.3 As equation B_block $1 + 2 \cdot 3 = 7$  #### 2.8.4 Result BMCOL B_block #### 2.8.5 Inline B_block $$1 + 2 = 3$$ is clear #### 2.8.6 As equation B_block $1 + 2 \cdot 3 = 7$ ### 2.9 $$\LaTeX$$ #### 2.9.1 Code BMCOL B_block $$\LaTeX$$ gives a space after math mode. \LaTeX{} does it, too. \LaTeX does not. At the end of a sentence both work. Try \LaTeX. Or try \LaTeX{}. Only $$\LaTeX$$ and $$\LaTeX{}$$ also work with HTML export.  #### 2.9.2 Result BMCOL B_block $$\LaTeX$$ gives a space after math mode. \LaTeX{} does it, too. \LaTeX does not. At the end of a sentence both work. Try \LaTeX. Or try \LaTeX{}. Only $$\LaTeX$$ and $$\LaTeX{}$$ also work with HTML export. ### 2.10 Images with caption and label #### 2.10.1B_columns • Code B_block BMCOL #+caption: GNU Emacs icon #+label: fig:emacs-icon [[/usr/share/icons/hicolor/128x128/apps/emacs.png]] This is image (\ref{fig:emacs-icon})  • Result B_block BMCOL This is image (emacs-icon) #### 2.10.2B_ignoreheading Autoscaled to the block width! ### 2.11 Examples #### 2.11.1 Code BMCOL B_block : #+bla: foo : * Example Header  Gives an example, which does not interfere with regular org-mode parsing. #+begin_example content #+end_example  Gives a simpler multiline example which can interfere. #### 2.11.2 Result BMCOL B_block #+bla: foo * Example Header  Gives an example, which does not interfere with regular org-mode parsing. content  Gives a simpler multiline example which can interfere. ## 3 Basic Configuration ### 3.1 Header <Title> #+startup: beamer #+LaTeX_CLASS: beamer #+LaTeX_CLASS_OPTIONS: [bigger] #+AUTHOR: <empty for none, if missing: inferred> #+DATE: <empty for none, if missing: today> #+BEAMER_FRAME_LEVEL: 2 #+TITLE: <causes <Title> to be regular content!>  ### 3.2 .emacs config Put these lines into your .emacs or in a file your .emacs pulls in - i.e. via (require 'mysettings) if the other file is named mysettings.el and ends in (provide 'mysettings). (org-babel-do-load-languages ; babel, for executing 'org-babel-load-languages ; code in org-mode. '((sh . t) (emacs-lisp . t))) (require 'org-latex) ; latex export (add-to-list ; with highlighting 'org-export-latex-packages-alist '("" "minted")) (add-to-list 'org-export-latex-packages-alist '("" "color")) (setq org-export-latex-listings 'minted)  ### 3.3 .emacs variables You can easily set these via M-x customize-variable. (custom-set-variables ; in ~/.emacs, only one instance '(org-export-latex-classes (quote ; in the init file! (("beamer" "\\documentclass{beamer}" org-beamer-sectioning)))) '(org-latex-to-pdf-process (quote ((concat "pdflatex -interaction nonstopmode" "-shell-escape -output-directory %o %f") "bibtex(basename %b)"
(concat "pdflatex -interaction nonstopmode"
"-shell-escape -output-directory %o %f")
(concat "pdflatex -interaction nonstopmode"
"-shell-escape -output-directory %o %f")))))


(concat "…" "…") is used here to get nice, short lines. Use the concatenated string instead ("pdflatex…%f").

### 3.4 Required programs

#### 3.4.1 Emacs - (gnu.org/software/emacs)

To get org-mode and edit .org files effortlessly.

emerge emacs


#### 3.4.2 Beamer $$\LaTeX$$ - (bitbucket.org/rivanvx/beamer)

To create the presentation.

emerge dev-tex/latex-beamer app-text/texlive


#### 3.4.3 Pygments - (pygments.org)

To color the source code (with minted).

emerge dev-python/pygments


### 4.1 Thanks

Thanks go to the writers of emacs and org-mode, and for this guide in particular to the authors of the org-beamer tutorial on worg.

Thank you for your great work!

## Footnotes:

1 : \tiny As additional permission under GNU GPL version 3 section 7, you may distribute these works without the copy of the GNU GPL normally required by section 4, provided you include a license notice and a URL through which recipients can access the Corresponding Source and the copy of the GNU GPL.\normalsize

I wrote some recipes for creating the kinds of slides I need with emacs org-mode export to beamer latex.> **Update**: Read [ox-beamer](http://orgmode.org/worg/exporters/beamer/ox-beamer.html) to see how to adapt this to work with the new export engine in org-mode 0.8.> [![PDF recipes](/files/emacs-org-beamer-recipes-thumnail.png)](/files/2012-08-08-Mi-recipes-for-beamer-latex-presentation-using-emacs-org-mode_1.pdf)> [The recipes as PDF (21 slides, 247 KiB)](/files/2012-08-08-Mi-recipes-for-beamer-latex-presentation-using-emacs-org-mode_1.pdf)> [![org-mode file](/files/emacs-org-beamer-recipes-thumnail-org.png)](/files/2012-08-08-Mi-recipes-for-beamer-latex-presentation-using-emacs-org-mode_1.org)> [The org-mode sources (12.2 KiB)](/files/2012-08-08-Mi-recipes-for-beamer-latex-presentation-using-emacs-org-mode_1.org)Below is an html export of the org-mode file. Naturally it does not look as impressive as the real slides, but it captures all the sources, so I think it has some value. *Note: To be able to use the simple block-creation commands, you need to add #+startup: beamer to the header of your file or explicitely activate org-beamer with M-x org-beamer-mode.*«I love your presentation»:// *PS: I hereby allow use of these slides under any of the licenses used by [worg](http://orgmode.org/worg/) and/or the [emacs wiki](http://emacswiki.org).*

# Sending email to many people with Emacs Wanderlust

I recently needed to send an email to many people1.

Putting all of them into the BCC field did not work (mail rejected by provider) and when I split it into 2 emails, many did not see my mail because it was flagged as potential spam (they were not in the To-Field)2.

I did not want to put them all into the To-Field, because that would have spread their email-addresses around, which many would not want3.

So I needed a different solution. Which I found in the extensibility of emacs and wanderlust4. It now carries the name wl-draft-send-to-multiple-receivers-from-buffer.

You simply write the email as usual via wl-draft, then put all email addresses you want write to into a buffer and call M-x wl-draft-send-to-multiple-receivers-from-buffer. It asks you about the buffer with email addresses, then shows you all addresses and asks for confirmation.

Then it sends one email after the other, with a randomized wait of 0-10 seconds between messages to avoid flagging as spam.

If you want to use it, just add the following to your .emacs:

(defun wl-draft-clean-mail-address (address)
(progn
(let ((wl-interactive-send nil))
(wl-draft-send))
(sleep-for (random 10)))))
"Send a mail to multiple recipients - one recipient at a time"
(interactive "BBuffer with one address per line")
(if (y-or-n-p (concat "Send this mail to "


Happy Hacking!

1. The email was about the birth of my second child, and I wanted to inform all people I care about (of whom I have the email address), which amounted to 220 recipients.

2. Naturally this technique could be used for real spamming, but to be frank: People who send spam won’t need it. They will already have much more sophisticated methods. This little trick just reduces the inconvenience brought upon us by the measures which are necessary due to spam. Otherwise I could just send a mail with 1000 receivers in the BCC field - which is how it should be.

4. Sure, there are also template mails and all such, but learning to use these would consume just as much time as extending emacs - and would be much less flexible: Should I need other ways to transform my mails, I’ll be able to just reuse my code.

I recently needed to send an email to many people[^birth].Putting all of them into the BCC field did not work (mail rejected by provider) and when I split it into 2 emails, many did not see my mail because it was flagged as potential spam (they were not in the To-Field)[^spamming]. I did not want to put them all into the To-Field, because that would have spread their email-addresses around, which many would not want[^facebook].[^birth]: The email was about the birth of my second child, and I wanted to inform all people I care about (of whom I have the email address), which amounted to 220 recipients. [^spamming]: Naturally this technique could be used for real spamming, but to be frank: People who send spam won’t need it. They will already have much more sophisticated methods. This little trick just reduces the inconvenience brought upon us by the measures which are necessary due to spam. Otherwise I could just send a mail with 1000 receivers in the BCC field - which is how it should be.[^facebook]: It only needs one careless friend, and your connections to others get tracked in facebook and the likes. For more information on Facebook, see [Stallman about Facebook](http://stallman.org/facebook.html).So I needed a different solution. Which I found in the extensibility of [emacs](/light/english/emacs) and [wanderlust](http://emacswiki.org/emacs/WanderLust)[^otherways]. It now carries the name wl-draft-send-to-multiple-receivers-from-buffer. You simply write the email as usual via wl-draft, then put all email addresses you want write to into a buffer and call M-x wl-draft-send-to-multiple-receivers-from-buffer. It asks you about the buffer with email addresses, then shows you all addresses and asks for confirmation.[^otherways]: Sure, there are also template mails and all such, but learning to use these would consume just as much time as extending emacs - and would be much less flexible: Should I need other ways to transform my mails, I’ll be able to just reuse my code.Then it sends one email after the other, with a randomized wait of 0-10 seconds between messages to avoid flagging as spam. If you want to use it, just add the following to your .emacs:(defun wl-draft-clean-mail-address (address) (replace-regexp-in-string "," "" address))(defun wl-draft-send-to-multiple-receivers (addresses) (loop for address in addresses do (progn (wl-user-agent-insert-header "To" (wl-draft-clean-mail-address address)) (let ((wl-interactive-send nil)) (wl-draft-send)) (sleep-for (random 10)))))(defun wl-draft-send-to-multiple-receivers-from-buffer (&amp;optional addresses-buffer-name) "Send a mail to multiple recipients - one recipient at a time" (interactive "BBuffer with one address per line") (let ((addresses nil)) (with-current-buffer addresses-buffer-name (setq addresses (split-string (buffer-string) "\n"))) (if (y-or-n-p (concat "Send this mail to " (mapconcat 'identity addresses ", "))) (wl-draft-send-to-multiple-receivers addresses))))Happy Hacking!

# Simple Emacs DarkRoom

I just realized that I let myself be distracted by all kinds of not-so-useful stuff instead of finally getting to type the text I already wanted to transcribe from stenografic at the beginning of … last week.

## Screenshot!

Let’s take a break for a screenshot of the final version, because that’s what we want from any program :)

As you can see, the distractions are removed — the screenshot is completely full screen and only the text is left. If you switch to the minibuffer (i.e. via M-x), the status bar (modeline) is shown.

## Background

To remove the distractions I looked again at WriteRoom and DarkRoom and similar which show just the text I want to write. More exactly: I thought about looking at them again, but at second thought I decided to see if I could not just customize emacs to do the same, backed with all the power you get from several decades of being THE editor for many great hackers.

It took some googling and reading emacs wiki, and then some Lisp-hacking, but finally it’s 4 o’clock in the morning and I’m writing this in my own darkroom mode1, toggled on and off by just hitting F11.

## Implementation

I build on hide-mode-line (livejournal post or webonastick) as well as the full-screen info in the emacs wiki.

The whole code just takes 76 lines of code plus 26 lines comments and whitespace:

;;;; Activate distraction free editing with F11

; hide mode line, from http://dse.livejournal.com/66834.html / http://webonastick.com
; word counting
(require 'wc)

(defun count-words-and-characters-buffer ()
"Display the number of words and characters in the current buffer."
(interactive)
(message (concat "The current buffer contains "
(number-to-string
(wc-non-interactive (point-min) (point-max)))
" words and "
(number-to-string
(- (point-max) (point-min)))
" letters.")))

; fullscreen, taken from http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/FullScreen#toc26
; should work for X und OSX with emacs 23.x (TODO find minimum version).
; for windows it uses (w32-send-sys-command #xf030) (#xf030 == 61488)
(defvar babcore-fullscreen-p t "Check if fullscreen is on or off")
(setq babcore-stored-frame-width nil)
(setq babcore-stored-frame-height nil)

(defun babcore-non-fullscreen ()
(interactive)
(if (fboundp 'w32-send-sys-command)
;; WM_SYSCOMMAND restore #xf120
(w32-send-sys-command 61728)
(progn (set-frame-parameter nil 'width
(if babcore-stored-frame-width
babcore-stored-frame-width 82))
(set-frame-parameter nil 'height
(if babcore-stored-frame-height
babcore-stored-frame-height 42))
(set-frame-parameter nil 'fullscreen nil))))

(defun babcore-fullscreen ()
(interactive)
(setq babcore-stored-frame-width (frame-width))
(setq babcore-stored-frame-height (frame-height))
(if (fboundp 'w32-send-sys-command)
;; WM_SYSCOMMAND maximaze #xf030
(w32-send-sys-command 61488)
(set-frame-parameter nil 'fullscreen 'fullboth)))

(defun toggle-fullscreen ()
(interactive)
(setq babcore-fullscreen-p (not babcore-fullscreen-p))
(if babcore-fullscreen-p
(babcore-non-fullscreen)
(babcore-fullscreen)))

(global-set-key [f11] 'toggle-fullscreen)

; simple darkroom with fullscreen, fringe, mode-line, menu-bar and scroll-bar hiding.
(defvar darkroom-enabled nil)
; TODO: Find out if menu bar is enabled when entering darkroom. If yes: reenable.

(defun toggle-darkroom ()
(interactive)
(if (not darkroom-enabled)
(setq darkroom-enabled t)
(setq darkroom-enabled nil))
(hide-mode-line)
(if darkroom-enabled
(progn
(toggle-fullscreen)
; if the menu bar was enabled, reenable it when disabling darkroom
; save the frame configuration to be able to restore to the exact previous state.
(scroll-bar-mode -1)
(let ((fringe-width
(* (window-width (get-largest-window))
(/ (- 1 0.61803) (1+ (count-windows)))))
(char-width-pixels 6))
; 8 pixels is the default, 6 is the average char width in pixels
; for some fonts:
; http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/emacs/Fonts.html
(set-fringe-mode (truncate (* fringe-width char-width-pixels))))

(progn
(scroll-bar-mode t)
(set-fringe-mode nil)
(remove-hook 'after-save-hook 'count-words-and-characters-buffer)
(toggle-fullscreen))))

; Activate with M-F11 -> enhanced fullscreen :)
(global-set-key [M-f11] 'toggle-darkroom)

(provide 'activate-darkroom)


Also I now activated cua-mode to make it easier to interact with other programs: C-c and C-x now copy/cut when the mark is active. Otherwise they are the usual prefix keys. To force them to be the prefix keys, I can use control-shift-c/-x. I thought this would disturb me, but it does not.

To make it faster, I also told cua-mode to have a maximum delay of 50ms, so I don’t feel the delay. Essentially I just put this in my ~/.emacs:

(cua-mode t)
(setq cua-prefix-override-inhibit-delay 0.005)


## Epilog

Well, did this get me to transcribe the text? Not really, since I spent the time building my own DarkRoom/WriteRoom, but I enjoyed the little hacking and it might help me get it done tomorrow - and get far more other stuff done.

And it is really fun to write in DarkRoom mode ;)

I hereby declare that anyone is allowed to use this post and the screenshot under the same licensing as if it had been written in emacswiki.

1. Actually there already is a darkroom mode, but it only works for windows. If you use that platform, you might enjoy it anyway. So you might want to call this mode “simple darkroom”, or darkroom x11 :)

I just realized that I let myself be distracted by all kinds of not-so-useful stuff instead of finally getting to type the text I already wanted to transcribe from stenografic at the beginning of … last week. Screenshot!-----------Let’s take a break for a screenshot of the final version, because that’s what we want from any program :)[![Emacs darkroom, screenshot](/files/2011-01-22-emacs-darkroom-thumb.png)](/files/2011-01-22-emacs-darkroom.png)As you can see, the distractions are removed — the screenshot is completely full screen and only the text is left. If you switch to the minibuffer (i.e. via M-x), the status bar (modeline) is shown.
AnhangGröße
2011-01-22-emacs-darkroom.png97.37 KB

# Tutorial: Writing scientific papers for ACPD using emacs org-mode

PDF-version (for printing)

orgmode-version (for editing)

Emacs Org mode is an excellent tool for reproducible research,1 but research is only relevant if people learn about it.2 To reach people with scientific work, you need to publish your results in a Journal, so I show here how to publish in ACPD with Emacs Org mode.3

## 1 Requirements

To use this tutorial, you need

• a fairly recent version of org-mode (8.0 or later - not yet shipped with emacs 24.3, so you will need to install it separately) and naturally
• copernicus latex package. And it can’t hurt to have a look at the latex-instructions from ACP. I used them to create my setup.
• lineno.sty. This is required by copernicus, but not included in the package - and neither in the texlive version I use.

## 2 Basic Setup

### 2.1 Emacs

The first step in publishing to ACPD is to activate org-mode and latex export and to create a latex-class in Emacs. To do so, just add the following to your ~/.emacs (or ~/.emacs.d/init.el) and eval it (for example by moving to the closing parenthesis and typing C-x C-e):

  (require 'org)
(require 'org-latex)
(require 'ox-latex)
(setq org-latex-packages-alist
(quote (("" "color" t) ("" "minted" t) ("" "parskip" t)))
org-latex-pdf-process
(quote (
"pdflatex -interaction nonstopmode -shell-escape -output-directory %o %f"
"bibtex $(basename %b)" "pdflatex -interaction nonstopmode -shell-escape -output-directory %o %f" "pdflatex -interaction nonstopmode -shell-escape -output-directory %o %f"))) (add-to-list 'org-latex-classes ("copernicus_discussions" "\\documentclass{copernicus_discussions} [NO-DEFAULT-PACKAGES] [PACKAGES] [EXTRA]" ("\\section{%s}" . "\\section*{%s}") ("\\subsection{%s}" "\\newpage" "\\subsection*{%s}" "\\newpage") ("\\subsubsection{%s}" . "\\subsubsection*{%s}") ("\\paragraph{%s}" . "\\paragraph*{%s}") ("\\subparagraph{%s}" . "\\subparagraph*{%s}")) )  This allows you to use #+Latex_Class: copernicus_discussions in your org-mode file to set the PDF to export for ACPD. Also you will likely want to use reftex for nice bibtex integration. To get it, add the following to your ~/.emacs or ~/.emacs.d/init.el: (require 'reftex-cite) (defun org-mode-reftex-setup () (interactive) (and (buffer-file-name) (file-exists-p (buffer-file-name)) (progn ; Reftex should use the org file as master file. See C-h v TeX-master for infos. (setq TeX-master t) (turn-on-reftex) ; enable auto-revert-mode to update reftex when bibtex file changes on disk (global-auto-revert-mode t) ; careful: this can kill the undo ; history when you change the file ; on-disk. (reftex-parse-all) ; add a custom reftex cite format to insert links ; This also changes any call to org-citation! (reftex-set-cite-format '((?c . "\\citet{%l}") ; natbib inline text (?i . "\\citep{%l}") ; natbib with parens )))) (define-key org-mode-map (kbd "C-c )") 'reftex-citation) (define-key org-mode-map (kbd "C-c (") 'org-mode-reftex-search)) (add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'org-mode-reftex-setup)  The first line adds reftex-citations with C-c [, the rest sets some reftex-defaults and adds a menu which allows you to chose using \textbackslash citep{} instead of \textbackslash cite{} (this is what ACPD requires). For nice Sourcecode highlighting, you should also install Pygmentize and then add the following to your .emacs.d: (add-to-list 'org-latex-packages-alist '("" "minted")) (add-to-list 'org-latex-packages-alist '("" "color")) (setq org-latex-listings 'minted) ; add emacs lisp support for minted (setq org-latex-custom-lang-environments '((emacs-lisp "common-lispcode")))  ### 2.2 The working folder As next step, unzip the copernicus latex package in the folder you want to use for writing your article (do use a dedicated folder for that: org-mode leaves around some files). And remember to use a version-tracking system like Mercurial, so you can always take snapshots of your current state. This will give you the following files: • authblk.sty • copernicus.bst • copernicus_discussions.cls • natbib.sty • pdfscreen.sty • pdfscreencop.sty Ensure that all of them are in your folder, not in a subfolder. If necessary copy them there. Also get lineno.sty and copy it into your folder. If you want to use unicode-symbols in your text, add uniinput.sty, too. ## 3 The org-mode document Using the ACPD style requires some deviations from the standard org-mode export process. Luckily org-mode is flexible to adapt to them. Setup your document as follows: #+title: YOUR TITLE #+Options: toc:nil ^:nil #+BIND: org-latex-title-command "" #+Latex_Class: copernicus_discussions #+LaTeX_CLASS_OPTIONS: [acpd, hvmath, online] # Nice code-blocks #+BEGIN_SRC elisp :noweb no-export :exports results (setq org-latex-minted-options '(("bgcolor" "mintedbg") ("frame" "single") ("framesep" "6pt") ("mathescape" "true") ("fontsize" "\\footnotesize"))) nil #+END_SRC #+BEGIN_ABSTRACT Abstract #+END_ABSTRACT #+TOC: headlines 2 #+Latex: \runningtitle{SHORT TITLE} #+Latex: \runningauthor{SHORT AUTHOR} #+Latex: \correspondence{AUTHOR NAME\\ EMAIL} #+Latex: \affil{YOUR UNIVERSITY} #+Latex: \author[2,*]{SECOND AUTHOR} #+Latex: \author[1]{THIRD AUTHOR SAME INSTITUTE} #+Latex: \affil[2]{SECOND UNIVERSITY} #+Latex: \affil[*]{now at: THIRD UNIVERSITY} #+Latex: \received{} #+Latex: \pubdiscuss{} #+Latex: \revised{} #+Latex: \accepted{} #+Latex: \published{} #+Latex: %% These dates will be inserted by ACPD #+Latex: \firstpage{1} #+Latex: \maketitle #+Latex: \introduction # * Introduction * Second section * Discussion #+Latex: \conclusions # * Conclusions #+Latex: \appendix # use acknowledgements for multiple #+BEGIN_acknowledgement Foo Bar Baz. #+END_acknowledgement #+Latex: \bibliographystyle{copernicus} #+Latex: \bibliography{ABSOLUTE_PATH_TO_YOUR_BIBTEX_FILE_WITHOUT_.bib_SUFFIX}{} # Local Variables: # org-confirm-babel-evaluate: nil # org-export-allow-bind-keywords: t # End:  Let’s look at this in more detail. ### 3.1 Use the LaTeX class As first step, we set the LaTeX class. In the options we select the journal (acpd) and such - you can find the detailed options in the latex-instructions from ACP. #+Latex_Class: copernicus_discussions #+LaTeX_CLASS_OPTIONS: [acpd, hvmath, online]  ### 3.2 Delayed table of contents The table of contents is set to be shown after the Abstract by setting the toc:nil option and later explicitely calling #+TOC: headlines 2. In org-mode this is really straightforward. ### 3.3 Delayed maketitle Delaying \textbackslash maketitle is a bit more convoluted than delaying the TOC. First we add the local variable org-export-allow-bind-keywords: t at the bottom to allow file-local custom bindings for functions in the file, then we inactivate the title-command with #+BIND: org-latex-title-command /""/ and finally we add \textbackslash maketitle where we need it. ### 3.4 Define minted style This defines the variables minted uses for beautiful code-blocks. Without this, your code-blocks will just look like inline text. #+BEGIN_SRC elisp :noweb no-export :exports results (setq org-latex-minted-options '(("bgcolor" "mintedbg") ("frame" "single") ("framesep" "6pt") ("mathescape" "true") ("fontsize" "\\footnotesize"))) nil #+END_SRC  ### 3.5 Intro and conclusions The Introduction and the conclusions have their own commands in ACPD, because they use them to add bookmarks. You can also use he commands to specify another name. We call the commands with #+LaTeX: (just like some others) which allows us to explicitely add arbitrary LaTeX-code. ### 3.6 Appendix The appendix should be used sparingly. It changes the numbering of the pages. #+Latex: \appendix  ### 3.7 Bibliography The bibliography allows referring to entries from your general bibtex-file. Ensure that you use the correct absolute path to that file. For more information, see the org-tutorial page for biblatex. ### 3.8 Babel evaluate without confirmation This allows us to just run all code snippets which we embedded in the document when we export the file. If we do not set this local variable, we have to acknowledge each source block before it runs (the block with local variables also contains the variable which allows binding functions on a per-file basis, as explained above). # Local Variables: # org-confirm-babel-evaluate: nil # org-export-allow-bind-keywords: t # End:  ## 4 Conclusion With this setup, you can publish your paper with ACPD using org-mode for the actual writing, which has a much lower overhead than LaTeX and offers quite a few unique features for more efficient working - from easy referencing over inline math preview to planning and code-evaluation directly in your file. ## Footnotes: 1 General methods for using Emacs org-mode in scientific publishing have been described by \citet{SchulteEmacs2012}. 2 Research, or rather science not only means to learn new things and to uncover secrets, but just as importantly to share what you learn. Fun fact: The German word for science is “Wissenschaft”, built from the words “wissen” (knowledge) and “schaft” (from schaffen: create), so it more exactly captures the essence of scientific work than the word “science”, that is based on the latin word “scientia” which just means knowledge. It isn’t enough to just learn. Creating knowledge requires telling it to others, so they can build upon it. 3 I chose ACPD as target for this article, because it is an Open Access journal, and because I want to publish in it (which makes it a rather natural choice for a tutorial). PDF-version (for printing)orgmode-version (for editing)Emacs Org mode is an excellent tool for reproducible research,1 but research is only relevant if people learn about it.2 To reach people with scientific work, you need to publish your results in a Journal, so I show here how to publish in ACPD with Emacs Org mode.3 # Unicode char \u8:χ not set up for use with LaTeX: Solution (made easy with Emacs) For years I regularly stumbled over LaTeX-Errors in the form of Unicode char \u8:χ not set up for use with LaTeX. I always took the chickens path and replaced the unicode characters with the tex-escapes in the file. That was easy, but it made my files needlessly unreadable. Today I decided to FIX the problem once and for all. And it worked. Easily. Firstoff: The problem I’m facing is that my keyboard layout makes it effortless for me to input characters like ℂ Σ and χ. But LaTeX cannot cope with them out-of-the-box. Org-mode already catches most of these problems, so I can write things like x² instead of x^2, but occasionally it stumbles. The solution to that is actually pretty simple: I only need to declare the escapes-sequences LaTeX should use when it sees one of the characters (to be used before \begin{document}!): \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{03C7}{\chi}  Or in org-mode: #+LaTeX_HEADER: \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{03C7}{\chi}  Thanks go to Wikibooks:LaTeX for this. Their solution suggests then to read several Unicode definition documents for tracking down the codepoint of the character. But we can make that easier with Emacs (almost everything is easier with Emacs ☺). Instead of browsing huge documents manually, we simply rely on the unicode-definitions in Emacs: Move the cursor over the char and execute M-x describe-char. When used with χ, this shows the following output:  position: 672 of 35513 (2%), column: 0 character: χ (displayed as χ) (codepoint 967, #o1707, #x3c7) preferred charset: unicode-bmp (Unicode Basic Multilingual Plane (U+0000..U+FFFF)) code point in charset: 0x03C7 … (and a bit more) …  What we need is code point in charset: Just leave out the 0x and you have the codepoint. For the document I currently write, I now use the following definitions: #+LaTeX_HEADER: \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{03C7}{\chi} #+LaTeX_HEADER: \DeclareUnicodeCharacter{B2}{^{2}}  And that makes χ² work. Happy Hacking - and have fun with Emacs Org-Mode! > For years I regularly stumbled over LaTeX-Errors in the form of Unicode char \u8:χ not set up for use with LaTeX. I always took the chickens path and replaced the unicode characters with the tex-escapes in the file. That was easy, but it made my files needlessly unreadable. Today I decided to FIX the problem once and for all. And it worked. Easily.Firstoff: The problem I’m facing is that [my keyboard layout](http://neo-layout.org) makes it effortless for me to input characters like ℂ Σ and χ. But LaTeX cannot cope with them out-of-the-box. # Use the source, Luke! — Emacs org-mode beamer export with images in figure I just needed to tweak my Emacs org-mode to beamer-latex export to embed images into a figure environment (not wrapfigure!). After lots of googling and documentation reading I decided to bite the bullet and just read the source. Which proved to be much easier than I had expected. This tutorial requires at least org-mode 8.0 (before that you had to use hacks to get figure without a caption). It is only tested for org-mode 8.0.2: The code you see when you read the source might look different in other versions. ## Table of Contents ## 1 Task I just needed to tweak my org-mode to beamer-latex export to embed images I produce by a codesnippet in a figure environment. Practially speaking: I had this #+BEGIN_SRC sh :exports results :results output raw echo '[[./image.png]]' #+END_SRC  which produces this latex snippet \includegraphics[width=.9\linewidth]{./image.png}  and I needed a snippet which instead produces this: \begin{figure}[htb] \centering \includegraphics[width=.9\linewidth]{./image.png} \end{figure}  ## 2 Use the Source! After lots of googling and documentation reading I decided to bite the bullet and just read the source. Which proved to be much easier than I had expected (warning: obscure list of commands follows. Will be explained afterwards): C-h f org-latex-export-as-latex C-x C-o C-s .el C-b ENTER C-s figure C-s C-s C-s ...  And less than a minute after starting, I saw this: (float (let ((float (plist-get attr :float))) (cond ((string= float "wrap") 'wrap) ((string= float "multicolumn") 'multicolumn) ((or (string= float "figure") (org-element-property :caption parent)) 'figure))))  Translated: Just add this to the output of the source block: #+attr_latex: :float figure  which makes the sh block look like this: #+BEGIN_SRC sh :exports results :results output raw echo '#+attr_latex: :float figure' echo '[[./image.png]]' #+END_SRC  And voila, the export works and the latex looks like this: \begin{figure}[htb] \centering \includegraphics[width=.9\linewidth]{./image.png} \end{figure}  Mission accomplished! ## 3 Commands Explained For all those who are not fluid in emacs commands, Here’s a short breakdown here’s a breakdown of my source-reading process: C-h f org-latex-export-as-latex  Get the help (Control-h) for the function (f) org-latex-export-as-latex. I knew that org-mode calls that. If you did not know it, you could have simply used C-h k C-e (get help on the export keyboard shortcut) which would have led you to the function org-export-dispatch and the source file ox.el. But since the org-mode guides tell you to use M-x org-latex-export-as-latex, the function to search for is actually pretty obvious. Alternatively just use M-x org-latex- and then type TAB 2 times. That will show you all the export functions. C-x C-o  Switch to the other buffer. C-s .el C-b ENTER  Focus on the source file and open it (the canonical suffix for emacs lisp files is .el). C-s figure C-s C-s C-s ...  Search for figure. Repeat 9 times to find the correct place in the code (in emacs that’s really easy and fast to do). Voilà, you found the snippet which tells you that you can use the float-keyword (:float) with the argument "figure". ## 4 Conclusion Using the source was actually faster than googling in this case - and if you practise it, you learn bits and pieces about the foundation of the program you use, which will enable you to adapt it even better to your needs in the future. And with that, I conclude this text. Enjoy your Emacs and Happy Hacking! *I just needed to tweak my [Emacs](/light/english/emacs) [org-mode](http://orgmode.org) to [beamer-latex](http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beamer_(LaTeX)) export to embed images into a figure environment (not wrapfigure!). After lots of googling and documentation reading I decided to bite the bullet and just read the source. Which proved to be much easier than I had expected.**This tutorial requires at least org-mode 8.0 (before that you had to use hacks to get figure without a caption). It is only tested for org-mode 8.0.2: The code you see when you read the source might look different in other versions.* AnhangGröße 2013-08-28-Mi-use-the-source-beamer-figure.org3.8 KB # Wish: KDE with Emacs-style keyboard shortcuts I would love to be able to use KDE with emacs-style keyboard shortcuts, because Emacs offers a huge set of already clearly defined shortcuts for many different situations. Since its users tend to do very much with the keyboard alone, even more obscure tasks are available via shortcuts. I think that this would be useful, because Emacs is like a kind of nongraphical desktop environment itself (just look at emacspeak!). For all those who use Emacs in a KDE environment, it could be a nice timesaver to be able to just use their accustomed bindings. It also has a mostly clean structure for the bindings: • "C-x anything" does changes which affect things outside the content of the current buffer. • "C-c anything" is kept for specific actions of programs. For example "C-c C-c" in an email sends the email, while "C-c C-c" in a version tracking commit message finishes the message and starts the actual commit. • "C-anything but x or c" acts on the content you're currently editing. • "M-x" opens a 'command-selection-dialog' (just like alt-f2). You can run commands by name. • "M-anything but x" is a different flavor of "C-anything but x or c". For example "C-f" moves the cursor one character forward, while "M-f" moves one word forward. "C-v" moves one page forward, while "M-v" moves one page backwards. On the backend side, this would require being able to define multistep shortcuts. Everything else is just porting the emacs shortcuts to KDE actions. The actual porting of shortcuts would then require mapping of the Emacs commands to KDE actions. Some examples: • "C-s" searches in a file. Replaces C-f. • "C-r" searches backwards. • "C-x C-s" saves a file -> close. Replaces C-w. • "C-x C-f" opens a file -> Open. Replaces C-o. • "C-x C-c" closes the program -> quit. Replaces C-q. • "C-x C-b" switches between buffers/files/tabs -> switch the open file. Replaces alt-right_arrow and a few other (to my knowledge) inconsistent bindings. • "C-x C-2" splits a window (or part of a window) vertically. "C-x C-o" switches between the parts. "C-x C-1" undoes the split and keeps the currently selected part. "C-x C-0" undoes the split and hides the currently selected part. I would love to be able to use KDE with emacs-style keyboard shortcuts, because Emacs offers a huge set of already clearly defined shortcuts for many different situations. Since its users tend to do very much with the keyboard alone, even more obscure tasks are available via shortcuts. I think that this would be useful, because Emacs is like a kind of nongraphical desktop environment itself (*just look at [emacspeak](http://emacspeak.sourceforge.net/)!*). For all those who use Emacs in a KDE environment, it could be a nice timesaver to be able to just use their accustomed bindings. # Write multiple images on a single page in org-mode. How to add show multiple images on one page in the latex-export of emacs org-mode. I had this problem. This is my current solution. ## Table of Contents ## 1 Prep Use the package subfig: #+latex_header: \usepackage{subfig}  And create an image: import pylab as pl import numpy as np x = np.random.random(size=(2,1000)) pl.scatter(x[0,:], x[1,:], marker=".") pl.savefig("test.png") print "\label{fig:image}" print "[[./test.png]]"  \label{fig:image} Image: \ref{fig:image} ## 2 Multiple images on one page in LaTeX #+BEGIN_LaTeX \begin{figure}\centering \subfloat[A gull]{\label{fig:latex-gull} \includegraphics[width=0.3\textwidth]{test} } \subfloat[A tiger]{\label{fig:latex-tiger} \includegraphics[width=0.3\textwidth]{test} } \subfloat[A mouse]{\label{fig:latex-mouse} \includegraphics[width=0.3\textwidth]{test} } \caption{Multiple pictures}\label{fig:latex-animals} \end{figure} #+END_LaTeX  Latex-Animals \ref{fig:latex-animals}. ## 3 Multiple images on one page in org-mode #+latex: \begin{figure}\centering #+latex: \subfloat[A gull]{\label{fig:org-gull} #+attr_latex: :width 0.3\textwidth [[./test.png]] #+latex: }\subfloat[A tiger]{\label{fig:org-tiger} #+attr_latex: :width 0.3\textwidth [[./test.png]] #+latex: }\subfloat[A mouse]{\label{fig:org-mouse} #+attr_latex: :width 0.3\textwidth [[./test.png]] #+latex: }\caption{Multiple pictures}\label{fig:org-animals} #+latex: \end{figure}  Org-Animals \ref{fig:org-animals}. How to add show multiple images on one page in the latex-export of emacs org-mode. I had this problem. This is my current solution.* [PDF-File](/files/2014-01-14-Di-org-mode-multiple-images-per-page.pdf)* [Org-File](/files/2014-01-14-Di-org-mode-multiple-images-per-page.org) AnhangGröße test.png98.4 KB 2014-01-14-Di-org-mode-multiple-images-per-page.pdf281.84 KB 2014-01-14-Di-org-mode-multiple-images-per-page.org2.48 KB # emacs wanderlust.el setup for reading kmail maildir This is my wanderlust.el file to read kmail maildirs. You need to define every folder you want to read. ;; mode:-*-emacs-lisp-*- ;; wanderlust (setq elmo-maildir-folder-path "~/.kde/share/apps/kmail/mail" ;; where i store my mail wl-stay-folder-window t ;; show the folder pane (left) wl-folder-window-width 25 ;; toggle on/off with 'i' wl-smtp-posting-server "smtp.web.de" ;; put the smtp server here wl-local-domain "draketo.de" ;; put something here... wl-message-id-domain "web.de" ;; ...  file continued:  wl-from "Arne Babenhauserheide " ;; my From: ;; note: all below are dirs (Maildirs) under elmo-maildir-folder-path ;; the '.'-prefix is for marking them as maildirs wl-fcc ".sent-mail" ;; sent msgs go to the "sent"-folder wl-fcc-force-as-read t ;; mark sent messages as read wl-default-folder ".inbox" ;; my main inbox wl-draft-folder ".drafts" ;; store drafts in 'postponed' wl-trash-folder ".trash" ;; put trash in 'trash' wl-spam-folder ".gruppiert/Spam" ;; ...spam as well wl-queue-folder ".queue" ;; we don't use this ;; check this folder periodically, and update modeline wl-biff-check-folder-list '(".todo") ;; check every 180 seconds ;; (default: wl-biff-check-interval) ;; hide many fields from message buffers wl-message-ignored-field-list '("^.*:") wl-message-visible-field-list '("^\$$To\\|Cc\$$:" "^Subject:" "^\$$From\\|Reply-To\$$:" "^Organization:" "^Message-Id:" "^\$$Posted\\|Date\$$:" ) wl-message-sort-field-list '("^From" "^Organization:" "^X-Attribution:" "^Subject" "^Date" "^To" "^Cc")) ; Encryption via GnuPG (require 'mailcrypt) (load-library "mailcrypt") ; provides "mc-setversion" (mc-setversion "gpg") ; for PGP 2.6 (default); also "5.0" and "gpg" (autoload 'mc-install-write-mode "mailcrypt" nil t) (autoload 'mc-install-read-mode "mailcrypt" nil t) (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'mc-install-write-mode) (add-hook 'wl-summary-mode-hook 'mc-install-read-mode) (add-hook 'wl-mail-setup-hook 'mc-install-write-mode) ;(setq mc-pgp-keydir "~/.gnupg") ;(setq mc-pgp-path "gpg") (setq mc-encrypt-for-me t) (setq mc-pgp-user-id "FE96C404") (defun mc-wl-verify-signature () (interactive) (save-window-excursion (wl-summary-jump-to-current-message) (mc-verify))) (defun mc-wl-decrypt-message () (interactive) (save-window-excursion (wl-summary-jump-to-current-message) (let ((inhibit-read-only t)) (mc-decrypt)))) (eval-after-load "mailcrypt" '(setq mc-modes-alist (append (quote ((wl-draft-mode (encrypt . mc-encrypt-message) (sign . mc-sign-message)) (wl-summary-mode (decrypt . mc-wl-decrypt-message) (verify . mc-wl-verify-signature)))) mc-modes-alist))) ; flowed text ;; Reading f=f (autoload 'fill-flowed "flow-fill") (add-hook 'mime-display-text/plain-hook (lambda () (when (string= "flowed" (cdr (assoc "format" (mime-content-type-parameters (mime-entity-content-type entity))))) (fill-flowed)))) ; writing f=f ;(mime-edit-insert-tag "text" "plain" "; format=flowed") (provide 'private-wanderlust)  ## UPDATE (2012-05-07): ~/.folders I now use a ~/.folders file, to manage my non-kmail maildir subscriptions, too. It looks like this: .sent-mail .~/.local/share/mail/mgl_spam "mgl spam" .~/.local/share/mail/to.arne_bab "to arne_bab" .inbox "inbox" .trash "Trash" ..gruppiert.directory/.inbox.directory/Freunde "Freunde" .drafts "Drafts" ..gruppiert.directory/.alt.directory/Posteingang-2011-09-18 "2011-09-18" .outbox  The mail in ~/.local/share/mail is fetched via fetchmail and procmail to have a really reliable mail fetching system which does not rely on a non-broken database or free space on the disk to keep working… This is my wanderlust.el file to read kmail maildirs. You need to define every folder you want to read.;; mode:-*-emacs-lisp-*-;; wanderlust (setq elmo-maildir-folder-path "~/.kde/share/apps/kmail/mail" ;; where i store my mail wl-stay-folder-window t ;; show the folder pane (left) wl-folder-window-width 25 ;; toggle on/off with 'i' wl-smtp-posting-server "smtp.web.de" ;; put the smtp server here wl-local-domain "draketo.de" ;; put something here... wl-message-id-domain "web.de" ;; ... # keep auto-complete from competing with org-mode structure-templates For a long time it bothered me that auto-complete made it necessary for me to abort completion before being able to use org-mode templates. I typed <s and auto-complete showed stuff like <string, forcing me to hit C-g before I could use TAB to complete the template with org-mode. I fixed this for me by adding all the org-mode structure templates as stop-words: ;; avoid competing with org-mode templates. (add-hook 'org-mode-hook (lambda () (make-local-variable 'ac-stop-words) (loop for template in org-structure-template-alist do (add-to-list 'ac-stop-words (concat "<" (car template)))))) Note, that with this snippet you will have to reopen a file if you add an org-mode template and want it recognized as stop-word in that file. PS: I added this as bug-report to auto-complete, so with some luck you might not have to bother with this, if you’re willing to simply wait for the next release ☺ For a long time it bothered me that auto-complete made it necessary for me to abort completion before being able to use [org-mode templates](http://orgmode.org/manual/Easy-Templates.html#Easy-Templates).I typed  # Freenet “When free speech dies, we need a place to organize” Freenet is a censorship resistant, distributed p2p-publishing platform. It lets you anonymously share files, browse and publish “freesites”, chat on forums and even do microblogging, using a generic Web of Trust, shared by different plugins, to avoid spam. For really careful people it offers a “darknet” mode, where users only connect to their friends, with which it is very hard to detect that they are running freenet. The overarching design goal of freenet is to make censorship as hard as technically possible. That’s the reason for providing anonymity (else you could be threatened with repercussions - as seen in the case of the wikileaks informer from the army in the USA), building it as a decentral network (else you could just shut down the central website, as people tried with wikileaks), providing safe pseudonyms and caching of the content on all participating nodes (else people could censor by spamming or overloading nodes) and even the darknet mode and enhancements in usability (else freenet could be stopped by just prosecuting everyone who uses it, or it would reach too few people to be able to counter censorship in the open web). I don’t know anymore what triggered my use of freenet initially, but I know all too well what keeps me running it instead of other anonymizers: I see my country (Germany) turning more and more into a police-state, starting with attacks on p2p, continuing with censorship of websites (“we all know child-porn is bad, so it can’t be bad to censor it, right? Sure we could just make the providers delete it, so noone can access it, but… no, we have to censor it, so only people who can use google can find it – which luckily excludes us, because we are not pedocriminals.”) and leading into directions I really don’t like. And in case the right for freedom of speech dies, we need a place where we can organize to get it back and fight for the rights laid out in our constitution (the Grundgesetz). And that’s what Freenet is to me. A technical way to make sure we can always organize acting by section 20 of our constitution (german link — google translated version): the right to oppose everyone who wants to abolish our constitutional order. PS: New entries on my site are also available in freenet (via freereader: downloads RSS feeds and republishes them in freenet). PPS: If you like this text, please redent/retweet the associated identi.ca/twitter notices so it spreads: • https://identi.ca/notice/46221737 • https://twitter.com/ArneBab/status/21217822748 German Version> “When free speech dies, we need a place to organize”*[Freenet](http://freenetproject.org) is a censorship resistant, distributed p2p-publishing platform.* # 50€ for the Freenet Project - and against censorship As I pledged1, I just donated to freenet 50€ of the money I got back because I cannot go to FilkCONtinental. Thanks go to Nemesis, a proud member of the “FiB: Filkers in Black” who will take my place at the Freusburg and fill these old walls with songs of stars and dreams - and happy laughter. It’s a hard battle against censorship, and as I now had some money at hand, I decided to do my part (freenetproject.org/donate.html). 1. The pledge can be seen in identi.ca and in a Sone post in freenet (including a comment thread; needs a running freenet node (install freenet in a few clicks) and the Sone plugin). As I pledged[^1], I just donated to [freenet](http://freenetproject.org) 50€ of the money I got back because I cannot go to [FilkCONtinental](http://filkcontinental.de). Thanks go to Nemesis, a proud member of the “FiB: Filkers in Black” who will take my place at the Freusburg and fill these old walls with songs of stars and dreams - and happy laughter.It’s a hard battle against censorship, and as I now had some money at hand, I decided to do my part *([freenetproject.org/donate.html](https://freenetproject.org/donate.html))*.[^1]: The pledge can be seen in [identi.ca](http://identi.ca/notice/80651378) and in a [Sone post](http://127.0.0.1:8888/Sone/viewPost.html?post=08e833ad-4893-4e6a-a722-e925c5fa520c) in freenet (including a comment thread; needs a running freenet node *([install freenet in a few clicks](http://checksums.freenetproject.org/latest/freenet.jnlp))* and the [Sone plugin](http://draketo.de/licht/freie-software/freenet/sone-pseudonymes-microblogging)). # A marketplace using Freenet? A few days ago, xor, the developer of the Web of Trust in Freenet got in contact with the brain behind the plans of the Web of Trust for Openbazaar, and toad, the former maintainer of Freenet questioned whether we actually would want a marketplace using Freenet. I took a a few days to ponder the question, and I think a marketplace using Freenet would be a good idea - for Freenet as well as for society. Freenet is likely the most secure way for implementing a digital market, which means it can work safely for small sums, but not for large ones - except if you can launder huge amounts of digital money. As such it is liberating for small people, but not for syndicates. For example a drug cartel needs to be able to turn lots of money into clean cash to pay henchmen abroads. Since you can watch bitcoin more easily than cash and an anonymous network makes it much harder to use scare-tactics against competing sellers, moving the marketplace from the street to the internet weakens syndicates and other organized crime by removing part of their options for creating a monopoly by force. And the best technologies in freenet were developed (or rather: got to widespread use), because it had to actually withstand attacks. Freenet as marketplace with privacy for small people equivalent to cash-payments would also help improve its suitability for whistleblowers - see hiding in the forest: A better alternative. For free speech this would also help, because different from other solutions, freenet has the required properties for that: a store with lifetime depending on the popularity of content, not the power of the publisher, which provides DoS-resistant hosting without the need to have a 24/7 server, stable and untraceable pseudonyms (ignoring fixable attack-vectors) and an optional friend-to-friend darknet. In short: A decentralized ebay-killer would be cool and likely beneficial to Freenet and Free Speech without bringing actual benefit for organized crime. Also this might be what is needed to bring widespread darknet adoption. And last but not least, we would not be able to stop people from implementing a marketplace over freenet: Censorship resistance also means resistance against censorship by us. Note that, different from the NSA, the DEA as threat model is actually quantifyable. Oh, and Openbazaar is written in Python and Freenet has pretty stable Python Bindings, so it should not be too hard to use it for Openbazaar. A good start could be the WoT-code written for Infocalypse in last years GSoC: Web of Trust integration as well as private messaging. *A few days ago, xor, the developer of the Web of Trust in [Freenet](http://freenetproject.org) got in contact with the brain behind the plans of the Web of Trust for [Openbazaar](https://openbazaar.org/), and toad, the former maintainer of Freenet questioned whether we actually would want a marketplace using Freenet.**I took a a few days to ponder the question, and I think a marketplace using Freenet would be a good idea - for Freenet as well as for society.* AnhangGröße freenet_logo.png16.72 KB freenet-banner.png3.39 KB # A vision for a social Freenet with WoT, FreeTalk and Sone I let my thought wander a bit around the question how a social Freenet (2.0 ;) ) could look from the view of a newcomer. I imagine myself installing freenet. The first thing to come up after starting it is the node page. (italic Text in brackets is a comment. The links need a Freenet running on 127.0.0.1 to work) “Welcome to Freenet, where no one can tell you’re reading” “Freenet tries hard to project your privacy. Therefore we created a pseudonymous ID for you. Its name is Gandi Schmidt. Visit the [your IDs site] to see a legend we prepared for you. You can use this legend as fictional background for your ID, if you are really serious about staying anonymous.” (The name should be generated randomly for each ID. A starting point for that could be a list of scientists from around the world compiled from the wikipedia (link needs freenet). The same should be true for the legend, though it is harder to generate. The basic information should be a quote (people remember that), a job and sex, the country the ID comes from (maybe correlated with the name) and a hobby.) “During the next few restarts, Freenet will ask you to solve various captchas to prove that you are indeed human. Once enough other nodes successfully confirmed that you are human, you will be granted access to the forums and microblogging. This might take a few hours to a few days.” (as soon as the ID has sufficient trust, automatically activate the FreeTalk and Sone plugins) “Note that other nodes don’t know who you are. They don’t know your IP, nor your real identity. The only thing they know is that you exist, that you can solve captchas and how to send you a message.” “You can create additional IDs at any time and give them any name and legend you choose by adding it on the WebOfTrust-page. Each new ID has to verify for itself that it’s human, though. If you carefully keep them seperate, others can only find out with a lot of effort that your IDs are related. Mind your writing style. In doubt, keep your sentences short. To make it easier for you to stay anonymous, you can autogenerate Name and Legend at random. Don’t use the nicest from many random trials, else you can be traced by the kind of random IDs you select.” “While your humanity is being confirmed, you can find a wealth of content on the following indexes, some published anonymously, some not. If you want to publish your own anonymous site, see Upload a Freesite. The list of indexes uses dynamic bookmarks. You get notified whenever a bookmarked site (like the indexes below) gets updated.” “Note: If you download content from freenet, it is being cached by other nodes. Therefore popular content is faster than rare content and you cannot overload nodes by requesting their data over and over again.” “You are currently using medium security in the range from low to high.” “In this security level, seperated IDs are no perfect protection of your anonymity, though, since other members might not be able to see what you do in Freenet, but they can know that you use freenet in the first place, and corporations or governments with medium sized infrastructure can launch attacks which might make it possible to trace your contributions and accesses. If you want to disappear completely from the normal web and keep your freenet usage hidden, as well as make it very hard to trace your contributions, to be able to really exercise your right of free speech without fearing repercussions, you can use Freenet as Darknet — the more secure but less newcomer friendly way to use freenet; the current mode is Opennet.” “To enter the Darknet, you add people you know and trust personally as your darknet friends. As soon as you have enough trusted friends, you can increase the security level to high and freenet will only connect to your trusted friends, making you disappear from the regular internet. The only way to tell that you are using freenet will then be to force your ISP to monitor all traffic coming from your computer.” “And once transport plugins are integrated, steganography will come into reach and allow masking your traffic as regular internet usage, making it very hard to distinguish freenet from encrypted internet-telephony. If you want to help making this a reality in the near future, please consider contributing or donating to freenet.” “Welcome to the pseudonymous web where no one can know who you are, but only that you are always using the same ID — if you do so.” “To show this welcome message again, you can at any time click on Intro in the links.” What do you think? Would this be a nice way to integrate WoT, FreeTalk, Sone and general user education in a welcome message, while adding more incentive to keep the node running? PS: Also posted in Freetalk and in Sone – the links need a running Freenet to work. PPS: This vision is not yet a reality, but all the necessary infrastructure is already in place and working in Freenet. You can already do everything described in here, just without the nice guide and the level of integration (for example activating plugins once you have proven your humanity, which equals enough trust by others to be actually seen). I let my thought wander a bit around the question how a social [Freenet](http://freenetproject.org) (2.0 ;) ) could look from the view of a newcomer. I imagine myself installing freenet. The first thing to come up after starting it is the node page. *(italic Text in brackets is a comment. The links need a [Freenet](http://freenetproject.org) running on 127.0.0.1 to work)*------ “Welcome to Freenet, where no one can tell you’re reading” # Anonymous code collaboration with Mercurial and Freenet There is now a new Mercurial extension called "infocalypse" (which should keep working after the information apocalypse). It offers "fn-push" and "fn-pull" as an optimized way to store code in freenet: bundles are inserted and pulled one after the other. An index tells infocalypse in which order to pull the bundles. It makes using Mercurial in freenet far more efficient and convenient. Also you can use it to publish collaborative anonymous websites like the freefaq and Technophob. And it is a perfect fit for the workflow automatic trusted group of committers. Otherwise it offers the same features as FreenetHG. Using FreenetHG you can collaborate anonymously without having to give everyone direct write access to your code. To work with others, you simply setup a local repository for your own work and use FreenetHG to upload your code automatically into Freenet under your private ID. Others can then access your code with the corresponding public ID, do their changes locally and publish them in their own anonymous repository. You then pull changes you like into your repository and publish them again under your key. FreenetHG uses freenet which offers the concept of pseudonymity to make anonymous communication more secure and Mercurial to allow for efficient distributed collaboration. With pseudonymity you can't find out whom you're talking to, but you know that it is the same person, and with distibuted collaboration you don't need to let people write to your code directly, since every code repository is a full clone of the main repository. Even if the main repository should go down, every contributor can still work completely unhindered, and if someone else breaks things in his repository, you can simply decide not to pull the changes from him. ## What you need To use FreenetHG you obviously need a running freenet node and a local Mercurial installation. Also you need the FreenetHG plugin for Mercurial and PyFCP which provides Python bindings for Freenet. • get FreenetHG (the link needs a running freenet node on 127.0.0.1) • alternatively just do hg clone static-http://127.0.0.1:8888/USK@fQGiK~CfI8zO4cuNyhPRLqYZ5TyGUme8lMiRnS9TCaU,E3S1MLoeeeEM45fDLdVV~n8PCr9pt6GMq0tuH4dRP7c,AQACAAE/freenethg/1/ ## Setup a simple anonymous workflow To guide you through the steps, let's assume we want to create the anonymous repository "AnoFoo". After you got all dependencies, you need to activate the FreenetHG plugin in your ~/.hgrc file [extensions] freenethg = path/to/FreenetHG.py  You can get the FreenetHG.py from the freenethg website or from the Mercurial repository you cloned. Now you setup your anofoo Mercurial repository: hg init AnoFoo  As a next step we create some sections in the .hg/hgrc file in the repository: [ui] [freenethg] [hooks]  Now we enter the repository and use the setup wizard cd AnoFoo hg fcp-setupwitz  The setup wizard asks us for your username to use for this repository (to avoid accidently breaking our anonymity), the address to our freenet instance and for the path to our repository on freenet. The default answers should fit. The only one where we have to set something else is the project name. There we enter AnoFoo. Since we don't yet have a freenet URI for the repository, we just answer '.' to let FreenetHG generate one for us. That's also the default answer. The commit hook makes sure that we don't commit with another but the selected username. Also the wizard will print a line like the following: Request uri is: USK@xlZb9yJbGaKO1onzwawDvt5aWXd9tLZRoSoE17cjXoE,zFqFxAk15H-NvVnxo69oEDFNyU9uNViyNN5ANtgJdbU,AQACAAE/freenethg_test/1/  This is the line others can use to clone your project and pull from it. And with this we finished setting up our anonymous collaboration repository. When we commit, every commit will directly be uploaded into Freenet. So now we can pass the freenet Request uri to others who can clone our repository and setup their own repositories in freenet. When they add something interesting, we then pull the data from their Request uri and merge their code with ours. ## Setup a more convenient anonymous workflow This workflow is already useful, but it's a bit inconvenient to have to wait after each commit until your changes have been uploaded. So we'll now change this basic workflow a bit to be able to work more conveniently. First step: clone our repositories to a backup location: hg clone AnoFoo BackFoo  Second step: change our .hg/hgrc to only update when we push to the backup repository, and add the default-push path to the backup repository: [paths] default-push = ../BackFoo [hooks] pretxncommit = python:freenethg.username_checker outgoing = python:freenethg.updatestatic_hook [ui] username = anonymuse [freenethg] commitusername = anonymuse inserturi = USK@VERY_LONG_PRIVATE_KEY/AnoFoo/1/  Changes: We now have a default-push path, and we changed the "commit" hook to an "outgoing" hook which is evoked everytime changes leave this repository. It will also be evoked when someone pulls from this repo, but not when we clone it locally. Now our commits roll as fast as we're used to from other Mercurial repositories and freenethg will make sure we don't use the wrong username. When we want to anonymously publish the repository we then simply use hg push  This will push the changes to the backup and then upload it to your anonymous repository. And now we finished setting up our reopsitory and can begin using an anonymous and almost infinitely scaleable workflow which only requires our freenet installation to be running when we push the code online. One last touch: If an upload should chance to fail, you can always repeat it manually with hg fcp-uploadstatic  ## Time to go ...out there and do some anonymous coding (Maybe with the workflow automatic trusted group of committers). Happy hacking! And if this post caught your interest or you want to say anything else about it, please write a comment. Also please have a look at and vote for the wish to add a way to contribute anonymously to freenet, to make it secure against attacks on developers. And last but not least: vote for this article on digg and on yigg. **There is now a new Mercurial extension called "[infocalypse](/light/english/freenet/infocalypse-mercurial-survive-the-information-apocalypse)" (which should keep working after the information apocalypse).** **It offers "fn-push" and "fn-pull" as an optimized way to store code in freenet: bundles are inserted and pulled one after the other. An index tells infocalypse in which order to pull the bundles. It makes using Mercurial in freenet far more efficient and convenient.****Also you can use it to publish collaborative anonymous websites like the [freefaq](http://127.0.0.1:8888/freenet:USK@EbQbLWtWLRBgQl4Ly-SjQJvzADdJPfIXNQfCbKzgCFI,XDLYQTC0nYD4rhIIP~Ff~itkvVVF2u4WU8YVSL2f5RA,AQACAAE/freefaq/27/) and [Technophob](http://127.0.0.1:8888/freenet:USK@ko8wbLzQDQc~1gmMEvO8ewpcH0yQKDExMs4kpFDoeOQ,0KpmSJb35Q6UwgdhAJpTMH0jnjUriv7DtaFtTq3dlRI,AQACAAE/Technophob/38/).****And it is a perfect fit for the workflow [automatic trusted group of committers](/light/english/mercurial/workflow-concept-automatic-trusted-group-committers).****Otherwise it offers the same features as FreenetHG.** # Background of Freenet Routing and the probes project (GSoC 2012) The probes project is a google summer of code project of Steve Dougherty intended to optimize the network structure of freenet. Here I will give the background of his project very briefly: ## The Small World Structure Freenet organizes nodes by giving them locations - like coordinates. The nodes know some others and can send data only to those, to which they are connected directly. If your node wants to contact someone it does not know directly, it sends a message to one of the nodes it knows and asks that one to forward the message. The decision whom to ask to forward the message is part of the routing. And the routing algorithm in Freenet assumes a small world network: Your node knows many people who are close to you and a few who are far away. Imagine that as knowing many people in your home town and few in other towns. There is mathematical proof, that the routing is very efficient and scales to billions of users - if it really operates on a small world network. So each freenet node tries to organize its connections in such a way, that it is connected to many nodes close by and some from far away.⁽¹⁾ The structure of the local connections of your own node can be characterized by the link length distribution: “How many short and how many long connections do you have?” ## Probes and their Promise The probes project from Steve is to analyze the structure of the network and the structure of the local connections of nodes in an anonymous way to improve the self-organization algorithm in freenet. The reason is that if the structure of the network is no small world network, the routing algorithm becomes much less efficient. That in turn means that if you want to get some data on the network, that data has to travel over far more intermediate nodes, because freenet cannot determine the shortest route. And if the data has to travel over more nodes, it consumes more bandwidth and takes longer to reach you. In the worst case it could happen that freenet does not find the data at all. To estimate the effect of that, you can look at the bar chart The Seeker linked to: Low is an ideal structure with 16 connections per node, Conforming is the measured structure with about 17 connections per node (a cluster with 12, one with ~25). Ideally we would want Normal with 26 connections per node and an ideal structure. High is 86 connections. The simulated network sizes are 6000 nodes (Small), 18 000 (Normal, as measured), 36 000 (Large). Fewer hops is better. It shows how many steps a request has to take to find some content. “Conforming” is the actually measured structure. “low”, “normal” and “high” shows the number of connections per node in an optimal network: 16, 26 and 86. The actually measured mean number of connections in freenet is similar to “low”, so that’s the bar with which we need to compare the “confirming” bar to see the effect of the suboptimal structure. And that effect is staggering: By default a request needs about two times as many steps in the real world than it would need in an optimally structured network. Practically: If freenet would manage to get closer to the optimal structure, it could double its speed and cut the reaction times by factor 2. Without changing anything else - and also without changing the local bandwidth consumption: You would simply get your content much faster. If we would manage to increase the mean number of connections to about 26 (that’s what a modern DSL connection can manage without too many ill effects), we could double the speed and half the reaction times again (but that requires more bandwidth in the nodes who currently have a low number of connections: Many have only about 12 connections, many have about 25 or so, few have something in between). Essentially that means we could gain factor 2 to factor 4 in speed and reaction times. And better scaleability (compare the normal and the large network). ## Note ⁽¹⁾: Network Optimization using Only Local Knowledge To achieve a good local connection-structure, the node can use different strategies for Opennet and Darknet (this section is mostly guessed, take it with a grain of salt. I did not read the corresponding code). In Opennet it can look if it finds nodes which would improve its local structure. If it finds one, it can replaces the local connection, which distorts its local structure the most, with the new connection. In Darknet on the other hand, where it can only connect to the folks it already knows, it looks for locations of nodes it hears about. It then checks if its local connection would be better if it had that other nodes location. In that case, it asks the other node if it would agree to swap its location with it (without changing any real connections: It only changes the notion where it lives. As if you would swap the flat with someone else but without changing who your friends are. Afterwards both the other one and you live closer to your respective friends). In short: In Opennet, Freenet changes to whom it is connected in order to achieve a small world structure: It selects its friends based on where it lives. In Darknet it swaps its location with stranges to live be closer to its friends. The probes project is a google summer of code project of Steve Dougherty intended to optimize the network structure of freenet. Here I will give the background of his project very briefly:## The Small World Structure AnhangGröße freenet-probes-size-degree-chart.png13.94 KB # Bootstrapping the Freenet WoT with GnuPG - and GnuPG with Freenet ## Intro When you enter the freenet Web of Trust, you first need to get some trust from people by solving captchas. And even when people trust you somehow, you have no way to prove your identity in an automatic way, so you can’t create identities which freenet can label as trusted without manual intervention from your side. ## Proposal To change this, we can use the Web of Trust used in GnuPG to infer trust relationships between freenet WoT IDs. Practically that means: • Write a message: “I am the WoT ID USK@” (replace with the public key of your WoT ID). • Sign that message with a GnuPG key you want to connect to the ID. The signature proves, that you control the GnuPG key. • Upload the signed message to your WoT key: USK@/bootstrap/0/gnupg.asc. To make this upload, you need the private key of the ID, so the upload proves, that you control the WoT ID. Now other people can download the file from you, and when they trust the GnuPG key, they can transfer their trust to the freenet WoT-ID. ## Automatic Ideally all this should be mostly automatic: • click a link in the freenet interface and select the WoT ID to have freenet create the file and run your local GnuPG program. • Then select your GnuPG key in the GnuPG program and enter your password. • Finally check the information to be inserted and press a button to start the upload. As soon as you have a GnuPG key connected with your WoT ID, freenet should scout all other WoT IDs for gnupg keys and check if the local GnuPG key you assigned to your WoT ID trusts the other key. If yes, give automatic trust (real person → likely no spammer). ## Anonymously To make the connection one-way (bootstrap the WoT from GnuPG, but not expose the key), you might be able to encrypt the message to all people who signed your GnuPG key. Then these can recognize you, but others cannot. This will lose you the indirect trust in the GnuPG web-of-trust, though. I hope this bootstrap-WoT draft sounded interesting :) Happy hacking! Intro-----When you enter the freenet Web of Trust, you first need to get sometrust from people by solving captchas. And even when people trust yousomehow, you have no way to prove your identity in an automatic way,so you can’t create identities which freenet can label as trustedwithout manual intervention from your side.Proposal--------To change this, we can use the Web of Trust used in GnuPG to infertrust relationships between freenet WoT IDs.Practically that means:- Write a message: “I am the WoT ID USK@” (replace with the # De-Orchestrating Freenet with the QUEEN program So Poul-Henning Kamp thought this just a thought experiment … In Fosdem2014 Poul-Henning Kamp talked about a hypothetical “Project ORCHESTRA” by the NSA with the goal of disrupting internet security: Information, Slides, Video (with some gems not in the slides). One of the ideas he mentioned was the QUEEN program: Psy-Ops for Nerds. I’ve been a contributor to the Freenet Project for several years. And in that time, I experienced quite a few of these hypothetical tactics first-hand. This is the list of good matches: Disruptive actions which managed to keep Freenet for moving onwards, often for several months. It’s quite horrifying how many there are. Things which badly de-orchestrated Freenet: • Steer discussions to/from hot spots (“it can’t be that hard to exchange a text file!” ⇒ noderef exchange fails all the time, which is the core of darknet!) • Disrupt consensus building: Horribly long discussions which cause the resolution to be forgotten due to a fringe issue. • “Secrecy without authentication is pointless”. • “It gives a false sense of security” (if you talor [these kind of things] carefully, they speak to people's political leanings: If it’s not perfect: “No, that wouldn’t do it”. This stopped many implementations, till finally Bombe got too fed up and started the simple and working microblogging tool Sone) • “you shouldn’t do that! Do you really know what you are doing? Do you have a PhD in that? The more buttons you press, the more warnings you get” ← this is “filter failed”: No, I don’t understand this, “get me out of that!” ⇒ Freenet downloads fail when the filter failed. • Getting people to not do things by misdirecting their attention on it. Just check the Freenet Bugtracker for unresolved simple bugs with completely fleshed out solutions that weren’t realized. • FUD: I could be supporting bad content! (just like you do if your provider has a transparent proxy to reduce outgoing bandwidth - or with any VPN, Tor, i2p, .... Just today I read this: « you seriously think people will ever use freenet to post their family holiday photos, favourite recipes etc? … can you envisage ordinary people using freenet for stuff where they don't really have anything to hide? » — obvious answer: I do that, so naturally other people might do it, too.) • “Bikeshed” discussions: Sometimes just one single email from an anonymous person can derail a free software project for months! • Soak mental bandwidth with bogus crypto proposals: PSKs? (a new key-proposal which could make forums scale better but actually just soaked up half a year of the time of the main developer and wasn’t implemented - and in return, critical improvements for existing forums where delayed) • Witless volunteers (overlooking practical advantages due to paranoia, theoretical requirements which fail in the real world, overly pessimistic stance which scares away newcomers, voicing requirements for formal specification of protocols which are in flux). • Affect code direction (lot’s of the above - also ensuring that there is no direction, so it doesn’t really work well for anybody because it tries to have the perfect features for everybody before actually getting a reasonable user experience). • Code obfuscation (some of the stuff is pretty bad, lots of it looks like it was done in a hurry, because there was so much else to do). • Misleading documentation (or outdated or none…: There is plenty of Freenet 0.5 documentation while 0.7 is actually a very different beast) • Deceptive defaults (You have to setup your first pseudonym by hand, load two plugins manually and solve CAPTCHAS, before you are able to talk to people anonymously, darknet does not work out of the box, the connection speed when given no unit is interpreted as Bytes/s - I’m sure someone once voiced a reason for that) Phew, quite a list… I provided this because naming the problems is an important step towards resolving them. I am sure that we can fix most of this, but it’s important to realize that while many of the points I named are most probably homegrown, it is quite plausible that some of them were influenced from the outside. Freenet was always a pretty high profile project in the crypto community, so it is an obvious target. We’d be pretty naive to think that we weren’t targeted. And we have to keep this in mind when we communicate: We don’t only have to look out for bad code, but also for influences which make us take up toxic communication patterns which keep us from moving forward. The most obvious fix is: Stay friendly, stick together, keep honest and greet every newcomer as a potiential ally. And call out disrupting behaviour early on: If someone insults new folks or takes up huge amounts of discussion time be rehashing old discussions instead of talking about the way forward - in a way which actually leads to going forward - then say that this is your impression. Still stay friendly: Most of the time that’s not intentional. And people can be affected by outside influences like someone attacking them in other channels, so it would be important to help them recover and not to push them away because their behaviour became toxic for some time (as long as the time investment for that is not overarching). Overall it’s about keeping the community together despite the knowledge that some of us might actually be aggressors or influenced from the outside to disrupt our work. > *So Poul-Henning Kamp thought this just a thought experiment …*In Fosdem2014 Poul-Henning Kamp talked about a hypothetical “__Project ORCHESTRA__” by the NSA with the goal of disrupting internet security: [Information](https://fosdem.org/2014/schedule/event/nsa_operation_orchestra/), [Slides](http://phk.freebsd.dk/_downloads/FOSDEM_2014.pdf), [Video](http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/fosdem//2014/Janson/Sunday/NSA_operation_ORCHESTRA_Annual_Status_Report.webm) (with some gems not in the slides).One of the ideas he mentioned was __the QUEEN program: Psy-Ops for Nerds__. I’ve been a contributor to the [Freenet Project](https://freenetproject.org) for several years. And in that time, I experienced quite a few of these hypothetical tactics first-hand. # Effortless password protected sharing of files via Freenet Often you want to exchange some content only with people who know a given password and make it accessible to everyone in your little group but invisible to the outside world. Until yesterday I thought that problem slightly complex, because everyone in your group needs a given encryption program, and you need a way to share the file without exposing the fact that you are sharing it. Then I learned two handy facts about Freenet: • <ArneBab> evanbd: If I insert a tiny file without telling anyone the key, can they get the content in some way? <evanbd> ArneBab: No. • <toad_> dogon: KSK@<any string of text> -> generate an SSK private key from the hash of the text <toad_> dogon: if you know the string, you can both insert and retrieve it In other words: Just inserting a file into freenet using the key KSK@<password> creates an invisible, password protected file which is shared over Freenet. The file is readable and writeable by everyone who knows the password (within limits1), but invisible to everyone else. To upload a file as KSK, just go to the filesharing tab, click “upload a file”, switch to advanced mode and enter the KSK key. Or simply click here (requires freenet to be running on your computer with default settings). It’s strange to think that I only learned this after more than 7 years of using Freenet. How many more nuggets might be hidden there, just waiting for someone to find them and document them in a style which normal users understand? Freenet is a distributed datastore which can find and transfer data efficiently on restricted routes (search for meshnet scaling to see why that type of routing is really hard), and it uses a WebOfTrust for real-life spam-resistance without the need for a central authority (look at your mailbox to see how hard that is, even with big money). How many more complex problems might it already have solved as byproduct of the search for censorship resistance? So, what’s still to be said? Well, if Freenet sounds interesting: Join in! 1. A KSK is writeable with the limit, that you cannot replace the file if people still have it in their stores: You have to wait till it has been displaced or be aware that now two states for the file exist: One with your content and one with the old. Better just define a series of KSKs: Add a number to the KSK and if you want to write, simply insert the next one. Often you want to exchange some content only with people who know a given password and make it accessible to everyone in your little group but invisible to the outside world.Until yesterday I thought that problem slightly complex, because everyone in your group needs a given encryption program, and you need a way to share the file without exposing the fact that you are sharing it.Then I learned two handy facts about [Freenet](http://freenetproject.org):* &lt;ArneBab> *evanbd: If I insert a tiny file without telling anyone the key, can they get the content in some way?* &lt;evanb # Exact Math to the rescue - with Guile Scheme I needed to calculate the probability that for every freenet user there are at least 70 others in a distance of at most 0.01. That needs binomial coefficients with n and k on the order of 4000. My old Python script failed me with an OverflowError: integer division result too large for a float. So I turned to Guile Scheme and exact math. ## Table of Contents ## 1 The challenge I need the probability that within 4000 random numbers between 0 and 1, at least 70 are below 0.02. Then I need the probability that within 4000 random numbers, at most 5 find less than 70 others to which the distance is at most 0.02. Or more exactly: I need to find the right maximum length to replace the 0.02. ## 2 The old script I had a Python-script lying around which I once wrote for estimating the probability that a roleplaying group will have enough people to play in a given gaming night. It’s called spielfaehig.py (german for “able to play”). It just does this: from math import factorial fac = factorial def nük(n, k): if k > n: return 0 return fac(n) / (fac(k)*fac(n-k)) def binom(p, n, k): return nük(n, k) * p** k * (1-p)**(n-k) def spielfähig(p, n, min_spieler): try: return sum([binom(p, n, k) for k in range(min_spieler, n+1)]) except ValueError: return 1.0  Now when I run this with p=0.02, n=4000 and minspieler=70, it returns OverflowError: integer division result too large for a float  The reason is simple: There are some intermediate numbers which are much larger than what a float can represent. ## 3 Solution with Guile To fix this, I rewrote the script in Guile Scheme: #!/usr/bin/env guile-2.0 !# (define-module (spielfaehig) #:export (spielfähig)) (use-modules (srfi srfi-1)) ; for iota with count and start (define (factorial n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (factorial (1- n))))) (define (nük n k) (if (> k n) 0 (/ (factorial n) (factorial k) (factorial (- n k))))) (define (binom p n k) (* (nük n k) (expt p k) (expt (- 1 p) (- n k)))) (define (spielfähig p n min_spieler) (apply + (map (lambda (k) (binom p n k)) (iota (1+ (- n min_spieler)) min_spieler))))  To use this with exact math, I just need to call it with p as exact number: (use-modules (spielfaehig)) (spielfähig #e.03 4000 70) ; ^ note the #e - this means to use an exact representation ; of the number ; To make Guile show a float instead of some huge division, just ; convert the number to an inexact representation before showing it. (format #t "~A\n" (exact->inexact (spielfähig #e.03 4000 70)))  And that’s it. Automagic hassle-free exact math is at my fingertips. It just works and uses less then 200 MiB of memory - even though the intermediate factorials return huge numbers. And huge means huge. It effortlessly handles numbers with a size on the order of 108000. That is 10 to the power of 8000 - a number with 8000 digits. ## 4 The Answer 42! :) The real answer is 0.0125: That’s the maximum length we need to choose for short links to get more than a 95% probability that in a network of 4000 nodes there are at most 5 nodes for which there are less than 70 peers with a distance of at most the maximum length. If we can assume 5000 nodes, then 0.01 is enough. And since this is the number we directly got from an analysis of our link length distribution, it is the better choice, though it will mean that people with huge bandwidth cannot always max out their 100 connections. ## 5 Conclusion Most of the time, floats are OK. But there are the times when you simply need exact math. In these situations Guile Scheme is a lifesaver. Dear GNU Hackers, thank you for this masterpiece! And if you were crazy enough to read till here, Happy Hacking to you! I needed to calculate the probability that for every freenet user there are at least 70 others in a distance of at most 0.01. That needs binomial coefficients with n and k on the order of 4000. My old Python script failed me with an OverflowError: integer division result too large for a float. So I turned to Guile Scheme and exact math.Table of Contents1. The challenge2. The old script3. Solution with Guile4. The Answer5. Conclusion # Exploring the probability of successfully retrieving a file in freenet, given different redundancies and chunk lifetimes In this text I want to explore the behaviour of the degrading yet redundant anonymous file storage in Freenet. It only applies to files which were not subsequently retrieved. Every time you retrieve a file, it gets healed which effectively resets its timer as far as these calculations here are concerned. Due to this, popular files can and do live for years in freenet. ## 1 Static situation Firstoff we can calculate the retrievability of a given file with different redundancy levels, given fixed chunk retrieval probabilities. Files in Freenet are cut into segments which are again cut into up to 256 chunks each. With the current redundancy of 100%, only half the chunks of each segment have to be retrieved to get the whole file. I call that redundancy “2x”, because it inserts data 2x the size of the file (actually that’s just what I used in the code and I don’t want to force readers - or myself - to make mental jumps while switching from prose to code). We know from the tests done by digger3, that after 31 days about 50% of the chunks are still retrievable, and after 30 days about 30%. Let’s look how that affects our retrieval probabilities. # encoding: utf-8 from spielfaehig import spielfähig from collections import defaultdict data = [] res = [] for chunknumber in range(5, 105, 5):... byred = defaultdict(list) for num, prob, red, retrieval in data:... csv = "; num prob retrieval" for red in byred:... # now plot the files plotcmd = """ set term png set width 15 set xlabel "chunk probability" set ylabel "retrieval probability" set output freenet-prob-redundancy-2.png plot "2.csv" using 2:3 select ($1 == 5) title "5 chunks", "" using 2:3 select ($1 == 10) title "10 chunks", "" using 2:3 select ($1 == 30) title "30 chunks", "" using 2:3 select ($1 == 100) title "100 chunks" set output freenet-prob-redundancy-3.png plot "3.csv" using 2:3 select ($1 == 5) title "5 chunks", "" using 2:3 select ($1 == 10) title "10 chunks", "" using 2:3 select ($1 == 30) title "30 chunks", "" using 2:3 select ($1 == 100) title "100 chunks" set output freenet-prob-redundancy-4.png plot "4.csv" using 2:3 select ($1 == 5) title "5 chunks", "" using 2:3 select ($1 == 10) title "10 chunks", "" using 2:3 select ($1 == 30) title "30 chunks", "" using 2:3 select ($1 == 100) title "100 chunks" """ with open("plot.pyx", "w") as f:... from subprocess import Popen Popen(["pyxplot", "plot.pyx"])  So what does this tell us? This looks quite good. After all, we can push the lifetime as high as we want by just increasing redundancy. Sadly it is also utterly wrong :) Let’s try to get closer to the real situation. ## 2 Dynamic Situation: The redundancy affects the replacement rate of chunks To find a better approximation of the effects of increasing the redundancy, we have to stop looking at freenet as a fixed store and have to start seeing it as a process. More exactly: We have to look at the replacement rate. ### 2.1 Math A look on the stats from digger3 shows us, that after 4 weeks 50% of the chunks are gone. Let’s call this the dropout rate. The dropout rate consists of churn and chunk replacement: dropout = churn + replacement Since after one day the dropout rate is about 10%, I’ll assume that the churn is lower than 10%. So for the following parts, I’ll just ignore the churn (naturally this is wrong, but since the churn is not affected by redundancy, I just take it as constant factor. It should reduce the negative impacts of increasing redundancy). So we will only look at replacement of blocks. Replacement consists of new inserts and healing of old files. replacement = insert + healing If we increase the redundancy from 2 to 3, the insert and healing rate should both increase by 50%, so the replacement rate should increase by 50%, too. The healing rate might increase a bit more, because healing can now restore 66% of the file as long as at least 33% are available. I’ll ignore that, too, for the time being (which is wrong again. We will need to keep this in mind when we look at the result). redundancy 2 → 3 ⇒ replacement rate × 1.5 Increasing the replacement rate by 50% should decrease the lifetime of chunks by 1/1.5, or: chunk lifetime × 2/3 So we will be at the 50% limit not after 4 weeks, but after 10 days. But on the other hand, redundancy 3 only needs 33% chunk probability, which has 2× the lifetime of 50% chunk probability. So the file lifetime should change by 2×2/3 = 4/3: file lifetime × 4/3 = file lifetime +33% Now doesn’t that look good? As you can imagine, this pretty picture hides a clear drawback: The total storage capacity of Freenet gets reduced by 33%, too, because now every file requires 1.5× as much space as before. ### 2.2 Caveats (whoever invented that name? :) ) We ignored churn, so the chunk lifetime reduction should be a bit less than the estimated 33%%. That’s good and life is beautiful, right? :) NO. We also ignored the increase in the healing rate. This should be higher, because every retrieved file can now insert more of itself in the healing process. If we had no new inserts, I would go as far as saying that the healing-rate might actually double with the increased redundancy. So in a network completely filled network without new data, the effects of the higher redundancy and the higher replacement rate would exactly cancel. But the higher redundancy would be able to store less files. Since we are constantly pushing new data into the network (for example via discussions in Sone), this should not be the case. ### 2.3 Dead space Aside from hiding some bad effects, this simple model also hides a nice effect: A decreased amount of dead space. Firstoff, lets define it: ### 2.4 What is dead space? Dead space is the part of the storage space which cannot be used for retrieving files. With any redundancy, that dead space is just about the size of the original file without redundancy multiplier. So for redundancy 2, the storage space occupied by the file is dead, when less than 50% are available. With redundancy 3, it is dead when less than 33% are available. ### 2.5 Effect That dead space is replaced like any other space, but it is never healed. So the higher replacement rate means that dead space is recovered more quickly. So, while a network with higher redundancy can store less files overall, those files which can no longer be retrieved take up less space. I won’t add the math for that, here, though (because I did not do that yet). ### 2.6 Closing So, as closing remark, we can say that increasing the redundancy will likely increase the lifetime of files. It will also reduce the overall storage space in Freenet, though. I think it would be worthwhile. It might also be possible to give probability estimates in the GUI which show how likely it is that we can retrieve a given file after a few percent were downloaded: If more than 1/redundancy chunks succeed, the probability to get the file is high. if close to 1/redundancy succeed, the file will be slow, because we might have to wait for nodes which went online and will come back at some point. Essentially we will have to hope for churn. If much less than 1/redundancy of the chunks succeed, we can stop trying to get the file. Just use the code in here for that :) ## 3 Background and deeper look Why redundancy after all redundancy 1: 1 chunk fails ⇒ file fails. redundancy 2: 50% redundancy 3: 33% ### 3.1 No redundancy Let’s start with redundancy 1. If one chunk fails, the whole file fails. Compared to freenet today the replacement rate would be halved, because each file takes up only half the current space. So the 50% dead chunks rate would be reached after 8 weeks instead of after 4 weeks. And 90% would be after 2 days instead of after 1 day. We can guess that 99% would be after a few hours. Let’s take a file with 100 chunks as example. That’s 100× 32 kiB, or about 3 Megabyte. After a few hours the chance will be very high that it will have lost one chunk and will be irretrievable. Freenet will still have 99% of the chunks, but they will be wasted space, because the file cannot be recovered anymore. The average lifetime of a file will just be a few hours. With 99% probability of retrieving a chunk, the probability of retrieving a file will be only about 37%. from spielfaehig import spielfähig return spielfähig(0.99, 100, 100) → 0.366032341273  To achieve 90% retrievability of the file, we need a chunk availability of 99,9%! The file is essentially dead directly after the insert finishes. from spielfaehig import spielfähig return spielfähig(0.999, 100, 100) → 0.904792147114  ### 3.2 1% redundancy Now, lets add one redundant chunk. Almost nothing will have changed for inserting and replacing, but now the probability of retrieving the file when the chunks have 99% availability is 73%! from spielfaehig import spielfähig return spielfähig(0.99, 101, 100) → 0.732064682546  The replacement rate is increased by 1%, as is the storage space. To achieve 90% retrievability, we actually need a chunk availability of 99,5%. So we might have 90% retrievability one hour after the insert. from spielfaehig import spielfähig return spielfähig(0.995, 101, 100) → 0.908655654736  Let’s check for 50%: We need a chunk probability of about 98,4% from spielfaehig import spielfähig return spielfähig(0.984, 101, 100) → 0.518183035909  The mean lifetime of a file changed from about zero to a few hours. ### 3.3 50% redundancy Now, let’s take a big step: redundancy 1.5. Now we need 71,2% block retrievability to have a 90% chance of retrieving one file. from spielfaehig import spielfähig return spielfähig(0.712, 150, 100) → 0.904577767501  for 50% retrievability we need 66,3% chunk availability. from spielfaehig import spielfähig return spielfähig(0.663, 150, 100) → 0.500313163333  66% would be reached in the current network after about 20 days (between 2 weeks and 4 weeks), and in a zero redundancy network after 40 days. fetch-pull-stats At the same time, though, the chunk replacement rate increased by 50%, so the mean chunk lifetime decreased by factor 2/3. So the lifetime of a file would be 4 weeks. ### 3.4 Generalize this So, now we have calculations for redundancy 1, 1.5, 2 and 3. Let’s see if we can find a general (if approximate) rule for redundancy. From the fetch-pull-graph from digger3 we see empirically, that between one week and 18 weeks each doubling of the lifetime corresponds to a reduction of the chunk retrieval probability of 15% to 20%. Also we know that 50% probability corresponds to 4 weeks lifetime. And we know that redundancy x has a minimum required chunk probability of 1/x. With this, we can model the required chunk lifetime as a function of redundancy: chunk lifetime = 4 * 2**((0.5-1/x)/0.2) with x as redundancy. Note: this function is purely empirical and approximate. Having the chunk lifetime, we can now model the lifetime of a file as a function of its redundancy: file lifetime = (2/x) * 4 * (2**((0.5-1/x)/0.2)) We can now use this function to find an optimum of the redundancy if we are only concerned about file lifetime. Naturally we could get the trusty wxmaxima and get the derivative of it to find the maximum. But that is not installed right now, and my skills in getting the derivatives by hand are a bit rusty (note: install running). So we just do it graphically. The function is not perfectly exact anyway, so the errors introduced by the graphic solution should not be too big compared to the errors in the model. Note however, that this model is only valid in the range between 20% and 90% chunk retrieval probability, because the approximation for the chunk lifetime does not hold anymore for values above that. Due to this, redundancy values close to or below 1 won’t be correct. Also keep in mind that it does not include the effect due to the higher rate of removing dead space - which is space that belongs to files which cannot be recovered anymore. This should mitigate the higher storage requirement of higher redundancy. # encoding: utf-8 plotcmd = """ set term png set width 15 set xlabel "redundancy" set ylabel "lifetime [weeks]" set output "freenet-prob-function.png" set xrange [0:10] plot (2/x) * 4 * (2**((0.5-1/x)/0.2)) """ with open("plot.pyx", "w") as f:... from subprocess import Popen Popen(["pyxplot", "plot.pyx"])  ## 4 Summary: Merit and outlook Now, what do we make of this? Firstoff: If the equations are correct, an increase in redundancy would improve the lifetime of files by a maximum of almost a week. Going further reduces the lifetime, because the increased replacement of old data outpaces the improvement due to the higher redundancy. Also higher redundancy needs a higher storage capacity, which reduces the overall capacity of freenet. This should be partially offset by the faster purging of dead storage space. The results support an increase in redundancy from 2 to 3, but not to 4. Well, and aren’t statistics great? :) Additional notes: This exploration ignores: • healing creates less insert traffic than new inserts by only inserting failed segments, and it makes files which get accessed regularly live much longer, • inter-segment redundancy improves the retrieving of files, so they can cope with a retrievability of 50% of any chunks of the file, even if the distribution might be skewed for a single segment, • Non-uniformity of the network which makes it hard to model effects with global-style math like this, • Seperate stores for SSK and CHK keys, which improve the availability of small websites and • Usability and security impact of increased insert times (might be reduced by only inserting 2/3rd of the file data and letting healing do the rest when the first downloader gets the file) Due to that, the findings can only provides clues for improvements, but cannot perfectly predict the best path of action. Thanks to evanb for pointing them out! If you are interested in other applications of the same theory, you might enjoy my text Statistical constraints for the design of roleplaying games (RPGs) and campaigns (german original: Statistische Zwänge beim Rollenspiel- und Kampagnendesign). The script spielfaehig.py I used for the calculations was written for a forum discussion which evolved into that text :) This text was written and checked in emacs org-mode and exported to HTML via org-export-as-html-to-buffer. The process integrated research and documentation. In hindsight, that was a pretty awesome experience, especially the inline script evaluation. I also attached the org-mode file for your leisure :) Table of Contents1 Static situation2 Dynamic Situation: The redundancy affects the replacement rate of chunks2.1 Math2.2 Caveats (whoever invented that name? :) )2.3 Dead space2.4 What is dead space?2.5 Effect2.6 Closing3 Background and deeper look3.1 No redundancy3.2 1% redundancy3.3 50% redundancy3.4 Generalize this4 Summary: Merit and outlookIn this text I want to explore the behaviour of the degrading yet redundant anonymous file storage in Freenet. It only applies to files which were not subsequently retrieved. Every time you retrieve a file, it gets healed which effectively resets its timer as far as these calculations here are concerned. Due to this, popular files can and do live for years in freenet. AnhangGröße freenet-prob-redundancy-2.png67.05 KB freenet-prob-redundancy-3.png65.67 KB freenet-prob-redundancy-4.png63.43 KB freenet-success-probability.org14.84 KB freenet-prob-function.png20.5 KB fetch_dates_graph-2012-03-16.png17.25 KB spielfaehig.py.txt1.15 KB # Freenet anonymity: Best case and Worst case As the i2p people say, anynomity is no boolean. Freenet allows you to take it a good deal further than i2p or tor, though. If you do it right. • Worst case: If all of Apple would want to find you, because you declared that you would post the videos of the new iDing - and already sent them your videos as teaser before starting to upload them from an Apple computer (and that just after they lost their beloved dictator), you might be in problems if you use Opennet. You are about as safe as with tor or i2p. • Best case: If a local politician would want to find you, after you uploaded proof that he takes bribes, and you compressed these files along with some garbage data and used Freenet in Darknet-mode with connections only to friends who would rather die than let someone take over their computer, there’s no way in hell, you’d get found due to freenet (the file data could betray you, or they could find you by other means, but Freenet won’t be your weak spot). Naturally real life is somewhere in-between. Things which improve anonymity a lot in the best case: • Don’t let others know the data you are going to upload before the upload finished (would allow some attacks). • Use only Darknet with trusted friends (Darknet means that you connect only to people you know personally. For that it is necessary to know other people who use Freenet). • Upload small files so the time in which you are actively uploading is short. Implied are: • Use an OS without trojans. So no Windows. (Note: Linux can be hacked, too, but it is far less likely to already have been compromised) • Use no Apple devices. You don’t control them yourself and can’t know what they have under the hood. (You are compromised from the time you buy them) • If you use Android, flash it yourself to give it an OS you control (Freenet is not yet available for Android. That would be a huge task). • Know your friends. Important questions to ask: • Who would want to find you? • How much would they invest to find you? • Do they already try to monitor Freenet? (in that case uploading files with known content would be dangerous) • Do they already know you personally? If yes and if they might have already compromised your computer or internet connection, you can’t upload anything anonymously anywhere. In that case, never let stuff get onto your computer in the first place. Let someone else upload it, who is not monitored (yet). • Can they eavesdrop on your internet connection? Then they might guess that you use Freenet from the amount of encrypted communication you do and might want to bug your computer just in case you want to use freenet against them some day. See the Security Summary (mostly possible attacks) in the freenet wiki for details. *As the i2p people say, anynomity is no boolean. [Freenet](http://freenetproject.org) allows you to take it a good deal further than i2p or tor, though. If you do it right.** **Worst case**: If all of Apple would want to find you, because you declared that you would post the videos of the new iDing - and already sent them your videos as teaser before starting to upload them from an Apple computer (and that just after they lost their beloved dictator), you might be in problems if you use Opennet. You are about as safe as with tor or i2p.* **Best case**: If a local politician would want to find you, _after_ you uploaded proof that he takes bribes, and you compressed these files along with some garbage data and used Freenet in Darknet-mode with connections only to friends who would rather die than let someone take over their computer, there’s no way in hell, you’d get found due to freenet (the file data could betray you, or they could find you by other means, but Freenet won’t be your weak spot). # Freenet: WoT, database error, recovery patch I just had a database error in WoT (the Freenet generic Web of Trust plugin) and couldn’t access one of my identities anymore (plus I didn’t have a backup of its private keys though it told me to keep backups – talk about carelessness :) ). I asked p0s on IRC and he helped me patch together a WoT which doesn’t access the context for editing the ID (and in turn misses some functionality). This allowed me to regain my IDs private key and with that redownload my ID from freenet. I didn’t want that patch rotting on my drive, so I uploaded it here: disable-context-checks-regain-keys.path Essentially it just comments out some stuff. I just had a database error in WoT (the Freenet generic Web of Trust plugin) and couldn’t access one of my identities anymore (plus I didn’t have a backup of its private keys though it told me to keep backups – talk about carelessness :) ). I asked p0s on IRC and he helped me patch together a WoT which doesn’t access the context for editing the ID (and in turn misses some functionality). This allowed me to regain my IDs private key and with that redownload my ID from freenet. AnhangGröße disable-context-checks-regain-keys.path3.79 KB # Infocalypse - Make your code survive the information apocalypse Anonymous DVCS in the Darknet. This is a mirror of the documentation of the infocalypse extension for Mercurial written by djk - published here with his permission. It is licensed solely under the GPLv2 or later. ## Introduction The Infocalypse 2.0 hg extension is an extension for Mercurial that allows you to create, publish and maintain incrementally updateable repositories in Freenet. Your code is then hosted decentrally and anonymously, making it just as censorship-resistant as all other content in Freenet. It works better than the other DVCS currently available for Freenet. Most of the information you will find in this document can also be found in the extension's online help. i.e.: hg help infocalypse  # HOWTO: Infocalypse 2.0 hg extension updated: 20090927 Note: Contains Freenet only links ## Table of Contents ## Requirements The extension has the following dependencies: • Freenet You can more information on Freenet here: http://freenetproject.org/ [HTTP Link!] • Python I test on Python 2.5.4 and 2.6.1. Any 2.5.x or later version should work. Earlier versions may work. You probably won't have to worry about installing Python. It's included in the Windows binary Mercurial distributions and most *nix flavor OS's should have a reasonably up to date version of Python installed. • Mercurial You can find more information on Mercurial here: http://mercurial.selenic.com/ [HTTP Link!] Version 1.0.2 won't work. I use version 1.2.1 (x86 Gentoo) on a daily basis. Later versions should work. I've smoke tested 1.1.2 (on Ubuntu Jaunty Jackalope) and 1.3 (on Widows XP) without finding any problems. • FMS Installation of the Freenet Messaging System (FMS) is optional but highly recommended. The hg fn-fmsread and hg fn-fmsnotify commands won't work without FMS. Without fn-fmsread it is extremely difficult to reliably detect repository updates. The official FMS freesite is here: USK@0npnMrqZNKRCRoGojZV93UNHCMN-6UU3rRSAmP6jNLE,~BG-edFtdCC1cSH4O3BWdeIYa8Sw5DfyrSV-TKdO5ec,AQACAAE/fms/106/  [TOC] ## Installation You checked the requirements and understandthe risks right? Here are step-by-step instructions on how to install the extension. • Download the bootstrap hg bundle: CHK@S~kAIr~UlpPu7mHNTQV0VlpZk-f~z0a71f7DlyPS0Do,IB-B5Hd7WePtvQuzaUGrVrozN8ibCaZBw3bQr2FvP5Y,AAIC--8/infocalypse2_1723a8de6e7c.hg  You'll get a Potentially Dangerous Content warning from fproxy because the mime type isn't set. Choose 'Click here to force your browser to download the file to disk.'. I'll refer to the directory that you saved the bundle file to as DOWNLOAD_DIR. • Create an empty directory where you want to install the extension. I'll refer to that directory as INSTALL_DIR in the rest of these instructions. • Create an empty hg repository there. i.e.: cd INSTALL_DIR hg init  • Unbundle the bootstrap bundle into the new repository. i.e: hg pull DOWNLOAD_DIR/infocalypse2_1723a8de6e7c.hg hg update  • Edit the '[extensions]' section of your .hgrc/mercurial.ini file to point to the infocalypse directory in the unbundled source. # .hgrc/mercurial.ini snippet [extensions] infocalypse = INSTALL_DIR/infocalypse  where INSTALL_DIR is the directory you unbundled into. If you don't known where to find/create your .hgrc/mercurial.ini file this link may be useful: http://www.selenic.com/mercurial/hgrc.5.html [HTTP Link!] • Run fn-setup to create the config file and temp dir. i.e. hg fn-setup  If you run your Freenet node on another machine or on a non-standard port you'll need to use the --fcphost and/or --fcpport parameters to set the FCP host and port respectively. By default fn-setup will write the configuration file for the extension (.infocalype on *nix, infocalypse.ini on Windows) into your home directory and also create a temp directory called infocalypse_tmp there. You can change the location of the temp directory by using the --tmpdir argument. If you want to put the config file in a different location set the cfg_file option in the [infocalypse] section of your .hgrc/mercurial.ini file before running fn-setup. Example .hgrc entry: # Snip, from .hgrc [infocalypse] cfg_file = /mnt/usbkey/s3kr1t/infocalypse.cfg • Edit the fms_id and possibly fms_host/fms_port information in the.infocalyse/infocalypse.ini file. i.e.: # Example .infocalypse snippet fms_id = YOUR_FMS_ID fms_host = 127.0.0.1 fms_port = 1119  where YOUR_FMS_ID is the part of your fms id before the '@' sign. If you run FMS with the default settings on the same machine you are running Mercurial on you probably won't need to adjust the fcp_host or fcp_port. You can skip this step if you're not running fms. • Read the latest know version of the extension's repository USK index from FMS. hg fn-fmsread -v  You can skip this step if you're not running fms. • Pull the latest changes to the extension from Freenet for the first time. Don't skip this step! i.e.: hg fn-pull --aggressive --debug --uri USK@kRM~jJVREwnN2qnA8R0Vt8HmpfRzBZ0j4rHC2cQ-0hw,2xcoQVdQLyqfTpF2DpkdUIbHFCeL4W~2X1phUYymnhM,AQACAAE/infocalypse.hgext.R1/41 hg update  You may have trouble finding the top key if you're not using fn-fmsread. Just keep retrying. If you know the index has increased, use the new index in the URI. After the first pull, you can update without the URI. [TOC] ## Updating This extension is under active development. You should periodically update to get the latest bug fixes and new features. Once you've installed the extension and pulled it for the first time, you can get updates by cd'ing into the initial INSTALL_DIRand typing: hg fn-fmsread -vhg fn-pull --aggressive hg update  If you're not running FMS you can skip the fn-fmsread step. You may have trouble getting the top key. Just keep retrying. If you're having trouble updating and you know the index has increased, use the full URI with the new index as above. [TOC] ## Background Here's background information that's useful when using the extension.See the Infocalypse 2.0 hg extension page on my freesite for a more detailed description of how the extension works. ### Repositories are collections of hg bundle files An Infocalypse repository is just a collection of hg bundle files which have been inserted into Freenet as CHKs and some metadata describing how to pull the bundles to reconstruct the repository that they represent. When you 'push' to an infocalypse repository a new bundleCHK is inserted with the changes since the last update. When you 'pull', only the CHKs for bundles for changesets not already in the local repository need to be fetched. ### Repository USKs The latest version of the repository's metadata is stored on a Freenet Updateable Subspace Key (USK) as a small binary file. You'll notice that repository USKs end with a number without a trailing '/'. This is an important distinction. A repository USK is not a freesite. If you try to view one with fproxy you'll just get a 'Potentially Dangerous Content' warning. This is harmless, and ugly but unavoidable at the current time because of limitation in fproxy/FCP. ### Repository top key redundancy Repository USKs that end in *.R1/<number> are inserted redundantly, with a second USK insert done on *.R0/<number>. Top key redundancy makes it easier for other people to fetch your repository. Inserting to a redundant repository USK makes the inserter more vulnerable to correlation attacks. Don't use '.R1' USKs if you're worried about this. ### Repository Hashes Repository USKs can be long and cumbersome. A repository hash is the first 12 bytes of the Sha1 hash of the zero index version of a repository USK. e.g.: SHA1( USK@kRM~jJVREwnN2qnA8R0Vt8HmpfRzBZ0j4rHC2cQ-0hw,2xcoQVdQLyqfTpF2DpkdUIbHFCeL4W~2X1phUYymnhM,AQACAAE/infocalypse.hgext.R1/0 ) == 'be68e8feccdd'  You can get the repository hash for a repository USK using: hg fn-info  from a directory the repository USK has been fn-pull'd into. You can get the hashes of repositories that other people have announced via fms with: hg fn-fmsread --listall  Repository hashes are used in the fms update trust map. ### The default private key When you run fn-setup, it creates a default SSK private key, which it stores inthe default_private_key parameter in your .infocalypse/infocalypse.ini file. You can edit the config file to substitute any valid SSK private key you want. If you specify an Insert URI without the key part for an infocalypse command the default private key is filled in for you. i.e hg fn-create --uri USK@/test.R1/0  Inserts the local hg repository into a new USK in Freenet, using the private key in your config file. ### USK <--> Directory mappings The extension's commands 'remember' the insert and request repository USKs they were last run with when run again from the same directory. This makes it unnecessary to retype cumbersome repository USK values once a repository has been successfully pulled or pushed from a directory. ### Aggressive top key searching fn-pull and fn-push have an --aggressive command line argument which causes them to search harder for the latest request URI. This can be slow, especially if the USK index is much lower than the latest index in Freenet. You will need to use it if you're not using FMS update notifications. [TOC] ## Basic Usage Here are examples of basic commands. ### Generating a new private key You can generate an new private key with: hg fn-genkey  This has no effect on the stored default private key. Make sure to change the 'SSK' in the InsertURI to 'USK' when supplying the insert URI on the command line. ### Creating a new repository hg fn-create --uri USK@/test.R1/0  Inserts the local hg repository into a new USK in Freenet, using the privatekey in your config file. You can use a full insert URI value if you want. If you see an "update -- Bundle too big to salt!" warning message when you run this command you should consider running fn-reinsert --level 4. ### Pushing to a repository hg fn-push --uri USK@/test.R1/0  Pushes incremental changes from the local directory into an existing Infocalypse repository. The <keypart>/test.R1/0 repository must already exist in Freenet.In the example above the default private key is used. You could have specified a full Insert URI. The URI must end in a number but the value doesn't matter because fn-push searches for the latest unused index. You can ommit the --uri argument whenyou run from the same directory the fn-create (or a previous fn-push)was run from. ### Pulling from a repository hg fn-pull --uri <request uri>  pulls from an Infocalypse repository in Freenet intothe local repository. Here's an example with a fully specified uri. You can ommit the --uri argument whenyou run from the same directory a previous fn-pull was successfully run from. For maximum reliability use the --aggressive argument. [TOC] ## Using FMS to send and receive update notifications The extension can send and receive repository update notifications via FMS. It is highly recommended that you setup this feature. ### The update trust map There's a trust map in the .infocalypse/infocalypse.ini config file which determines which fms ids can update the index values for which repositories. It is purely local and completely separate from the trust values which appear in the FMS web of trust. The format is: <number> = <fms_id>|<usk_hash0>|<usk_hash1>| ... |<usk_hashn> The number value must be unique, but is ignored. The fms_id values are the full FMS ids that you are trusting to update the repositories with the listed hashes. The usk_hash* values are repository hashes. Here's an example trust map config entry: # Example .infocalypse snippet [fmsread_trust_map] 1 = test0@adnT6a9yUSEWe5p8J-O1i8rJCDPqccY~dVvAmtMuC9Q|55833b3e6419 0 = djk@isFiaD04zgAgnrEC5XJt1i4IE7AkNPqhBG5bONi6Yks|be68e8feccdd|5582404a9124 2 = test1@SH1BCHw-47oD9~B56SkijxfE35M9XUvqXLX1aYyZNyA|fab7c8bd2fc3  You must update the trust map to enable index updating for repos other than the one this code lives in (be68e8feccdd). You can edit the config file directly if you want. However, the easiest way to update the trust map is by using the--trust and --untrust options on fn-fmsread. For example to trust falafel@IxVqeqM0LyYdTmYAf5z49SJZUxr7NtQkOqVYG0hvITwto notify you about changes to the repository with repo hash 2220b02cf7ee,type: hg fn-fmsread --trust --hash 2220b02cf7ee --fmsid falafel@IxVqeqM0LyYdTmYAf5z49SJZUxr7NtQkOqVYG0hvITw  And to stop trusting that FMS id for updates to 2220b02cf7ee, you would type: hg fn-fmsread --untrust --hash 2220b02cf7ee --fmsid falafel@IxVqeqM0LyYdTmYAf5z49SJZUxr7NtQkOqVYG0hvITw  To show the trust map type: hg fn-fmsread --showtrust  ### Reading other people's notifications hg fn-fmsread -v  Will read update notifications for all the repos in the trust map and locally cache the new latest index values. If you run with -vit prints a message when updates are available which weren't used because the sender(s) weren't in the trust map. hg fn-fmsread --list  Displays announced repositories from fms ids that appear inthe trust map. hg fn-fmsread --listall  Displays all announced repositories including ones from unknown fms ids. ### Pulling an announced repository You can use the --hash option with fn-pull to pull any repository you see in the fn-read --list or fn-read --listall lists. For example to pull the latest version of the infocalypse extension code, cd to an empty directory and type: hg inithg fn-pull --hash be68e8feccdd --aggressive  ### Posting your own notifications hg fn-fmsnotify -v  Posts an update notification for the current repository to fms. You MUST set the fms_id value in the config fileto your fms id for this to work. Use --dryrun to double check before sending the actual fms message. Use --announce at least once if you want your USK to show up in the fmsread --listall list. By default notifications are written to and read from the infocalypse.notify fms group. The read and write groups can be changed by editing the following variables in the config file: fmsnotify_group = <group> fmsread_groups = <group0>[|<group1>|...] fms can have pretty high latency. Be patient. It may take hours (sometimes a day!) for your notification to appear. Don't send lots of redundant notifications. [TOC] ## Reinserting and 'sponsoring' repositories hg fn-reinsert  will re-insert the bundles for the repository that was last pulled into the directory. The exact behavior is determined by the level argument. level: • 1 - re-inserts the top key(s) • 2 - re-inserts the top keys(s), graphs(s) and the most recent update. • 3 - re-inserts the top keys(s), graphs(s) and all keys required to bootstrap the repo. This is the default level. • 4 - adds redundancy for big (>7Mb) updates. • 5 - re-inserts existing redundant big updates. Levels 1 and 4 require that you have the privatekey for the repository. For other levels, the top key insert is skipped if you don't have the private key. DO NOT use fn-reinsert if you're concerned about correlation attacks. The risk is on the order of re-inserting a freesite, but may be worse if you use redundant(i.e. USK@<line noise>/name.R1/0) top keys. [TOC] ## Forking a repository onto a new USK hg fn-copy --inserturi USK@/name_for_my_copy.R1/0  copies the Infocalypse repository which was fn-pull'd intothe local directory onto a new repository USK under your default private key. You can use a full insert URI if you want. This only requires copying the top key data (a maximum of 2 SSK inserts). [TOC] ## Sharing private keys It is possible for multiple people to collaborate anonymously over Freenet by sharing the private key to a single Infocalypse repository. The FreeFAQ is an example of this technique. Here are some things to keep in mind when sharing private keys. • There is no (explict) key revocation in Freenet If you decide to share keys, you should generate a special key on a per repo basis with fn-genkey. There is no way to revoke a private key once it has been shared. This could be mitigated with an ad-hoc convention. e.g. if I find any file named USK@<public_key>/revoked.txt, I stop using the key. • Non-atomic top key inserts Occasionally, you might end up overwriting someone elses commits because the FCP insert of the repo top key isn't atomic. I think you should be able to merge and re fn-push to resolve this. You can fn-pull a specific version of the repo by specify the full URI including the version number with --uri and including the --nosearch option. • All contributors should be in the fn-fmsread trust map [TOC] ## Inserting a freesite hg fn-putsite --index <n>  inserts a freesite based on the configuration inthe freesite.cfg file in the root of the repository. Use: hg fn-putsite --createconfig  to create a basic freesite.cfg file that you can modify. Look at the comments in it for an explanation of the supported parameters. The default freesite.cfg file inserts using the same private key as the repo and a site name of 'default'. Editing the name is highly recommended. You can use --key CHK@ to insert a test version of the site to a CHK key before writing to the USK. Limitations: • You MUST have fn-pushed the repo at least once in order to insert using the repo's private key. If you haven't fn-push'd you'll see this error: "You don't have the insert URI for this repo. Supply a private key with --key or fn-push the repo." • Inserts all files in the site_dir directory in the freesite.cfg file. Run with --dryrun to make sure that you aren't going to insert stuff you don't want too. • You must manually specify the USK edition you want to insert on. You will get a collision error if you specify an index that was already inserted. • Don't use this for big sites. It should be fine for notes on your project. If you have lots of images or big binary files use a tool like jSite instead. • Don't modify site files while the fn-putsite is running. [TOC] ## Risks I don't believe that using this extension is significantly more dangerous that using any other piece of Freenet client code, but here is a list of the risks which come to mind: • Freenet is beta software The authors of Freenet don't pretend to guarantee that it is free of bugs that could that could compromise your anonymity or worse. While written in Java, Freenet loads native code via JNI (FEC codecs, bigint stuff, wrapper, etc.) that makes it vulnerable to the same kinds of attacks as any other C/C++ code. • FMS == anonymous software FMS is published anonymously on Freenet and it is written in C++ with dependencies on large libraries which could contain security defects. I personally build FMS from source and run it in a chroot jail. Somedude, the author of FMS, seems like a reputable guy and has conducted himself as such for more than a year. • correlation attacks There is a concern that any system which inserts keys that can be predicted ahead of time could allow an attacker with control over many nodes in the network to eventually find the IP of your node. Any system which has this property is vulnerable. e.g. fproxy Freesite insertion,Freetalk, FMS, FLIP. This extension's optional use of redundant top keys may make it particularly vulnerable. If you are concerned don't use '.R1' keys. Running your node in pure darknet mode with trusted peers may somewhat reduce the risk of correlation attacks. • Bugs in my code, Mercurial or Python I do my best but no one's perfect. There are lots of eyes over the Mercurial and Python source. [TOC] ## Advocacy Here are some reasons why I think the Infocalypse 2.0 hg extension is better than pyFreenetHg and egit-freenet: • Incremental You only need to insert/retrieve what has actually changed. Changes of up to 32kof compressed deltas can be fetched in as little as one SSK fetch and one CHK fetch. • Redundant The top level SSK and the CHK with the representation of the repository state are inserted redundantly so there are no 'critical path' keys. Updates of up to ~= 7Mbare inserted redundantly by cloning the splitfile metadata at the cost of a single32k CHK insert. • Re-insertable Anyone can re-insert all repository data except for the top level SSKs with a simple command (hg fn-reinsert). The repository owner can re-insert the top levelSSKs as well. • Automatic rollups Older changes are automatically 'rolled up' into large splitfiles, such that the entire repository can almost always be fetched in 4 CHK fetches or less. • Fails explictly REDFLAG DCI [TOC] ## Source Code The authoritative repository for the extension's code is hosted in Freenet: hg inithg fn-fmsread -vhg fn-pull --aggressive --debug --uri USK@kRM~jJVREwnN2qnA8R0Vt8HmpfRzBZ0j4rHC2cQ-0hw,2xcoQVdQLyqfTpF2DpkdUIbHFCeL4W~2X1phUYymnhM,AQACAAE/infocalypse.hgext.R1/41hg update  It is also mirrored on bitbucket.org: hg clone http://bitbucket.org/dkarbott/infocalypse_hgext/   [TOC] ## Fixes and version information • hg version: c51dc4b0d282 Fixed abort: <bundle_file> not found! problem on fn-pull when hg-git plugin was loaded. • hg version: 0c5ce9e6b3b4 Fixed intermittent stall when bootstrapping from an empty repo. • hg version: 7f39b20500f0 Fixed bug that kept fn-pull --hash from updating the initial USK index. • hg version: 7b10fa400be1 Added fn-fmsread --trust and --untrust and fn-pull --hash support. fn-pull --hash isn't really usable until 7f39b20500f0 • hg version: ea6efac8e3f6 Fixed a bug that was causing the berkwood binary 1.3 Mercurial distribution (http://mercurial.berkwood.com/binaries/Mercurial-1.3.exe [HTTP Link!]) not to work. [TOC] ## Freenet-only links This document is meant to inserted into Freenet. It contains links (starting with 'CHK@' and 'USK@')to Freenet keys that will only work from within fproxy [HTTP link!]. You can find reasonably up to date version of this document on my freesite: USK@-bk9znYylSCOEDuSWAvo5m72nUeMxKkDmH3nIqAeI-0,qfu5H3FZsZ-5rfNBY-jQHS5Ke7AT2PtJWd13IrPZjcg,AQACAAE/feral_codewright/15/infocalypse_howto.html   ## Contact FMS: djk@isFiaD04zgAgnrEC5XJt1i4IE7AkNPqhBG5bONi6Yks I lurk on the freenet and fms boards. If you really need to you can email me at d kar bott at com cast dot net but I prefer FMS. freesite: USK@-bk9znYylSCOEDuSWAvo5m72nUeMxKkDmH3nIqAeI-0,qfu5H3FZsZ-5rfNBY-jQHS5Ke7AT2PtJWd13IrPZjcg,AQACAAE/feral_codewright/15/  [TOC] Anonymous DVCS in the Darknet. → easy setup of infocalypse (script) ←This is a mirror of the documentation of the infocalypse extension for Mercurial written by djk - published here with his permission. It is licensed solely under the GPLv2 or later.IntroductionThe Infocalypse 2.0 hg extension is an extension for Mercurial that allows you to create, publish and maintain incrementally updateable repositories in Freenet.Your code is then hosted decentrally and anonymously, making it just as censorship-resistant as all other content in Freenet.It works better than the other DVCS currently available for Freenet. Most of the information you will find in this document can also be found in the extension's online help. i.e.:hg help infocalypse # Install and setup infocalypse on GNU/Linux (script) Install and setup infocalypse on GNU/Linux: setup_infocalypse_on_linux.sh Just download and run1 it via wget http://draketo.de/files/setup_infocalypse_on_linux.sh_1_0.txt bash setup_infocalypse*  This script needs a running freenet node to work! In-Freenet-link: CHK@RZjy7Whe3vT3aEdox3pEG4fRbmRGsyuybPPhdvr7MoQ,g8YZO1~FAJM5suS7Uch06ugblVPE4YJd1rl15DxAwkY,AAMC--8/setup_infocalypse_on_linux.sh The script allows you to get and setup the infocalypse extension with a few keystrokes to be able to instantly use the Mercurial DVCS for decentral, anonymous code-sharing over freenet. This gives you code hosting like a minimal version of BitBucket, Gitorious or GitHub but without the central control. Additionally the Sone plugin for freenet supplies anonymous communication and the site extension allows creating static sites with information about the repo, recent commits and such without the need of a dedicated hoster. ## Basic Usage Clone a repo into freenet with a new key: hg clone localrepo USK@/repo  (Write down the insert key and request key after the upload! Localrepo is an existing Mercurial repository) Clone a repo into or from freenet (respective key known): hg clone localrepo freenet://USK@<insert key>/repo.R1/0 hg clone freenet://USK@<request key>/repo.R1/0 [localpath]  Push or pull new changes: hg push freenet://USK@<insert key>/repo.R1/0 hg pull freenet://USK@<request key>/repo.R1/0  For convenient copy-pasting of freenet keys, you can omit the “freenet://” here, or use freenet:USK@… instead. Also, as shown in the first example, you can let infocalypse generate a new key for your repo: hg clone localrepo USK@/repo  mind the “USK@/” (slash after @ == missing key). Also see the missing .R1/0 after the repo-name and the missing freenet://. Being able to omit those on repository creation is just a convenience feature - but one which helps me a lot. You can also add the keys to the <repo>/.hg/hgrc: [paths] example = freenet://USK@<request key>/repo.R1/0 example-push = freenet://USK@<insert key>/repo.R1/0 # here you need the freenet:// !  then you can simply use hg push example-push  and hg pull example  ## Contribute This script is just a quick sketch, feel free to improve it and upload improved versions (for example with support for more GNU/Linux distros). If you experience any problems, please contact me! (i.e. write a comment) If you want to contribute more efficiently to this script, get the repo via hg clone freenet://USK@73my4fc2CLU3cSfntCYDFYt65R4RDmow3IT5~gTAWFk,Fg9EAv-Hut~9NCJKtGaGAGpsn1PjA0oQWTpWf7b1ZK4,AQACAAE/setup_infocalypse/1  Then hack on it, commit and upload it again via hg clone setup_infocalypse freenet://USK@/setup_infocalypse  Finally share the request URI you got. Alternate repo: http://draketo.de/proj/setup_infocalypse 1. On systems based on Debian or Gentoo - including Ubuntu and many others - this script will install all needed software except for freenet itself. You will have to give your sudo password in the process. Since the script is just a text file with a set of commands, you can simply read it to make sure that it won’t do anything evil with those sudo rights Install and setup [infocalypse](/light/english/freenet/infocalypse-mercurial-survive-the-information-apocalypse) on GNU/Linux: > [setup_infocalypse_on_linux.sh](/files/setup_infocalypse_on_linux.sh_1_0.txt)Just download and run[^full] it via wget http://draketo.de/files/setup_infocalypse_on_linux.sh_1_0.txt bash setup_infocalypse*> **This script needs a running [freenet](http://freenetproject.org) node to work!**> [In-Freenet-link](http://127.0.0.1:8888/CHK@RZjy7Whe3vT3aEdox3pEG4fRbmRGsyuybPPhdvr7MoQ,g8YZO1~FAJM5suS7Uch06ugblVPE4YJd1rl15DxAwkY,AAMC--8/setup_infocalypse_on_linux.sh): CHK@RZjy7Whe3vT3aEdox3pEG4fRbmRGsyuybPPhdvr7MoQ,g8YZO1~FAJM5suS7Uch06ugblVPE4YJd1rl15DxAwkY,AAMC--8/setup_infocalypse_on_linux.shThe script allows you to get and setup the [infocalypse extension](/light/english/freenet/infocalypse-mercurial-survive-the-information-apocalypse) with a few keystrokes to be able to instantly use the [Mercurial](http://mercurial.selenic.com) DVCS for decentral, anonymous code-sharing over [freenet](http://freenetproject.org). [^full]: On systems based on Debian or Gentoo - including Ubuntu and many others - this script will install all needed software except for [freenet](http://freenetproject.org) itself. You will have to give your sudo password in the process. Since the script is just a text file with a set of commands, you can simply read it to make sure that it won’t do anything evil with those [sudo rights](http://xkcd.com/149/). AnhangGröße setup_infocalypse_on_linux.sh.txt2.39 KB setup_infocalypse_on_linux.sh.txt2.39 KB setup_infocalypse_on_linux.sh_1.txt2.49 KB # Lots of site uploads into freenet I just finished lots of new uploads of sites into freenet - with the new freesitemgr (which actually uploads quickly when WoT is disabled, check todays IRC-logs tomorrow to get background on that). You can get the new freesitemgr from github.com/ArneBab/lib-pyfreenet-staging or via infocalypse: hg clone freenet://USK@kDVhRYKItV8UBLEiiEC8R9O8LdXYNOkPYmLct9oT9dM%2CdcEYugEmpW6lb9fe4UzrJ1PgyWfe0Qto2GCdEgg-OgE%2CAQACAAE/pyfreenet.R1/14  The sites are also available via my freenet inproxy: freenet-team - an introduction of most of the freenet hackers I know. mathmltest - example of mathml in freenet. winterface-deadlines - deadlines for the Winterface GSoC project freenet-funding - the freenet fundraising plan, still lacking good design and crisp presentation slides or a video freenet-meltdown - on the recent massive performance degradation which lasted a few month and ended with the link length fix. fix-link-length - background on the link-length fix which made freenet actually do small world routing again instead of random routing (into which it had degraded, partially due to local requests, partially due to having so many peers per node that random routing actually worked for the current network size, so the pressure by routing-success to go back to small world routing was too weak compared to the pressure from local requests to randomize the connections) download-web-site - how to download a single page from a website - for example to mirror it into freenet. Hint: For all the sites on draketo.de or 1w6.org you are allowed to do so freely (licensed under GPL). guiledocs - the online documentation for GNU Guile with a focus on Scheme (using Guile): A powerful lisp-like language with multiple implementations. gleichschaltung - an article from Nachdenkseiten ("think deep pages") on gleichschaltung/forced conformity of the big media (in german). decorrespondent-metadata - experiment how much information one can glean about your life from just one week of metadata, in dutch. netzpolitiz-metadaten - same article translated to german. License: cc by-nc-sa Adventures of a Pythonista in Schemeland - the adventures of a Pythonista in Schemeland: A deep understanding of Scheme for Python users. I learned to love Scheme with this. BSD license. programming-languages - The Programming languages lecture. License: cc by-nc-sa tao of programming - "When you have learned to snatch the error code from the trap frame, it will be time for you to leave." I just finished lots of new uploads of sites into freenet - with the new freesitemgr (which actually uploads quickly when WoT is disabled, check todays IRC-logs tomorrow to get background on that). You can get the new freesitemgr from [github.com/ArneBab/lib-pyfreenet-staging](https://github.com/ArneBab/lib-pyfreenet-staging) or via [infocalypse](http://draketo.de/proj/infocalypse-code-sharing/): hg clone freenet://USK@kDVhRYKItV8UBLEiiEC8R9O8LdXYNOkPYmLct9oT9dM%2CdcEYugEmpW6lb9fe4UzrJ1PgyWfe0Qto2GCdEgg-OgE%2CAQACAAE/pyfreenet.R1/14 The sites are also available via my freenet inproxy:[freenet-team](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@Y1VvV~-oT2GvDNFFP7X~iOn~7xStPg4d0UxMmSWJ79s,5BVjDJ0sTJxMUt35EdwYLGWDQIVdcSe5VE6~~Tgwxi0,AQACAAE/freenet-team/1) - an introduction of most of the freenet hackers I know.[mathmltest](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@uSNc77wmxFOyyMNO~inEt6WNQ2eiFMZ~OktLWB4GMPg,sqZwp4uSizWZ21AnuJW3r4ZfpDhTVbo5uURyKkoL8BE,AQACAAE/mathmltest/3) - example of mathml in freenet.[winterface-deadlines](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@um4cEaaGWlgdAK8gAFDJrqY2eiSM3fHxiPfMTu89coE,m2rG6gU~ISukN3S3qJtNwVxXr0giCtHvu8BPz605FxE,AQACAAE/winterface-deadlines/3) - deadlines for the Winterface GSoC project[freenet-funding](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@s9sxY2cTJWHKRsTuBTkjrXW4HfzrdUlwFqft1mzV0Gs,2E4DOMYy-~zOdp8-5OQH2IcmLfey0AOIkms-73Mx2tI,AQACAAE/freenet-funding/23) - the freenet fundraising plan, still lacking good design and crisp presentation slides or a video[freenet-meltdown](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@zqoqAGuQJ1k-gsnu1ezE61hUtRsm52JLFUZHs0FjGuE,89hzii6qISaktLFkC0mZI-Y5ZQHBs3yZW6J5yv3OiOs,AQACAAE/Freenet_Meltdown/7) - on the recent massive performance degradation which lasted a few month and ended with the link length fix.[fix-link-length](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@ZLwcSLwqpM1527Tw1YmnSiXgzITU0neHQ11Cyl0iLmk,f6FLo3TvsEijIcJq-X3BTjjtm0ErVZwAPO7AUd9V7lY,AQACAAE/fix-link-length/12) - background on the link-length fix which made freenet actually do small world routing again instead of random routing (into which it had degraded, partially due to local requests, partially due to having so many peers per node that random routing actually worked for the current network size, so the pressure by routing-success to go back to small world routing was too weak compared to the pressure from local requests to randomize the connections)[download-web-site](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@1adAFc2yEX72mNb7vl25sfTV8IZaVaBz2-45W-JbJ1M,V6KxLh-cHddwMh8a0ORYMlf1snlZXjdWLLkJ9Xht4ho,AQACAAE/download-web-site/4) - how to download a single page from a website - for example to mirror it into freenet. Hint: For all the sites on draketo.de or 1w6.org you are allowed to do so freely (licensed under GPL).[guiledocs](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@KbwedP5onPNStariw4E9j~qelOOvQHG2N1pguT1yWRk,ruBdZ44Gvujlr~VM2psp38fkURiRFMoxtZ~6Ln3GY-0,AQACAAE/guiledocs/3) - the online documentation for GNU Guile with a focus on Scheme (using Guile): A powerful lisp-like language with multiple implementations.[gleichschaltung](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@K4WYLTIEgWj53Vo2zH-jWKH0M9iIFQWKa~I~9geZ0II,pFS8zKGxjQK6RprZGC5QilCbjRHnNNBaMJ9pHy8SgHU,AQACAAE/gleichschaltung/3) - an article from Nachdenkseiten ("think deep pages") on gleichschaltung/forced conformity of the big media (in german).[decorrespondent-metadata](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@KBGReHCMW6KkYq~-jLzFX58wocZVLCima8VB-h3ifU4,Nt3MIN379yDdgBxo4~NLPLaM2ibcKojj~0fbuI5tmYI,AQACAAE/decorrespondent-metadata/2) - experiment how much information one can glean about your life from just one week of metadata, in dutch.[netzpolitiz-metadaten](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@-oY0QbPi9hkX5zjU7J4Gylqr9w6tbX-BUjpUOBabUvk,EIY8ONv2hGDyxF7zDga9bQxg3hgrfC7KeCNq2GlrAv4,AQACAAE/netzpolitik-metadaten/2) - same article translated to german. License: cc by-nc-sa[Adventures of a Pythonista in Schemeland](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@6OmyqhRT7bmpy0o5mFTCIQdUGBWI~FSBhwJk7wR8vkQ,nEVTgA51HePPvVwU5ZxYspe5gNmNcBfYaZeJGWAZSDc,AQACAAE/adventures-schemeland/0/) - the adventures of a Pythonista in Schemeland: A deep understanding of Scheme for Python users. I learned to love Scheme with this. BSD license.[programming-languages](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@PHlZsmE4hHFqwa19bKqcUus8FLx8bZm8lztl5HrH3~Y,SrN8cGIB5azwp5tTxNdvoNWGa2cm7ta0iwyuhK1YFK0,AQACAAE/programming-languages/2) - The Programming languages lecture. License: cc by-nc-sa[tao of programming](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@j-zM7GyTxi~XExgkgsn0H~6cHnVX50riaIoqmHU4hUI,vsz2NcYcImuntjjP9qWE2T7MB0QCvhdqh1oyvTg66LY,AQACAAE/tao-of-programming/2) - "When you have learned to snatch the error code from the trap frame, it will be time for you to leave." # On the current freenet-meltdown Update (2014-07-23): The fetch-pull graphs look like we have oscillating here. This could mean that this is NOT an attack, but rather the direct effect of the KittyPorn patches: First the good connections get broken. This ruins the network. Then they can’t get any worse and the network recovers. Then they break again. This is still speculative. For an up to date plot, see fetchplots1. Update (2014-05-22): The performance stats are much better again and the link-length distribution recovered. We might have been hit by an attack after all (which failed to take down freenet, but hurt pretty much). With some luck we’ll soon see a paper published with the evaluation of the attack and ways to mitigate it cleanly. (hint to computer scientists: we link to papers from the freenetproject.org website, so if you want to get a small boost for your chances of citation, send the link to your paper to devl@freenetproject.org) Summary: There is a freenet patch floating around which claims to increase performance. The reality is (to our current-knowledge), that it breaks the network as soon as more than a few percent run it. And this is the case, which is why the network is almost completely broken right now. If you run that patch, please get rid of it! Freenet is currently experiencing a meltdown, with extremely slow downloads, high connection churn and lifetimes for bigger files down to about a day. For a visualization, see the fetch-performance in the following graph and take note of the drop at the end. It nicely shows how a bad patch spread while more and more users installed it (hoping for better performance) and slowly killed the network. When that line goes below 50%, bigger files are dead approximately one day after being uploaded. (thanks for these stats goes to fetchpull from digger3) We suspect that patch, because the number of nodes reporting 100 or more connections in the anonymised probe-stats increased a lot over the past few weeks (this is only possible with a patched freenet) and the link-length-distribution almost completely lost a bump it had at 0.004, suggesting that freenet essentially reverted to random routing, while the number of nodes did not change significantly. (thanks for these stats goes to probe stats which operhiem1 implemented in Google Summer of Code 2012) We are working on creating a clean solution. Freesites still work, because the SSK-queue did not get hammered, so if you are a freesite author, please inform your readers about the patch and ask them to get rid of it! In case you use freenet and want information on that patch, please read the note from TheSeeker: ## Information from TheSeeker in IRC (#freenet @ freenode) Recently Kittyporn released an autopatcher-script: CHK@r6dUGAYs2No4lWT3DTkY2dIYdgA-eoBAcU~U-kLU-0I,hxGN5OTN4j~04YnCS4UTflMK4fpW2hfhB58CU1KNRAw,AAMC--8/FNAutoPatch-1.0_by_Kittyporn.rar This increased usage of the patch by probably several hundred nodes, judging by the partial logs from the webserver that we have for fetches of the source tarball. The script stupidly pulls the freenet source from freenetproject.org rather than say, github, or freenet. Really bad for anonymity, but good for tracking. logs only go back a couple weeks, which is why they are incomplete, and we don't know the real number of people that have run it. hard to tell how much less the people that are cheating feel the effects of the whole network collapsing around them. surely can't be long before they too start complaining about speeds given the data retention issues it's causing. NLM was supposed to fix all this shit. :| modified nodes are flooding the network, creating broad backoff issues. this makes routing suffer, and avg path lengths increase, which reduces overall availability of bandwidth and more backoff and more misrouting. Death spiral until we hit some equilibrium that is roughly equal to random routing. essentially what the broken NLM did. thankfully, it is only routing for bulk chk, so it'll still be possible to do some things if forced through the realtime queue... e.g. if we want to deploy an update, and have the constituent blocks actually get routed anywhere near the correct destination... ## Additional comment To do the math: a few hundred users easily equals 10% of the network. No wonder we have a meltdown. and even worse, these few hundred users are likely the high-bandwidth folks with a huge number of connections. Let’s assume that they each have 40 connections while the others have ~10. Every node connected to such an abusive node will essentially be blocked. That’s 100% of the nodes… 40 other nodes wrecked × 10% = ouch! > **Update** (2014-07-23): The fetch-pull graphs look like we have oscillating here. This could mean that this is NOT an attack, but rather the direct effect of the KittyPorn patches: First the good connections get broken. This ruins the network. Then they can’t get any worse and the network recovers. Then they break again. This is still speculative. For an up to date plot, see [fetchplots1](https://d6.gnutella2.info/freenet/USK@sCzfyxndzgtfzoPRUQExz4Y6wNmLDzOpW04umOoIBAk,~X5tIffdcfNWPIKZ2tHgSGPqIk9au31oJ301qB8kTSw,AQACAAE/fetchpull/1228/figure/fetchplots1.png).> **Update** (2014-05-22): The performance stats are [much better again](http://127.0.0.1:8888/freenet:SSK@sCzfyxndzgtfzoPRUQExz4Y6wNmLDzOpW04umOoIBAk,~X5tIffdcfNWPIKZ2tHgSGPqIk9au31oJ301qB8kTSw,AQACAAE/fetchpull-1164/figure/fetchplots.png) and the link-length distribution [recovered](http://127.0.0.1:8888/freenet:SSK@pxtehd-TmfJwyNUAW2Clk4pwv7Nshyg21NNfXcqzFv4,LTjcTWqvsq3ju6pMGe9Cqb3scvQgECG81hRdgj5WO4s,AQACAAE/statistics-504/plot_link_length.png). We might have been **hit by an attack** after all (which **failed to take down freenet**, but hurt pretty much). With some luck we’ll soon see a paper published with the evaluation of the attack and ways to mitigate it cleanly. (hint to computer scientists: we link to papers from the [freenetproject.org](http://freenetproject.org) website, so if you want to get a small boost for your chances of citation, send the link to your paper to devl@freenetproject.org)> *Summary: There is a [freenet](http://freenetproject.org) patch floating around which claims to increase performance. The reality is (to our [current-knowledge](/english/freenet/meltdown-2014-04#explained)), that it breaks the network as soon as more than a few percent run it. And this is the case, which is why the network is almost completely broken right now. __If you run that patch, please get rid of it!__*Freenet is currently experiencing a meltdown, with extremely slow downloads, high connection churn and lifetimes for bigger files down to about a day. For a visualization, see the fetch-performance in the following graph and take note of the drop at the end. It nicely shows how a bad patch spread while more and more users installed it (hoping for better performance) and slowly killed the network. When that line goes below 50%, bigger files are dead approximately one day after being uploaded. AnhangGröße fetchpull-stats-1148-fetchplots1.png43.8 KB probe-stats-489-plot_link_length.png6.67 KB probe-stats-489-plot_peer_count.png7.64 KB probe-stats-489-year_900x300_plot_network_size.png26.24 KB fetchpull-stats-1228-fetchplots1.png46.38 KB # Spread Freenet: A call for action on identi.ca and twitter “Daddy, where were you, when they took the freedom of the press away from the internet?” — Mike Godwin, Electronic Frontier Foundation Reposted from Freetalk, the distributed pseudonymous forum in Freenet. For all those among you, who use twitter1 and/or identi.ca2, this is a call to action. Go to your identi.ca or twitter accounts and post about freenet. Tell us in 140 letters why freenet is your tool of choice, and remember to use the !freenet group (identi.ca) or #freenet hashtag (twitter), so we can resend your posts! I use !freenet because we might soon need it as safe harbour to coordinate the fight against censorship → freenetproject.org !zensur — ArneBab The broader story is the emerging concept of a right to freely exchange arbitrary data — Toad (the main freenet developer) ## Background There are still very many people out there who don’t know what freenet is. Just today a coder came into the #freenet IRC channel, asked what it did and learned that it already does everything he had thought about. And I still remember someone telling me “It would be cool if we had something like X-net from Cory Doctorow’s ‘Little Brother’” — he did not know that freenet already offers that with much improved security. So we need to get the word out about freenet. And we have powerful word to choose from, beginning with Mike Godwin’s cite above but going much further. To just name a few buzz-words: Freenet is a crowdfunded distributed and censorship resistant freesoftware cloud publishing system. And different from info about corporate PR-powered projects, all these buzz words are true. But to make us effective, we need to achieve critical mass. And to reach that, we need to coordinate and cross promote heavily. ## Call to action So I want to call to you to go to your identi.ca or twitter accounts and post about freenet. Tell us in 140 letters why freenet is your tool of choice, and remember to use the !freenet group or #freenet hashtag, so we can find and retweet your posts! If you use identi.ca, join the !freenet group, so you get informed about new freenet-posts automatically. We can make a difference, if we fight together. And if you always wanted to get an identi.ca account, here’s the opportunity to get it and do something good at the same time :) If you already have a twitter-account, you can connect your identi.ca account to your twitter account, then post to identi.ca and have your post forwarded to twitter automatically. ## Additional info Besides: My accounts are: But no need to tell me your account and connect your Freetalk ID with it. Just use identi.ca or twitter and remember to tell your friends to talk about freenet, too (so we can’t find out who read this post and who decided to join in because he learned about the action from a friend). As second line of defense, I also posted this message to my website and hereby allow anyone to reuse it in any form and under any license (up to the example tweets), so I can’t know who saw it here and who saw it elsewhere. I hope I’ll soon see floods of entusiastic tweets and dents about Freenet! ## Some example tweets and/or dents I’ll gladly post and link yours here, if you allow it! !Freenet: #crowdfunded distributed and censorship resistant !freesoftware cloud publishing → http://freenetproject.org — rightful buzz! — ArneBab #imhappiestwhen when the internet is free. I hope it will remain so thanks to projects like #Freenet http://t.co/GMRXmDtGaming4JC #freenet: freedom to publish that you may have to rely on, because censorship and ©ensorship are on the rise — Ixoliva 1. Twitter is a service for sending small text messages to people who “follow” you (up to 140 letters), so it works like a newsticker of journalists. Sadly it is no free software, so you can’t trust them to keep your data or even just the service available. It’s distinctive features are hashtags (#blafoo) for marking and searching messages and retweeting for passing a message on towards people who read your messages. 2. identi.ca is like twitter and offers the same features and a few more advanced ones, but as a decentral free software system where everyone can create his own server and connect it to others. When using identi.ca, you make yourself independent from any single provider and can even run the system yourself. And it is free to stay due to using the AGPL (v3 or later). > “Daddy, where were you, when they took the freedom of the press away from the internet?” — Mike Godwin, [Electronic Frontier Foundation](http://eff.org)*Reposted from Freetalk, the distributed pseudonymous forum in [Freenet](http://freenetproject.org/).*For all those among you, who use twitter[^twitter] and/or identi.ca[^identica], this is a call to action. Go to your identi.ca or twitter accounts and post about freenet. Tell us in 140 letters why freenet is your tool of choice, and remember to use the [!freenet group](http://identi.ca/group/freenet) (identi.ca) or [#freenet hashtag](http://twitter.com/#!/search/%23freenet) (twitter), so we can resend your posts! > I use !freenet because we might soon need it as safe harbour to coordinate the fight against censorship → [freenetproject.org](http://freenetproject.org) !zensur — [ArneBab](http://identi.ca/notice/76274733)> The broader story is the emerging concept of a right to freely exchange *arbitrary data* — Toad (the main freenet developer)[^twitter]: Twitter is a service for sending small text messages to people who “follow” you (up to 140 letters), so it works like a newsticker of journalists. Sadly it is no [free software](http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html), so you can’t trust them to keep your data or even just the service available. It’s distinctive features are hashtags (#blafoo) for marking and searching messages and retweeting for passing a message on towards people who read your messages.[^identica]: [identi.ca](http://identi.ca) is like twitter and offers the same features and a few more advanced ones, but as a decentral free software system where everyone can create his own server and connect it to others. When using identi.ca, you make yourself independent from any single provider and can even run the system yourself. And it is free to stay due to using the AGPL (v3 or later). # USK and Date-Hints: Finding the newest version of a site in Freenet's immutable datastore Freenet provides a global, anonymous datastore where you can upload sites which then work like normal websites. But different from websites, they have a version-number. The reason for this is, that you can only upload to a given key once1. This data then gets stored in the network and is effectively immutable (much like immutable data structures in functional programming). In this model conflicts can arise from uploads of different users and from uploads of different versions of the site. ## Avoid conflicts between users So what if Alice uploads the file gpl.txt, and then Mallory tries to upload it again before users get the upload from Alice? To avoid these conflicts between users, you can upload to an address defined by a key-pair. That key-pair has two keys, a public and a privat one. The URL of the site is derived from the public key. Everyone who has this URL can access the site. The private one allows uploading new data to the site. Only the owner of the private key can upload files to the site. This is the SSK: The Signed Subspace Key. It defines a space in Freenet which only you can update. An SSK looks like this: SSK@[key]/[sitename]/[path/to/file] ## Avoid conflicts between versions But now what if Alice wants to upload a new version of gpl.txt - say GPLv3? To avoid conflicts between different versions, each new version gets a unique identifier. The reason for using version numbers and not some other identifier is historical: To update sites despite not being able to rewrite published data, freenet users started to version their sites by simply appending a number to the name and then adding small images for future versions. If these images showed up, the new version existed.2 Most sites in freenet had a section like this (the images might take a bit to load - they are downloaded from a freenet outproxy):  technophob-116 technophob-117 technophob-118 technophob-119 At some point, the freenet developers decided to integrate that function into freenet. They added a new key-type: The Updatable Subspace Key, in short: USK. A USK looks like this: USK@[key]/[sitename]/[version]/[path/to/file] If you enter a USK, freenet automatically checks for newer versions and then shows you the most recent version of the site. As a practical example: technophob Note that this link will automatically get you to version 117 (or whatever version is the current one when you read this article), even though it has version 116 in its URL. Internally the USK simply gets translated to an SSK in the form of SSK@[key]/[sitename]-[version]/[path/to/file]. You’ll surely recognize the scheme which is used here. This is a prime example of demand-driven development: Users found a way to make sites dynamic with the activelink-hack. Then the Freenet developers added this as official feature. As nice side-effect, the activelink-images stayed with us as part of the Freenet Culture: Almost every site in freenet has a small logo with width and height 108x36 (pixels). ## Date-Hints USKs solved the problem of having updatable sites by checking some versions into the future. But they had a limitation: If your USK-Link was very old, freenet would have to check hundreds or even thousands of URLs to find the newest version. And this would naturally be very, very slow. Due to the distributed nature of Freenet, it is also not possible to just list all files under a given Key. You can only check for directories - the sitenames. Also files in Freenet only stay available when people access them - but checking to see whether some file might still be accessible isn’t a defined problem: The data to that file could be on the computer of someone who is currently offline. When he or she comes online again, the file could suddenly be available, so determining whether a file does not exist isn’t actually possible. A timeline of versions could look like this: 200920102011201220132014 1,2,34,567,8,9,10,11,12,13,141516,17,18 Now imagine that you find a link on a site which was added in 2010. It would for example link to version 4 of the site. If you access this site in 2014, freenet has to check versions 5,6,7,8...18 to find the most recent version. That requires 13 downloads - and for normal freesites the versions can be as high as 1200. But remember that you can upload to arbitrary filenames. So what if the author of the site gave you a hint of the first version in 2014? With that, freenet would only have to start at version 16 - just 3 versions to check, and the hint. Why the first? Remember that files cannot be overwritten, so the author cannot give you the most recent version in 2014. And this is just what the freenet developers did: Date-Hints are simply files in freenet which contain the information about the most recent version of the site at some point in time. The datehint keys look like this: SSK@[key]/[sitename]-DATEHINT-[year] The file found at this key is a simple plain text file with content like the following: HINT 46 2013-7-5  The first line is the identifier, the second is the most recent version at the time of insert (the first version in the year) and the last is the date of the upload of that version. A yearly date-hint speeds up getting the most recent version a lot. But since sites in freenet have hundreds of versions rather then tens, it is a bit too coarse. It can still leave you with 20 or 30 possible new versions. So it actually provides additional date hints on a monthly, weekly and daily basis: • SSK@[key]/[sitename]-DATEHINT-[year] • SSK@[key]/[sitename]-DATEHINT-[year]-WEEK-[week] • SSK@[key]/[sitename]-DATEHINT-[year]-[month] • SSK@[key]/[sitename]-DATEHINT-[year]-[month]-[day] If you give freenet a USK-link, it starts on the order of 10 requests: 4 date hints with the current date and requests for versions following the version in the link. Normally it gets a result in under 10 seconds. ## Conclusion With USKs and Date-Hints Freenet implements updatable sites with acceptable performance in its anonymous datastore with effectively immutable data. If you want to see it for yourself, come to freenetproject.org and install freenet. It’s free software and available for Windows, Linux and MacOSX. 1. If you try to upload to a given key twice, you can get collisions. In that case, it isn’t clear which data a client will retrieve - similar to race conditions in threaded programs. That’s why we do not write to the same key twice in practice (though there is a key-type which can be used for passwords or simple file-names. It is called KSK and was the first key-type freenet provided. That led to wars on overwriting files like gpl.txt - similar to the edit-wars we nowadays get on Wikipedia, but with real anonymity thrown in ☺). [Freenet](/english/freenet) provides a global, anonymous datastore where you can upload sites which then work like normal websites. But different from websites, they have a version-number.The reason for this is, that you can only upload to a given key once[^collisions]. This data then gets stored in the network and is effectively immutable (much like immutable data structures in functional programming). [^collisions]: If you try to upload to a given key twice, you can get collisions. In that case, it isn’t clear which data a client will retrieve - similar to race conditions in threaded programs. That’s why we do not write to the same key twice in practice (though there is a key-type which can be used for passwords or simple file-names. It is called KSK and was the first key-type freenet provided. That led to wars on overwriting files like gpl.txt - similar to the edit-wars we nowadays get on Wikipedia, but with real anonymity thrown in ☺). AnhangGröße technophob-activelink.png5.25 KB freenet-logo.png2.26 KB # What can Freenet do well already? this just happened to me in the #freenet IRC channel at freenode.net (somewhat edited): • toad_1: what can freenet do well already? [18:38] • sharing and retrieving files asynchronously, freemail, IRC2, publishing sites without need of a central server, sharing code repositories [18:39] • I can simply go online, upload a file, send the key to a friend and go offline. the friend can then retrieve the file, even though I am already offline without needing a central server. [18:40] • it might be kinda slow, but it actually makes it easy to publish stuff: via jSite, floghelper and others. [18:42] • floghelper is cool: spam-resistant anonymous blogging without central server • and freereader is, too (even though it needs lots of polish): forward RSS feeds into freenet • you can actually exchange passwords in a safe way via freemail: anonymous email with an intergrated web-interface and imap access. • Justus and me coordinated the upload of the social networking site onto my FTP solely over freemail, and I did not have any fear of eavesdropping - different from any other mail I write. [18:44] … I think I should store this conversation somewhere which I hereby did - I hope you enjoyed this little insight into the #freenet channel :) And if you grew interested, why not install freenet yourself? It only takes a few clicks via webstart and you’re part of the censorship-resistant web. 1. toad alias Matthew Toseland is the main developer of freenet. He tends to see more of the remaining challenges and fewer of the achievements than me - which is a pretty good trait for someone who builds a system to which we might have to entrust our basic right of free speech if the worls goes on like this. From a PR perspective it is a pretty horrible trait, though, because he tends to forget to tell people what freenet can already do well :) 2. To setup the social networking features of Freenet, have a look at the social networking guide *this just happened to me in the #freenet IRC channel at freenode.net (somewhat edited):** > toad_[^toad]: what can freenet do well already? [18:38][^toad]: toad alias Matthew Toseland is the main developer of freenet. He tends to see more of the remaining challenges and fewer of the achievements than me - which is a pretty good trait for someone who builds a system to which we might have to entrust our basic right of free speech if the worls goes on like this. From a PR perspective it is a pretty horrible trait, though, because he tends to forget to tell people what freenet can already do well :)* sharing and retrieving files asynchronously, freemail, IRC[^social], publishing sites without need of a central server, [sharing code repositories](/light/english/freenet-and-why-i-use-it/install-and-setup-infocalypse-gnulinux-script) [18:39][^social]: To setup the social networking features of Freenet, have a look at the [social networking guide](http://freesocial.draketo.de/) # Wrapup: Make Sone scale - fast, anonymous, decentral microblogging over freenet Sone1 allows fast, identi.ca-style microblogging in Freenet. This is my wrapup on a discussion on the steps to take until Sone can become an integral part of Freenet. ## Current state • Is close to realtime. • Downloads all IDs and all their posts and replies → polling which won’t scale; short term local breakage. • Uploads all posts on every update → Can displace lots of content. Effective Size: X*M, X = revisions which did not drop out, M = total number of your messages. Long term self-DDoS of freenet. ## Future • Is close to realtime for those you follow and your usual discussion group. • Uploads only recent posts directly and bundles older posts → much reduced storage need: Effective size: B * Z + Y*M; B = posts per bundle, Z = number of bundles which did not drop out, Y = numbers of not yet bundled messages; Z << Y, B << X, Y << X. • Downloads only the ones you follow + ones you get told about. Telling others means that you need to include info about people you follow, because you only get information from them. ## Telling others about replies, options • Include all replies to anyone which I see in my own Sone → size rises massively, since you include all replies of all people you follow in your own Sone. • Include all IDs from which you saw replies along with the people they replied to → needs to poll more IDs. Optionally forward that info for several hops → for efficient routing it needs knowledge about the full follower topology, which is a privacy risk. • Discovering replies from people you don’t know yet: Add a WoT info: replies. Updated only when you reply to someone you did not reply to before. Poll people’s reply lists based on their WoT rating. Keep a list of people who answered one of your posts and poll these more often. Maybe poll people instantly who solve one of your captchas (your general captcha queue) → new users can enter quickly. When you solve captchas in WoT, preferably solve those from people you follow. → four ways to discover a reply: 1. poll those you follow, 2. poll the people who posted the latest replies to you (your usual discussion-group), 3. poll those who solve one of your captchas (get new people in as fast as possible) and 4. poll the replies-info from everyone with the polling frequency based on their WoT rating. 1. You can find Sone in Freenet using the key USK@nwa8lHa271k2QvJ8aa0Ov7IHAV-DFOCFgmDt3X6BpCI,DuQSUZiI~agF8c-6tjsFFGuZ8eICrzWCILB60nT8KKo,AQACAAE/sone/38/ *Sone[^sone] allows fast, identi.ca-style microblogging in [Freenet](http://freenetproject.org). This is my wrapup on a discussion on the steps to take until Sone can become an integral part of Freenet.*[^sone]: You can find Sone in [Freenet](http://freenetproject.org) using the key USK@nwa8lHa271k2QvJ8aa0Ov7IHAV-DFOCFgmDt3X6BpCI,DuQSUZiI~agF8c-6tjsFFGuZ8eICrzWCILB60nT8KKo,AQACAAE/sone/38/## Current state* Is close to realtime.* Downloads all IDs and all their posts and replies → polling which won’t scale; short term local breakage.* Uploads all posts on every update → Can displace lots of content. Effective Size: X*M, X = revisions which did not drop out, M = total number of your messages. Long term self-DDoS of freenet. # “regarding B.S. like SOPA, PIPA, … freenet seems like a good idea after all!” “Some years ago, I had a look at freenet and wasn't really convinced, now I'm back - a lot has changed, it grew bigger and insanely fast (in freenet terms), like it a lot, maybe this time I'll keep it. Especially regarding B.S. like SOPA, PIPA and other internet-crippling movements, freenet seems like a good idea after all!” — sparky in Sone So, if you know freenet and it did not work out for you in the past, it might be time to give it another try: freenetproject.org This quote just grabbed me, and sparky gave me permission to cite it. > “Some years ago, I had a look at freenet and wasn't really convinced, now I'm back - a lot has changed, it grew bigger and insanely fast (in freenet terms), like it a lot, maybe this time I'll keep it. Especially regarding B.S. like SOPA, PIPA and other internet-crippling movements, [freenet](http://freenetproject.org) seems like a good idea after all!” > — sparky in SoneSo, if you know freenet and it did not work out for you in the past, it might be time to give it another try: [freenetproject.org](http://freenetproject.org) # Mercurial Mercurial is a distributed source control management tool. Mercurial links: - Mercurial Website. - bitbucket.org - Easy repository publishing. - Hg Init - A very nice Mercurial tutorial for newcomers. With it you can save snapshots of your work on documents and go back to these at all times. Also you can easily collaborate with other people and use Mercurial to easily merge your work. Someone changes something in text file you also worked on? No problem. If you didn't work on the same line, you can simply let Mercurial do an automatic merge and your work will be joined. (If you worked on the same line you'll naturally have to select how you want to merge these two changes). It doesn't need a network connection for normal operation, except when you want to push your changes over the internet or pull changes of others from the web, so its commands are very fast. The time to do a commit is barely noticeable which makes atomic commits easy to do. And if you already know subversion, the switch to Mercurial will be mostly painless. But its most important strength is not its speed. It is that Mercurial just works. No hassle with complicated setup. No arcane commands. Almost everything I ever wanted to do with it just worked out of the box, and that's a rare and precious feature today. And to answer a common question: “Once you have learned git well, what use is hg?” — Ross Bartlett in Why Mercurial? • Easier usage (with git I shot myself in the foot quite often. Mercurial just works), accessing both hg and git repos from one ui, Thoroughly planned features. • No need to think that much about the tool. There is a reason why hg users tend to talk less about hg: There is no need to talk about it that much. • Also versioned tags and the option to use persistent branches to make it easier to track why a commit was added later on. • And many great extensions. I wish you much fun with Mercurial! Mercurial is a distributed source control management tool. Mercurial links: - Mercurial Website.- bitbucket.org - Easy repository publishing. - Hg Init - A very nice Mercurial tutorial for newcomers.With it you can save snapshots of your work on documents and go back to these at all times. Also you can easily collaborate with other people and use Mercurial to easily merge your work. # A complete Mercurial branching strategy This is a complete branching strategy for Mercurial with optional adaptions for maintaining multiple releases1. It shows you all the actions you may need to take, except for those already described in the guide Mercurial in workflows. For examples it uses the command-line UI, but it can easily be used with graphical Mercurial interfaces like TortoiseHG. A simpler workflow for groups who need no separate stable branch is described in Feature seperation via named branches. ## Summary Firstoff, any model to be used by people should consist of simple, consistent rules. Programming is complex enough without having to worry about elaborate branching directives. Therefore this model boils down to 3 simple rules: (1) you do all the work on default2 - except for hotfixes. (2) on stable you only do hotfixes, merges for release3 and tagging for release. Only maintainers4 touch stable. (3) you can use arbitrary feature-branches5, as long as you don’t call them default or stable. They always start at default (since you do all the work on default). ### Diagram To visualize the structure, here’s a 3-tiered diagram. To the left are the actions of developers (commits and feature branches) and in the center the tasks for maintainers (release and hotfix). The users to the right just use the stable branch.6 An overview of the branching strategy. Click the image to get the emacs org-mode ditaa-source. ## Table of Contents ## Practial Actions Now we can look at all the actions you will ever need to do in this model:7 • Regular development • commit changes: (edit); hg ci -m "message" • continue development after a release: hg update; (edit); hg ci -m "message" • Feature Branches • start a larger feature: hg branch feature-x; (edit); hg ci -m "message" • continue with the feature: hg update feature-x; (edit); hg ci -m "message" • merge the feature: hg update default; hg merge feature-x; hg ci -m "merged feature x into default" • close and merge the feature when you are done: hg update feature-x; hg ci --close-branch -m "finished feature x"; hg update default; hg merge feature-x; hg ci -m "merged finished feature x into default" • Tasks for Maintainers • Initialize (only needed once) • create the repo: hg init reponame; cd reponame • first commit: (edit); hg ci -m "message" • create the stable branch and do the first release: hg branch stable; hg tag tagname; hg up default; hg merge stable; hg ci -m "merge stable into default: ready for more development" • apply a hotfix8: hg up stable; (edit); hg ci -m "message"; hg up default; hg merge stable; hg ci -m "merge stable into default: ready for more development" • do a release9: hg up stable; hg merge default; hg ci -m "merged default into stable for release" ; hg tag tagname; hg up default ; hg merge stable ; hg ci -m "merged stable into default: ready for more development" ## Example This is the output of a complete example run 10 of the branching model, including all complications you should ever hit. We start with the full history. In the following sections, we will take it apart to see what the commands do. So just take a glance, take in the basic structure and then move on for the details. hg log -G @ changeset: 15:855a230f416f |\ tag: tip | | parent: 13:e7f11bbc756c | | parent: 14:79b616e34057 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:49 2013 +0100 | | summary: merged stable into default: ready for more development | | | o changeset: 14:79b616e34057 |/| branch: stable | | parent: 7:e8b509ebeaa9 | | parent: 13:e7f11bbc756c | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:48 2013 +0100 | | summary: merged default into stable for release | | o | changeset: 13:e7f11bbc756c |\ \ parent: 11:e77a94df3bfe | | | parent: 12:aefc8b3a1df2 | | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:47 2013 +0100 | | | summary: merged finished feature x into default | | | | o | changeset: 12:aefc8b3a1df2 | | | branch: feature-x | | | parent: 9:1dd6209b2a71 | | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:46 2013 +0100 | | | summary: finished feature x | | | o | | changeset: 11:e77a94df3bfe |\| | parent: 10:8c423bc00eb6 | | | parent: 9:1dd6209b2a71 | | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:45 2013 +0100 | | | summary: merged feature x into default | | | o | | changeset: 10:8c423bc00eb6 | | | parent: 8:dc61c2731eda | | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:44 2013 +0100 | | | summary: 3 | | | | o | changeset: 9:1dd6209b2a71 |/ / branch: feature-x | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:43 2013 +0100 | | summary: x | | o | changeset: 8:dc61c2731eda |\| parent: 5:4c57fdadfa26 | | parent: 7:e8b509ebeaa9 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:43 2013 +0100 | | summary: merged stable into default: ready for more development | | | o changeset: 7:e8b509ebeaa9 | | branch: stable | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:42 2013 +0100 | | summary: Added tag v2 for changeset 089fb0af2801 | | | o changeset: 6:089fb0af2801 |/| branch: stable | | tag: v2 | | parent: 4:d987ce9fc7c6 | | parent: 5:4c57fdadfa26 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:41 2013 +0100 | | summary: merge default into stable for release | | o | changeset: 5:4c57fdadfa26 |\| parent: 3:bc625b0bf090 | | parent: 4:d987ce9fc7c6 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:40 2013 +0100 | | summary: merge stable into default: ready for more development | | | o changeset: 4:d987ce9fc7c6 | | branch: stable | | parent: 1:a8b7e0472c5b | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:39 2013 +0100 | | summary: hotfix | | o | changeset: 3:bc625b0bf090 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:38 2013 +0100 | | summary: 2 | | o | changeset: 2:3e8df435bcb0 |\| parent: 0:f97ea6e468a1 | | parent: 1:a8b7e0472c5b | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:38 2013 +0100 | | summary: merged stable into default: ready for more development | | | o changeset: 1:a8b7e0472c5b |/ branch: stable | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:36 2013 +0100 | summary: Added tag v1 for changeset f97ea6e468a1 | o changeset: 0:f97ea6e468a1 tag: v1 user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:36 2013 +0100 summary: 1  ## Action by action Let’s take the log apart to show the actions contributors will do. ### Initialize Initializing and doing the first commit creates the first changeset: o changeset: 0:f97ea6e468a1 tag: v1 user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:36 2013 +0100 summary: 1  Nothing much to see here. Commands: hg init test-branch; cd test-branch (edit); hg ci -m "message"  ### Stable branch and first release We add the first tagging commit on the stable branch as release and merge back into default: o changeset: 2:3e8df435bcb0 |\ parent: 0:f97ea6e468a1 | | parent: 1:a8b7e0472c5b | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:38 2013 +0100 | | summary: merged stable into default: ready for more development | | | o changeset: 1:a8b7e0472c5b |/ branch: stable | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:36 2013 +0100 | summary: Added tag v1 for changeset f97ea6e468a1 | o changeset: 0:f97ea6e468a1 tag: v1 user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:36 2013 +0100 summary: 1  Mind the tag field which is now shown in changeset 0 and the branchname for changeset 1. This is the only release which will ever be on the default branch (because the stable branch only starts to exist after the first commit on it: The commit which adds the tag). Commands: hg branch stable hg tag tagname hg up default hg merge stable hg ci -m "merged stable into default: ready for more development"  ### Further development Now we just chuck along. The one commit shown here could be an arbitrary number of commits. o changeset: 3:bc625b0bf090 | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:38 2013 +0100 | summary: 2 | o changeset: 2:3e8df435bcb0 |\ parent: 0:f97ea6e468a1 | | parent: 1:a8b7e0472c5b | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:38 2013 +0100 | | summary: merged stable into default: ready for more development  Commands: (edit) hg ci -m "message"  ### Hotfix If a hotfix has to be applied to the release out of order, we just update to the stable branch, apply the hotfix and then merge the stable branch into default11. This gives us changesets 4 for the hotfix and 5 for the merge (2 and 3 are shown as reference). o changeset: 5:4c57fdadfa26 |\ parent: 3:bc625b0bf090 | | parent: 4:d987ce9fc7c6 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:40 2013 +0100 | | summary: merge stable into default: ready for more development | | | o changeset: 4:d987ce9fc7c6 | | branch: stable | | parent: 1:a8b7e0472c5b | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:39 2013 +0100 | | summary: hotfix | | o | changeset: 3:bc625b0bf090 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:38 2013 +0100 | | summary: 2 | | o | changeset: 2:3e8df435bcb0 |\| parent: 0:f97ea6e468a1 | | parent: 1:a8b7e0472c5b | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:38 2013 +0100 | | summary: merged stable into default: ready for more development  Commands: hg up stable (edit) hg ci -m "message" hg up default hg merge stable hg ci -m "merge stable into default: ready for more development"  ### Regular release To do a regular release, we just merge the default branch into the stable branch and tag the merge. Then we merge stable back into default. This gives us changesets 6 to 812. The commit-message you use for the merge to stable will become the description for your tag, so you should choose a good description instead of “merge default into stable for release”. Userfriendly, simplified release notes would be a good choice. o changeset: 8:dc61c2731eda |\ parent: 5:4c57fdadfa26 | | parent: 7:e8b509ebeaa9 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:43 2013 +0100 | | summary: merged stable into default: ready for more development | | | o changeset: 7:e8b509ebeaa9 | | branch: stable | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:42 2013 +0100 | | summary: Added tag v2 for changeset 089fb0af2801 | | | o changeset: 6:089fb0af2801 |/| branch: stable | | tag: v2 | | parent: 4:d987ce9fc7c6 | | parent: 5:4c57fdadfa26 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:41 2013 +0100 | | summary: merge default into stable for release | | o | changeset: 5:4c57fdadfa26 |\| parent: 3:bc625b0bf090 | | parent: 4:d987ce9fc7c6 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:40 2013 +0100 | | summary: merge stable into default: ready for more development  Commands: hg up stable hg merge default hg ci -m "merge default into stable for release" hg tag tagname hg up default hg merge stable hg ci -m "merged stable into default: ready for more development"  ### Feature branches Now we want to do some larger development, so we use a feature branch. The one feature-commit shown here (x) could be an arbitrary number of commits, and as long as you stay in your branch, the development of your colleagues will not disturb your own work. Once the feature is finished, we merge it into default. The feature branch gives us changesets 9 to 13 (with 10 being an example for an unrelated intermediate commit on default). o changeset: 13:e7f11bbc756c |\ parent: 11:e77a94df3bfe | | parent: 12:aefc8b3a1df2 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:47 2013 +0100 | | summary: merged finished feature x into default | | | o changeset: 12:aefc8b3a1df2 | | branch: feature-x | | parent: 9:1dd6209b2a71 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:46 2013 +0100 | | summary: finished feature x | | o | changeset: 11:e77a94df3bfe |\| parent: 10:8c423bc00eb6 | | parent: 9:1dd6209b2a71 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:45 2013 +0100 | | summary: merged feature x into default | | o | changeset: 10:8c423bc00eb6 | | parent: 8:dc61c2731eda | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:44 2013 +0100 | | summary: 3 | | | o changeset: 9:1dd6209b2a71 |/ branch: feature-x | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:43 2013 +0100 | summary: x | o changeset: 8:dc61c2731eda |\ parent: 5:4c57fdadfa26 | | parent: 7:e8b509ebeaa9 | | user: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | date: Sat Jan 26 15:39:43 2013 +0100 | | summary: merged stable into default: ready for more development  Commands: • Start the feature hg branch feature-x (edit) hg ci -m "message"  • Do an intermediate commit on default hg update default (edit) hg ci -m "message"  • Continue working on the feature hg update feature-x (edit) hg ci -m "message"  • Merge the feature hg update default hg merge feature-x hg ci -m "merged feature x into default"  • Close and merge a finished feature hg update feature-x hg ci --close-branch -m "finished feature x" hg update default; hg merge feature-x hg ci -m "merged finished feature x into default"  Note: Closing the feature branch hides that branch in the output of hg branches (except when using --closed) to make the repository state lean and simple while still keeping the feature branch information in history. It shows your collegues, that they no longer have to keep the feature in mind as soon as they merge the most recent changes from the default branch into their own feature branches. Note: To make the final merge of your feature into default easier, you can regularly merge the default branch into the feature branch. Note: We use feature branches to ensure that new clones start at a revision which other developers can directly use. With bookmarks you could get trapped on a feature-head which might not be merged to default for quite some time. For more reasons, see the bookmarks footnote. The final action is a regular merge to stable to get into a state from which we could safely do a release. Since we already showed how to do that, we are finished here. ## Extensions This realizes the successful Git branching model13 with Mercurial while maintaining one release at any given time. If you have special needs, this model can easily be extended to fullfill your requirements. Useful extensions include: • multiple releases - if you need to provide maintenance for multiple releases side-by-side. • grafted micro-releases - if you need to segment the next big changes into smaller releases while leaving out some potentially risky changes. • explicit review - if you want to ensure that only reviewed changes can get into a release, while making it possible to leave out some already reviewed changes from the next releases. Review gets decoupled from releasing. All these extensions are orthogonal, so you can use them together without getting side-effects. ### Multiple maintained releases To use the branching model with multiple simultaneously maintained releases, you only need to change the hotfix procedure: When applying a hotfix, you go back to the old release with hg update tagname, fix there, add a new tag for the fixed release and then update to the next release. There you merge the new fix-release and do the same for all other releases. If the most recent release is not the head of the stable branch, you also merge into stable. Then you merge the stable branch into default, as for a normal hotfix.14 With this merge-chain you don’t need special branches for releases, but all changesets are still clearly recorded. This simplification over git is a direct result of having real anonymous branching in Mercurial. hg update release-1.0 (edit) hg ci -m "message" hg tag release-1.1 hg update release-2.0 hg merge release-1.1 hg ci -m "merged changes from release 1.1" hg tag release-2.1 … and so on  In the Diagram this just adds a merge path from the hotfix to the still maintained releases. Note that nothing changed in the workflow of programmers. An overview of the branching strategy with maintained releases. Click the image to get the emacs org-mode ditaa-source. ### Graft changes into micro-releases If you need to test parts of the current development in small chunks, you can graft micro releases. In that case, just update to stable and merge the first revision from default, whose child you do not want, and graft later changes15. Example for the first time you use micro-releases16: You have changes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 on default. First you want to create a release which contains 1 and 4, but not 2, 3 or 5. hg update 1 hg branch stable hg graft 4  As usual tag the release and merge stable back into default: hg tag rel-14 hg update default hg merge stable hg commit -m "merge stable into default. ready for more development"  Example for the second and subsequent releases: Now you want to release the change 2 and 5, but you’re still not ready to release 3. So you merge 2 and graft 5. hg update stable hg merge 2 hg commit -m "merge all changes until 2 from default" hg graft 5  As usual tag the release and finally merge stable back into default: hg tag rel-1245 hg update default hg merge stable hg commit -m "merge stable into default. ready for more development"  The history now looks like this17: @ merge stable into default. ready for more development (default) |\ | o Added tag rel-1245 for changeset 4e889731c6ca (stable) | | | o 5 (stable) | | | o merge all changes until 2 from default (stable) | |\ o---+ merge stable into default. ready for more development (default) | | | | | o Added tag rel-14 for changeset cc2c95dd3f27 (stable) | | | | | o 4 (stable) | | | o | | 5 (default) | | | o | | 4 (default) | | | o | | 3 (default) |/ / o / 2 (default) |/ o 1 (default) | o 0 (default)  In the Diagram this just adds graft commits to stable: An overview of the branching strategy with grafted micro-releases. Click the image to get the emacs org-mode ditaa-source. Grafted micro-releases add another layer between development and releases. They can be necessary in cases where testing requires actually deploying a release, as for example in Freenet. ### Explicit review branch If you want to add a separate review stage, you can use a review branch1819 into which you only merge or graft reviewed changes. The review branch then acts as a staging area for all changes which might go into a release. To use this extension of the branching model, just create a branch on default called review in which you merge or graft reviewed changes. The first time you do that, you update to the first commit whose children you do not want to include. Then create the review branch with hg branch review and use hg graft REV to pull in all changes you want to include. On subsequent reviews, you just update to review with hg update nextrelease, merge the first revision which has a child you do not want with hg merge REV and graft additional later changes with hg graft REV as you would do it for micro-releases.. In both cases you create the release by merging the review branch into stable. A special condition when using a review branch is that you always have to merge hotfixes into the review branch, too, because the review branch does not automatically contain all changes from the default branch. In the Diagram this just adds the review branch between default and stable instead of the release merge. Also it adds the hotfix merge to the review branch. An overview of the branching strategy with a review branch. Click the image to get the emacs org-mode ditaa-source. ## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) ### Where does QA (Quality Assurance) come in? In the default flow when the users directly use the stable branch you do QA on the default branch before merging to stable. QA is a part of the maintainers job, there. If your users want external QA, that QA is done for revisions on the stable branch. It is restricted to signing good revisions. Any changes have to be done on the default branch - except for hotfixes for previously signed releases. It is only a hotfix, if your users could already be running a broken version. There is also an extension with an explicit review branch. There QA is done on the review branch. ## Simple Summary This realizes the successful Git branching model with Mercurial. We now have nice graphs, examples, potential extensions and so on. But since this strategy uses Mercurial instead of git, we don’t actually need all the graphics, descriptions and branch categories in the git version - or in this post. Instead we can boil all of this down to 3 simple rules: (1) you do all the work on default - except for hotfixes. (2) on stable you only do hotfixes, merges for release and tagging for release. Only maintainers touch stable. (3) you can use arbitrary feature-branches, as long as you don’t call them default or stable. They always start at default (since you do all the work on default). They are the rules you already know from the starting summary. Keep them in mind and you’re good to go. And when you’re doing regular development, there is only one rule to remember: You do all the work on default. That’s it. Happy hacking! 1. if you need to maintain multiple very different releases simultanously, see or 20 for adaptions 2. default is the default branch. That’s the named branch you use when you don’t explicitely set a branch. Its alias is the empty string, so if no branch is shown in the log (hg log), you’re on the default branch. Thanks to John for asking! 3. If you want to release the changes from default in smaller chunks, you can also graft specific changes into a release preparation branch and merge that instead of directly merging default into stable. This can be useful to get real-life testing of the distinct parts. For details see the extension Graft changes into micro-releases 4. Maintainers are those who do releases, while they do a release. At any other time, they follow the same patterns as everyone else. If the release tasks seem a bit long, keep in mind that you only need them when you do the release. Their goal is to make regular development as easy as possible, so you can tell your non-releasing colleagues “just work on default and everything will be fine”. 5. This model does not use bookmarks, because they don’t offer benefits which outweight the cost of introducing another concept, and because named branches for feature branches offer the advantage, that new programmers never get the code from a feature-branch when they clone the repository. For local work and small features, bookmarks can be used quite well, though, and since this model does not define their use, it also does not limit it. Additionally bookmarks could be useful for feature branches, if you use many of them (in that case reusing names is a real danger and not just a rare annoyance, and if you have a recent Mercurial, you can use the @ bookmark to signify the entry point for new clones) or if you use release branches: “What are people working on right now?” → hg bookmarks “Which lines of development do we have in the project?” → hg branches 6. Those users who want external verification can restrict themselves to the tagged releases - potentially GPG signed by trusted 3rd-party reviewers. GPG signatures are treated like hotfixes: reviewers sign on stable (via hg sign without options) and merge into default. Signing directly on stable reduces the possibility of signing the wrong revision. 7. hg pull and hg push to transfer changes and hg merge when you have multiple heads on one branch are implied in the actions: you can use any kind of repository structure and synchronization scheme. The practical actions only assume that you synchronize your repositories with the other contributors at some point. 8. Here a hotfix is defined as a fix which must be applied quickly out-of-order, for example to fix a security hole. It prompts a bugfix-release which only contains already stable and tested changes plus the hotfix. 9. If your project needs a certain release preparation phase (like translations), then you can simply assign a task branch. Instead of merging to stable, you merge to the task branch, and once the task is done, you merge the task branch to stable. An Example: Assume that you need to update translations before you release anything. (next part: init: you only need this once) When you want to do the first release which needs to be translated, you update to the revision from which you want to make the release and create the “translation” branch: hg update default; hg branch translation; hg commit -m "prepared the translation branch". All translators now update to the translation branch and do the translations. Then you merge it into stable: hg update stable; hg merge translation; hg ci -m "merged translated source for release". After the release you merge stable back into default as usual. (regular releases) If you want to start translating the next time, you just merge the revision to release into the translation branch: hg update translation; hg merge default; hg commit -m "prepared translation branch". Afterwards you merge “translation” into stable and proceed as usual. 10. To run the example and check the output yourself, just copy-paste the following your shell: LC_ALL=C sh -c 'hg init test-branch; cd test-branch; echo 1 > 1; hg ci -Am 1; hg branch stable; hg tag v1 ; hg up default; hg merge stable; hg ci -m "merged stable into default: ready for more development"; echo 2 > 2; hg ci -Am 2; hg up stable; echo 1.1 > 1; hg ci -Am hotfix; hg up default; hg merge stable; hg ci -m "merge stable into default: ready for more development"; hg up stable; hg merge default; hg ci -m "merge default into stable for release" ; hg tag v2; hg up default ; hg merge stable ; hg ci -m "merged stable into default: ready for more development" ; hg branch feature-x; echo x > x ; hg ci -Am x; hg up default; echo 3 > 3; hg ci -Am 3; hg merge feature-x; hg ci -m "merged feature x into default"; hg update feature-x; hg ci --close-branch -m "finished feature x"; hg update default; hg merge feature-x; hg ci -m "merged finished feature x into default"; hg up stable ; hg merge default; hg ci -m "merged default into stable for release"; hg up default; hg merge stable ; hg ci -m "merged stable into default: ready for more development"; hg log -G' 11. We merge the hotfix into default to define the relevance of the fix for general development. If the hotfix also affects the current line of development, we keep its changes in the merge. If the current line of development does not need the hotfix, we discard its changes in the merge. We do this to ensure that it is clear in future how to treat the hotfix when merging new changes: let the merge record the decision. 12. We can also merge to stable regularly as soon as some set of changes is considered stable, but without making an actual release (==tagging). That way we always have a stable branch which people can test without having to create releases right away. The releases are those changesets on the stable branch which carry a tag. 13. If you look at the Git branching model which inspired this Mercurial branching model, you’ll note that its diagram is a lot more complex than the diagram of this Mercurial version. The reason for that is the more expressive history model of Mercurial. In short: The git version has 5 types of branches: feature, develop, release, hotfix and master (for tagging). With Mercurial you can reduce them to 3: default, stable and feature branches: • Tags are simple in-history objets, so we need no special branch for them: a tag signifies a release (down to 4 branch-types - and no more duplication of information, since in the git-model a release is shown by a tag and a merge to master). • Hotfixes are simple commits on stable followed by a merge to default, so we also need no branch for them (down to 3 branch-types). And if we only maintain one release at a time, we only need one branch for them: stable (down from branch-type to single branch). • And feature branches are not required for clean separation since mercurial can easily cope with multiple heads in a branch, so developers only have to worry about them if they want to use them (down to 2 mandatory branches). • And since the default branch is the branch to which you update automatically when you clone a repository, new developers don’t have to worry about branches at all. So we get down from 5 mandatory branches (2 of them are categories containing multiple branches) to 2 simple branches without losing functionality. And new developers only need to know two things about our branching model to contribute: “If you use feature branches, don’t call them default or stable. And don’t touch stable”. 14. Merging old releases into new ones sounds like a lot of work. If you get that feeling, then have a look how many releases you really maintain right now. In my Gentoo tree most programs actually have only one single release, so using actual release branches would incur an additional burden without adding real value. You can also look at the rule of thumb whether to choose feature branches instead 15. If you want to make sure that every changeset on stable is production-ready, you can also start a new release-branch on stable, then merge the first revision, whose child you do not want, into that branch and graft additional changes. Then close the branch and merge it into stable. You can achieve the same with much lower overhead (unneeded complexity) by changing the requirement to “every tagged revision on stable is production-ready”. To only see tagged revisions on stable, just use hg log -r "branch(stable) and tag()". This also works for incoming and outgoing, so you can use it for triggering a build system. 16. To test this workflow yourself, just create the test repository with hg init 12345; cd 12345; for i in {0..5}; do echo$i > $i; hg ci -Am$i; done

17. The short graphlog for the grafted micro-releases was created via hg glog --template "{desc} ({branch})"

18. The review branch is a special preparation-branch, because it can get discontinous changes, if maintainers decide to graft some changes which have ancestors they did not review yet.

19. We use one single review branch which gets reused at every review to ensure that there are no changes in stable which we did not have in the review. As alternative, you could use one branch per review. In that case, ensure that you start the review-* branches from stable and not from default. Then merge and graft the changes from default which you want to review for inclusion in your next release.

20. If you want to adapt the model to multiple very distinct releases, simply add multiple release-branches (i.e. release-x). Then hg graft the changes you want to use from default or stable into the releases and merge the releases into stable to ensure that the relationship of their changes to current changes is clear, recorded and will be applied automatically by Mercurial in future merges21. If you use multiple tagged releases, you need to merge the releases into each other in order - starting from the oldest and finishing by merging the most recent one into stable - to record the same information as with release branches. Additionally it is considered impolite to other developers to keep multiple heads in one branch, because with multiple heads other developers do not know the canonical tip of the branch which they should use to make their changes - or in case of stable, which head they should merge to for preparing the next release. That’s why you are likely better off creating a branch per release, if you want to maintain many very different releases for a long time. If you only use tags on stable for releases, you need one merge per maintained release to create a bugfix version of one old release. By adding release branches, you reduce that overhead to one single merge to stable per affected release by stating clearly, that changes to old versions should never affect new versions, except if those changes are explicitely merged into the new versions. If the bugfix affects all releases, release branches require two times as many actions as tagged releases, though: You need to graft the bugfix into every release and merge the release into stable.22

21. If for example you want to ignore that change to an old release for new releases, you simply merge the old release into stable and use hg revert --all -r stable before committing the merge.

22. A rule of thumb for deciding between tagged releases and release branches is: If you only have a few releases you maintain at the same time, use tagged releases. If you expect that most bugfixes will apply to all releases, starting with some old release, just use tagged releases. If bugfixes will only apply to one release and the current development, use tagged releases and merge hotfixes only to stable. If most bugfixes will only apply to one release and not to the current development, use release branches.

*This is a complete branching strategy for [Mercurial](http://mercurial.selenic.com) with optional adaptions for maintaining multiple releases[^maintain-multiple]. It shows you all the actions you may need to take, except for those already described in the guide [Mercurial in workflows](http://mercurial.selenic.com/guide).**For examples it uses the command-line UI, but it can easily be used with graphical Mercurial interfaces like [TortoiseHG](http://tortoisehg.bitbucket.org).**A simpler workflow for groups who need no separate stable branch is described in [Feature seperation via named branches](/light/english/mercurial/feature-seperation-via-named-branches).*[^maintain-multiple]: if you need to maintain multiple very different releases simultanously, see [⁰](#multiple-releases) or [^onerelease] for adaptions[^onerelease]: If you want to adapt the model to multiple very distinct releases, simply add multiple release-branches (i.e. release-x). Then hg graft the changes you want to use from default or stable into the releases and merge the releases into stable to ensure that the relationship of their changes to current changes is clear, recorded and will be applied automatically by Mercurial in future merges[^relationship]. If you use multiple tagged releases, you need to merge the releases into each other in order - starting from the oldest and finishing by merging the most recent one into stable - to record the same information as with release branches. Additionally it is considered impolite to other developers to keep multiple heads in one branch, because with multiple heads other developers do not know the canonical tip of the branch which they should use to make their changes - or in case of stable, which head they should merge to for preparing the next release. That’s why you are likely better off creating a branch per release, if you want to maintain many very different releases for a long time. If you only use tags on stable for releases, you need one merge per maintained release to create a bugfix version of one old release. By adding release branches, you reduce that overhead to one single merge to stable per affected release by stating clearly, that changes to old versions should never affect new versions, except if those changes are explicitely merged into the new versions. If the bugfix affects all releases, release branches require two times as many actions as tagged releases, though: You need to graft the bugfix into every release and merge the release into stable.[^thumb][^thumb]: A rule of thumb for deciding between tagged releases and release branches is: If you only have a few releases you maintain at the same time, use tagged releases. If you expect that most bugfixes will apply to all releases, starting with some old release, just use tagged releases. If bugfixes will only apply to one release and the current development, use tagged releases and merge hotfixes only to stable. If most bugfixes will only apply to one release *and not to the current development*, use release branches. [^relationship]: If for example you want to ignore that change to an old release for new releases, you simply merge the old release into stable and use hg revert --all -r stable before committing the merge. ## Summary*Firstoff, any model to be used by people should consist of simple, consistent rules. Programming is complex enough without having to worry about elaborate branching directives. Therefore this model boils down to 3 simple rules:*> (1) you do all the work on default[^default] - except for hotfixes.> (2) on stable you only do hotfixes, merges for release[^graft] and tagging for release. Only maintainers[^maintainers] touch stable.> (3) you can use arbitrary feature-branches[^bookmarks], as long as you don’t call them default or stable. They always start at default (since you do all the work on default).[^default]: default is the default branch. That’s the named branch you use when you don’t explicitely set a branch. Its alias is the empty string, so if no branch is shown in the log (hg log), you’re on the default branch. *Thanks to John for asking!*[^graft]: If you want to release the changes from default in smaller chunks, you can also graft specific changes into a release preparation branch and merge that instead of directly merging default into stable. This can be useful to get real-life testing of the distinct parts. For details see the extension [Graft changes into micro-releases](#graft-releases). [^bookmarks]: This model does not use bookmarks, because they don’t offer benefits which outweight the cost of introducing another concept, and because named branches for feature branches offer the advantage, that new programmers never get the code from a feature-branch when they clone the repository. For local work and small features, bookmarks can be used quite well, though, and since this model does not define their use, it also does not limit it. Additionally bookmarks could be useful for feature branches, if you use many of them (in that case reusing names is a real danger and not just a rare annoyance, and if you have a recent Mercurial, you can use the @ bookmark to signify the entry point for new clones) or if you use release branches: “What are people working on right now?” → hg bookmarks “Which lines of development do we have in the project?” → hg branches### DiagramTo visualize the structure, here’s a 3-tiered diagram. To the left are the actions of developers (commits and feature branches) and in the center the tasks for maintainers (release and hotfix). The users to the right just use the stable branch.[^verification][^verification]: Those users who want external verification can restrict themselves to the tagged releases - potentially [GPG signed](http://mercurial.selenic.com/wiki/GpgExtension) by trusted 3rd-party reviewers. GPG signatures are treated like hotfixes: reviewers sign on stable (via hg sign without options) and merge into default. Signing directly on stable reduces the possibility of signing the wrong revision..content img {max-width: 100%}> [![Overview Diagram](/files/hgbranchingoverview_2.png)](/files/2012-09-03-Mo-hg-branching-diagrams_13.org) > An overview of the branching strategy. Click the image to get the [emacs](/light/english/emacs) [org-mode](http://orgmode.org) [ditaa](http://ditaa.sourceforge.net/)-source.## Table of Contents* [Summary](#executive) * [Diagram](#diagram)* [Practical Actions](#actions) * [Regular development](#action-devel) * [Feature branches](#action-feature) * [Tasks for maintainers](#action-maintainer)* [Example](#example) * [Initialize](#init) * [Stable branch and first release](#stable) * [Further development](#commit) * [Hotfix](#hotfix) * [Regular release](#release) * [Feature branches](#feature-branches)* [Extensions](#extensions) * [multiple maintained releases](#multiple-releases) * [Graft changes into micro releases](#graft-releases) * [Explicit review branch](#review-branch)* [Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)](#faq) * [Where does QA (Quality Assurance) come in?](#faq-qa)* [Summary](#summary)## Practial ActionsNow we can look at all the actions you will ever need to do in this model:[^pullpush] [^pullpush]: hg pull and hg push to transfer changes and hg merge when you have multiple heads on one branch are implied in the actions: you can use any kind of repository structure and synchronization scheme. The practical actions only assume that you synchronize your repositories with the other contributors at some point.* **Regular development** - commit changes: (edit); hg ci -m "message" - continue development after a release: hg update; (edit); hg ci -m "message"* **Feature Branches** - start a larger feature: hg branch feature-x; (edit); hg ci -m "message" - continue with the feature: hg update feature-x; (edit); hg ci -m "message" - merge the feature: hg update default; hg merge feature-x; hg ci -m "merged feature x into default" - close and merge the feature when you are done: hg update feature-x; hg ci --close-branch -m "finished feature x"; hg update default; hg merge feature-x; hg ci -m "merged finished feature x into default"* **Tasks for Maintainers** - *Initialize (only needed once)* * create the repo: hg init reponame; cd reponame * first commit: (edit); hg ci -m "message" * create the stable branch and do the first release: hg branch stable; hg tag tagname; hg up default; hg merge stable; hg ci -m "merge stable into default: ready for more development" - apply a hotfix[^hotfix]: hg up stable; (edit); hg ci -m "message"; hg up default; hg merge stable; hg ci -m "merge stable into default: ready for more development" - do a release[^release-preparation]: hg up stable; hg merge default; hg ci -m "merged default into stable for release" ; hg tag tagname; hg up default ; hg merge stable ; hg ci -m "merged stable into default: ready for more development"[^hotfix]: Here a hotfix is defined as a fix which must be applied quickly out-of-order, for example to fix a security hole. It prompts a bugfix-release which only contains already stable and tested changes plus the hotfix.[^maintainers]: Maintainers are those who do releases, while they do a release. At any other time, they follow the same patterns as everyone else. If the release tasks seem a bit long, keep in mind that you only need them when you do the release. Their goal is to make regular development as easy as possible, so you can tell your non-releasing colleagues “just work on default and everything will be fine”.[^release-preparation]: If your project needs a certain **release preparation phase** (like translations), then you can simply assign a task branch. Instead of merging to stable, you merge to the task branch, and once the task is done, you merge the task branch to stable. An Example: Assume that you need to update *translations* before you release anything. *(next part: init: you only need this once)* When you want to do the *first release* which needs to be translated, you update to the revision from which you want to make the release and create the “translation” branch: hg update default; hg branch translation; hg commit -m "prepared the translation branch". All translators now update to the translation branch and do the translations. Then you merge it into stable: hg update stable; hg merge translation; hg ci -m "merged translated source for release". After the release you merge stable back into default as usual. *(regular releases)* If you want to start translating the next time, you just merge the revision to release into the translation branch: hg update translation; hg merge default; hg commit -m "prepared translation branch". Afterwards you merge “translation” into stable and proceed as usual.
AnhangGröße
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# A short introduction to Mercurial with TortoiseHG (GNU/Linux and Windows)

Note: This tutorial is for the old TortoiseHG (with gtk interface). The new one works a bit differently (and uses Qt). See the official quick start guide. The right-click menus should still work similar to the ones described here, though.

After installing TortoiseHG, you can download a repository to your computer by right-clicking in a folder and selecting the menu "TortoiseHG" and then "Clone" in there (currently you still need Windows for that - all other dialogs can be evoked in GNU/Linux on the commandline via "hgtk").

Create Clone, GNU/Linux:

In the dialog you just enter the url of the repository, for example:

http://www.bitbucket.org/ArneBab/md-esw-2009

(that's also the address of the repository in the internet - just try clicking the link.

When you log in to bitbucket.org you will find a clone-address directly on the site. You can also use that clone address to upload changes (it contains your login-name, and I can give you "push" access on that site).

## Workflow with TortoiseHG

This gives you two basic abilities:

• Save and view changes locally, and
• synchronize changes with others.

(I assume that part of what I say is redundant, but I'd rather write a bit too much than omit a crucial bit)

To save changes, you can simlply select "HG Commit" in the right-click-menu. If some of your files aren't known to HG yet (the box before the file isn't ticked), you have to add them (tick the box) to be able to commit them.

To go back to earlier changes, you can use "Checkout Revision" in the "TortoiseHG" menu. In that dialog you can then select the revision you want to see and use the icon on the upper left to get all files to that revision.

You can synchronize by right-clicking in the folder and selecting "Synchronize" in the "TortoiseHG" menu (inside the right-click menu). In the opening dialog you can "push" (upload changes - arrow up with the bar above it), "pull" (download changes to your computer - arrow down with bar below), and check what you would pull or push (arrows iwthout bars). I thing that using dialog will soon became second nature for you, too :)

Have fun with TortoiseHG! :) - Arne

PS: There's also a longer intro to TortoiseHG and an overview to DVCS.

PPS: md-esw-2009 is a repository in which Baddok and I planned a dual-gm roleplaying session Mechanical Dream.

PPPS: There's also a german version of this article on my german pages.

**Note**: This tutorial is for the old TortoiseHG (with gtk interface). The new one works a bit differently (and uses Qt). See the [official quick start guide](http://tortoisehg.bitbucket.org/manual/2.9/quick.html). The right-click menus should still work similar to the ones described here, though.## Downloading the Repository After installing [TortoiseHG][], you can download a repository to your computer by right-clicking in a folder and selecting the menu "**TortoiseHG**" and then "**Clone**" in there (currently you still need Windows for that - all other dialogs can be evoked in GNU/Linux on the commandline via "*hgtk*"). [TortoiseHG]: http://tortoisehg.sf.net "TortoiseHG integrates the free version control system Mercurial directly into the explorer."Right-Click menu, Windows: ![Right-click-Menu](http://tortoisehg.bitbucket.org/manual/0.9/_images/cmenu-nofiles.jpg)

# Basic usecases for DVCS: Workflow Failures

If you came here searching for a way to set the username in Mercurial: just edit $HOME/.hgrc and add [ui] username = YOURNAME <EMAIL> If that file does not exist, simply create it. Update (2013-04-18): In #mercurial @ irc.freenode.net there were discussions yesterday for improving the help output if you do not have your username setup, yet. ## 1 Intro I recently tried contributing to a new project again, and I was quite surprised which hurdles can be in your way, when you did not setup your environment, yet. So I decided to put together a small test for the basic workflow: Cloning a project, doing and testing a change and pushing it back. I did that for Git and Mercurial, because both break at different points. I’ll express the basic usecase in Subversion: • svn checkout [project] • (hack, test, repeat) • (request commit rights) • svn commit -m "added X" You can also replace the request for commit rights with creating a patch and sending it to a mailing list. But let’s take the easiest case of a new contributor who is directly welcomed into the project as trusted committer. A slightly more advanced workflow adds testing in a clean tree. In Subversion it looks almost like the simple commit: ## 2Git Let’s start with Linus’ DVCS. And since we’re using a DVCS, let’s also try it out in real life ### 2.1 Setup the test LC_ALL=C LANG=C PS1="$"
rm -rf /tmp/gitflow > /dev/null
mkdir -p /tmp/gitflow > /dev/null
cd /tmp/gitflow > /dev/null
# init the repo
git init orig  > /dev/null
cd orig > /dev/null
echo 1 > 1
git config user.name upstream > /dev/null
git config user.email up@stream > /dev/null
git commit -m 1 > /dev/null
# checkout another branch but master. YES, YOU SHOULD DO THAT on the shared repo. We’ll see later, why.
git checkout -b never-pull-this-temporary-useless-branch master 2> /dev/null
cd .. > /dev/null
echo # purely cosmetic and implementation detail: this adds a new line to the output
ls

wolf, n.:
A man who knows all the ankles.
arne@fluss ~/.emacs.d/private/journal $arne@fluss ~/.emacs.d/private/journal$ 
orig

git --version


git version 1.8.1.5


### 2.2 Simplest case

#### 2.2.1 Get the repo

First I get the repo

git clone orig mine
echo $ls ls  Cloning into 'mine'... done.$ ls
mine  orig


#### 2.2.2 Hack a bit

cd mine
echo 2 > 1
git commit -m "hack"


$# On branch master Changes not staged for commit: (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) modified: 1 no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")  ARGL… but let’s paste the commands into the shell. I do not use –global, since I do not want to shoot my test environment here. git config user.name "contributor" git config user.email "con@tribut.or"  and try again git commit -m "hack"   On branch master Changes not staged for commit: (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) modified: 1 no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")  ARGL… well, paste it in again… git add 1 git commit -m "hack"   [master aba911a] hack 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)  Finally I managed to commit my file. Now, let’s push it back. #### 2.2.3 Push it back git push  warning: push.default is unset; its implicit value is changing in Git 2.0 from 'matching' to 'simple'. To squelch this message and maintain the current behavior after the default changes, use: git config --global push.default matching To squelch this message and adopt the new behavior now, use: git config --global push.default simple See 'git help config' and search for 'push.default' for further information. (the 'simple' mode was introduced in Git 1.7.11. Use the similar mode 'current' instead of 'simple' if you sometimes use older versions of Git) Counting objects: 5, done. (1/3) Writing objects: 66% (2/3) Writing objects: 100% (3/3) Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 222 bytes, done. Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0) To /tmp/gitflow/orig master  HA! It’s in. #### 2.2.4 Overview In short the required commands look like this: • git clone orig mine • cd mine; (hack) • git config user.name "contributor" • git config user.email "con@tribut.or" • git add 1 • git commit -m "hack" • (request permission to push) • git push compare Subversion: Now let’s see what that initial setup with setting a non-master branch was about… ### 2.3 With testing #### 2.3.1 Test something I want to test a change and ensure, that it works with a fresh clone. So I just clone my local repo and commit there. cd .. git clone mine test cd test # setup the user locally again. Normally you do not need that again, since you’d use --global. git config user.email "contributor" git config user.name "con@tribut.or" # hack and commit echo test > 1 git add 1 echo # cosmetic git commit -m "change to test" >/dev/null # (run the tests)  #### 2.3.2 Push it back git push  warning: push.default is unset; its implicit value is changing in Git 2.0 from 'matching' to 'simple'. To squelch this message and maintain the current behavior after the default changes, use: git config --global push.default matching To squelch this message and adopt the new behavior now, use: git config --global push.default simple See 'git help config' and search for 'push.default' for further information. (the 'simple' mode was introduced in Git 1.7.11. Use the similar mode 'current' instead of 'simple' if you sometimes use older versions of Git) Counting objects: 5, done. (1/3) Writing objects: 66% (2/3) Writing objects: 100% (3/3) Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 234 bytes, done. Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0) remote: error: refusing to update checked out branch: refs/heads/master remote: error: By default, updating the current branch in a non-bare repository remote: error: is denied, because it will make the index and work tree inconsistent remote: error: with what you pushed, and will require 'git reset --hard' to match remote: error: the work tree to HEAD. remote: error: remote: error: You can set 'receive.denyCurrentBranch' configuration variable to remote: error: 'ignore' or 'warn' in the remote repository to allow pushing into remote: error: its current branch; however, this is not recommended unless you remote: error: arranged to update its work tree to match what you pushed in some remote: error: other way. remote: error: remote: error: To squelch this message and still keep the default behaviour, set remote: error: 'receive.denyCurrentBranch' configuration variable to 'refuse'. To /tmp/gitflow/mine master (branch is currently checked out) error: failed to push some refs to '/tmp/gitflow/mine'  Uh… what? If I were a real first time user, at this point I would just send a patch… The simple local test clone does not work: You actually have to also checkout a different branch if you want to be able to push back (needless duplication of information - and effort). And it actually breaks this simple workflow. (experienced git users will now tell me that you should always checkout a work branch. But that would mean that I would have to add the additional branching step to the simplest case without testing repo, too, raising the bar for contribution even higher) git checkout -b testing master git push ../mine testing  Switched to a new branch 'testing' Counting objects: 5, done. (1/3)  Writing objects: 66% (2/3) Writing objects: 100% (3/3) Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 234 bytes, done. : Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0) : To ../mine : testing Since I only pushed to mine, I now have to go there, merge and push. cd ../mine git merge testing git push  Updating aba911a..820dea8 Fast-forward 1 | 2 +- 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-) warning: push.default is unset; its implicit value is changing in Git 2.0 from 'matching' to 'simple'. To squelch this message and maintain the current behavior after the default changes, use: git config --global push.default matching To squelch this message and adopt the new behavior now, use: git config --global push.default simple See 'git help config' and search for 'push.default' for further information. (the 'simple' mode was introduced in Git 1.7.11. Use the similar mode 'current' instead of 'simple' if you sometimes use older versions of Git) Counting objects: 5, done. (1/3) Writing objects: 66% (2/3) Writing objects: 100% (3/3) Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 234 bytes, done. Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0) To /tmp/gitflow/orig master  #### 2.3.3 Overview In short the required commands for testing look like this: • git clone mine test • cd test; (hack) • git add 1 • git checkout -b testing master • git commit -m "hack" • git push ../mine testing • cd ../mine • git merge testing • git push Compare to Subversion ### 2.4 Wrapup The git workflows broke at several places: Simplest: • Set the username (minor: it’s just pasting shell commands) • Add every change (==staging. Minor: paste shell commands again - or use commit -a) Testing clone (only additional breakages): • Cannot push to the local clone (major: it spews about 20 lines of error messages which do not tell me how to actually get my changes into the local clone) • Have to use a temporary branch in a local clone to be able to push back (annoyance: makes using clean local clones really annoying). ## 3Mercurial Now let’s try the same ### 3.1 Setup the test LC_ALL=C LANG=C PS1="$"
rm -rf /tmp/hgflow > /dev/null
mkdir -p /tmp/hgflow > /dev/null
cd /tmp/hgflow > /dev/null
# init the repo
hg init orig  > /dev/null
cd orig > /dev/null
echo 1 > 1 > /dev/null
hg commit -u upstream -m 1 > /dev/null
cd .. >/dev/null
echo # purely cosmetic and implementation detail: this adds a new line to the output
ls

The most happy marriage I can imagine to myself would be the union
of a deaf man to a blind woman.
-- Samuel Taylor Coleridge
arne@fluss ~/.emacs.d/private/journal $arne@fluss ~/.emacs.d/private/journal$ 
orig

hg --version


Mercurial Distributed SCM (version 2.5.2)

Copyright (C) 2005-2012 Matt Mackall and others
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


### 3.2 Simplest case

#### 3.2.1 Get the repo

hg clone orig mine
echo $ls ls  updating to branch default 1 files updated, 0 files merged, 0 files removed, 0 files unresolved$ ls
mine  orig


#### 3.2.2 Hack a bit

cd mine
echo 2 > 1
echo
# I disable the username to show the problem
hg --config ui.username= commit -m "hack"


abort: no username supplied (see "hg help config")


ARGL, what???

Well, let’s do what it says (but only see the first 30 lines to avoid blowing up this example):

hg help config | head -n 30 | grep -B 3 -A 1 per-repository

These files do not exist by default and you will have to create the
appropriate configuration files yourself: global configuration like the
USERPROFILE%\mercurial.ini" or
HOME/.hgrc" and local configuration is put into the per-repository
/.hg/hgrc" file.


Are you serious??? I have to actually read a guide just to commit my change??? As normal user this would tip my frustration with the tool over the edge and likely get me to just send a patch…

But I am no normal user, since I want to write this guide. So I assume a really patient user, who does the following (after reading for 3 minutes):

echo '[ui]


and tries again:

hg commit -m "hack"


Now it worked. But this is MAJOR BREAKAGE.

#### 3.2.3 Push it back

hg push

pushing to /tmp/hgflow/orig
searching for changes
added 1 changesets with 1 changes to 1 files


Done. This was easy, and I did not get yelled at (different from the experience with git :) ).

#### 3.2.4 Overview

In short the required commands look like this:

• hg clone orig mine
• cd mine; (hack)
• hg help config ; (read) ; echo '[ui]

username = "contributor"' >> .hg/hgrc (are you serious?)

• hg commit -m "hack"
• (request permission to push)
• hg push

Compare to Subversion

and to git

### 3.3 With testing

#### 3.3.1 Test something

cd ..
hg clone mine test
cd test
# setup the user locally again. Normally you do not need that again, since you’d use --global.
echo '[ui]
# hack and commit
echo test > 1
echo # cosmetic
hg commit -m "change to test"
# (run the tests)


updating to branch default
1 files updated, 0 files merged, 0 files removed, 0 files unresolved
$$>$$$ #### 3.3.2 Push it back hg push  pushing to /tmp/hgflow/mine searching for changes adding changesets adding manifests adding file changes added 1 changesets with 1 changes to 1 files  It’s in mine now, but I still need to push it from there. cd ../mine hg push   pushing to /tmp/hgflow/orig searching for changes adding changesets adding manifests adding file changes added 1 changesets with 1 changes to 1 files  Done. If I had worked on mine in the meantime, I would have to merge there, too - just as with git with the exception that I would not have to give a branch name. But since we’re in the simplest case, we don’t need to do that. #### 3.3.3 Overview In short the required commands for testing look like this: • hg clone mine test • cd test; (hack) • hg commit -m "hack" • hg push ../mine • cd ../mine • hg push Compare to Subversion and to git ### 3.4 Wrapup The Mercurial workflow broke only ONCE, but there it broke HARD: To commit you actually have to READ THE HELP PAGE on config to find out how to set your username. So, to wrap it up: ARE YOU SERIOUS? That’s a really nice workflow, disturbed by a devastating user experience for just one of the commands. This is a place where hg should learn from git: The initial setup must be possible from the commandline, without reading a help page and without changing to an editor and then back into the commandline. ## 4 Summary • Git broke at several places, and in one place it broke hard: Pushing between local clones is a huge hassle, even though that should be a strong point of DVCSs. • Mercurial broke only once, but there it broke hard: Setting the username actually requires reading help output and hand-editing a text file. Also the workflows for a user who gets permission to push always required some additional steps compared to Subversion. One of the additional steps cannot be avoided without losing offline-commits (which are a major strength of DVCS), because those make it necessary to split svn commit into commit and push: That separates storing changes from sharing them. But git actually requires additional steps which are only necessary due to implementation details of its storage layer: Pushing to a repo with the same branch checked out is not allowed, so you have to create an additional branch in your local clone and merge it in the other repo, even if all your changes are siblings of the changes in the other repository, and it requires either a flag to every commit command or explicit adding of changes. That does not amount to the one unavoidable additional command, but actually further three commands, so the number of commands to get code, hack on it and share it increases from 5 to 9. And if you work in a team where people trust you to write good code, that does not actually reduce the required effort to share your changes. On the other hand, both Mercurial and Git allow you to work offline, and you can do as many testing steps in between as you like, without needing to get the changes from the server every time (because you can simply clone a local repo for that). ### 4.1 Visually #### 4.1.1 Subversion #### 4.1.2 Mercurial #### 4.1.3 Git Date: 2013-04-17T20:39+0200 Org version 7.9.2 with Emacs version 24 Validate XHTML 1.0 > *If you came here searching for a way to **set the username** in Mercurial: just **edit $HOME/.hgrc** and add* &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[ui] &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;username = YOURNAME  *If that file does not exist, simply create it.*> **Update** (2013-04-18): In [#mercurial @ irc.freenode.net](http://webchat.freenode.net?randomnick=1&channels=%23mercurial) there were discussions yesterday for improving the help output if you do not have your username setup, yet.1 IntroI recently tried contributing to a new project again, and I was quite surprised which hurdles can be in your way, when you did not setup your environment, yet.So I decided to put together a small test for the basic workflow: Cloning a project, doing and testing a change and pushing it back.I did that for Git and Mercurial, because both break at different points.I’ll express the basic usecase in Subversion:svn checkout [project](hack, test, repeat)(request commit rights)svn commit -m "added X"You can also replace the request for commit rights with creating a patch and sending it to a mailing list. But let’s take the easiest case of a new contributor who is directly welcomed into the project as trusted committer.A slightly more advanced workflow adds testing in a clean tree. In Subversion it looks almost like the simple commit:
AnhangGröße
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# Creating nice logs with revsets in Mercurial

In the mercurial list Stanimir Stamenkov asked how to get rid of intermediate merges in the log to simplify reading the history (and to not care about missing some of the details).

Update: Since Mercurial 2.4 you can simply use
hg log -Gr "branchpoint()"

I did some tests for that and I think the nicest representation I found is this:

hg log -Gr "(all() - merge()) or head()"


This article shows examples for this. To find more revset options, run hg help revsets.

## The result

It showed that in the end the revisions converged again - and it shows the actual states of the development.

$hg log -Gr "(all() - merge()) or head()" @ Änderung: 7:52fe4a8ec3cc |\ Marke: tip | | Vorgänger: 6:7d3026216270 | | Vorgänger: 5:848c390645ac | | Nutzer: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | Datum: Tue Aug 14 15:09:54 2012 +0200 | | Zusammenfassung: merge | | | \ | |\ | | o Änderung: 3:55ba56aa8299 | | | Vorgänger: 0:385d95ab1fea | | | Nutzer: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | | Datum: Tue Aug 14 15:09:40 2012 +0200 | | | Zusammenfassung: 4 | | | | o | Änderung: 2:b500d0a90d40 | |/ Vorgänger: 0:385d95ab1fea | | Nutzer: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | | Datum: Tue Aug 14 15:09:39 2012 +0200 | | Zusammenfassung: 3 | | o | Änderung: 1:8cc66166edc9 |/ Nutzer: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> | Datum: Tue Aug 14 15:09:38 2012 +0200 | Zusammenfassung: 2 | o Änderung: 0:385d95ab1fea Nutzer: Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de> Datum: Tue Aug 14 15:09:38 2012 +0200 Zusammenfassung: 1  ## Even shorter, but not quite correct The shortest representation is without the heads, though. It does not represent the current state of development if the last commit was a merge or if some branches were not merged. Otherwise it is equivalent. $ hg log -Gr "(all() - merge())"

o  Änderung:        3:55ba56aa8299
|  Vorgänger:       0:385d95ab1fea
|  Nutzer:          Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de>
|  Datum:           Tue Aug 14 15:09:40 2012 +0200
|  Zusammenfassung: 4
|
| o  Änderung:        2:b500d0a90d40
|/   Vorgänger:       0:385d95ab1fea
|    Nutzer:          Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de>
|    Datum:           Tue Aug 14 15:09:39 2012 +0200
|    Zusammenfassung: 3
|
| o  Änderung:        1:8cc66166edc9
|/   Nutzer:          Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de>
|    Datum:           Tue Aug 14 15:09:38 2012 +0200
|    Zusammenfassung: 2
|
o  Änderung:        0:385d95ab1fea
Nutzer:          Arne Babenhauserheide <bab@draketo.de>
Datum:           Tue Aug 14 15:09:38 2012 +0200
Zusammenfassung: 1


## The basic log For reference

The vanilla-log looks like this:

#### Add files and track them

$cd project$ (add files)
$hg add$ hg commit
(enter the commit message)

Note:

You can also go into an existing directory with files and init the repository there.

$cd project$ hg init

Alternatively you can add only specific files instead of all files in the directory. Mercurial will then track only these files and won't know about the others. The following tells mercurial to track all files whose names begin with "file0" as well as file10, file11 and file12.

$hg add file0* file10 file11 file12 #### Save changes $ (do some changes)

see which files changed, which have been added or removed, and which aren't tracked yet

$hg status see the exact changes $ hg diff

commit the changes.

$hg commit now an editor pops up and asks you for a commit message. Upon saving and closing the editor, your changes have been stored by Mercurial. Note: You can also supply the commit message directly via hg commit -m 'MESSAGE'. #### Move and copy files When you copy or move files, you should tell Mercurial to do the copy or move for you, so it can track the relationship between the files. Remember to commit after moving or copying. From the basic commands only commit creates a new revision $ hg cp original copy
$hg commit (enter the commit message)$ hg mv original target
$hg commit (enter the commit message) Now you have two files, "copy" and "target", and Mercurial knows how they are related. Note: Should you forget to do the explicit copy or move, you can still tell Mercurial to detect the changes via hg addremove --similarity 100. Just use hg help addremove for details. #### Check your history $ hg log

This prints a list of changesets along with their date, the user who committed them (you) and their commit message.

To see a certain revision, you can use the -r switch (--revision). To also see the diff of the displayed revisions, there's the -p switch (--patch)

$hg log -p -r 3 ## Lone developer with nonlinear history ### Use case The second workflow is still very easy: You're a lone developer and you want to use Mercurial to keep track of your own changes. It works just like the log keeping workflow, with the difference that you go back to earlier changes at times. To start a new project, you initialize a repository, add your files and commit whenever you finished a part of your work. Also you check your history from time to time, so see how you progressed. ### Workflow #### Basics from log keeping Init your project, add files, see changes and commit them. $ hg init project
$cd project$ (add files)
$hg add # tell Mercurial to track all files$ (do some changes)
$hg diff # see changes$ hg commit # save changes
$hg cp # copy files or folders$ hg mv # move files or folders
$hg log # see history #### Seeing an earlier revision Different from the log keeping workflow, you'll want to go back in history at times and do some changes directly there, for example because an earlier change introduced a bug and you want to fix it where it occurred. To look at a previous version of your code, you can use update. Let's assume that you want to see revision 3. $ hg update 3

Now your code is back at revision 3, the fourth commit (Mercurial starts counting at 0).
To check if you're really at that revision, you can use identify -n.

$hg identify -n Note: identify without options gives you the short form of a unique revision ID. That ID is what Mercurial uses internally. If you tell someone about the version you updated to, you should use that ID, since the numbers can be different for other people. If you want to know the reasons behind that, please read up Mercurials [basic concepts]. When you're at the most recent revision, hg identify -n will return "-1". To update to the most recent revision, you can use "tip" as revision name. $ hg update tip

Note:

Note:

Instead of hg update you can also use the shorthand hg up. Similarly you can abbreviate hg commit to hg ci.

Note:

To get a revision devoid of files, just update to "null" via hg update null. That's the revision before any files were added.

#### Fixing errors in earlier revisions

When you find a bug in some earlier revision you have two options: either you can fix it in the current code, or you can go back in history and fix the code exactly where you did it, which creates a cleaner history.

To do it the cleaner way, you first update to the old revision, fix the bug and commit it. Afterwards you merge this revision and commit the merge. Don't worry, though: Merging in mercurial is fast and painless, as you'll see in an instant.

Let's assume the bug was introduced in revision 3.

$hg update 3$ (fix the bug)
$hg commit Now the fix is already stored in history. We just need to merge it with the current version of your code. $ hg merge

If there are conflicts use hg resolve - that's also what merge tells you to do in case of conflicts.

First list the files with conflicts

$hg resolve --list Then resolve them one by one. resolve attempts the merge again $ hg resolve conflicting_file
(fix it by hand, if necessary)

Mark the fixed file as resolved

$hg resolve --mark conflicting_file Commit the merge, as soon as you resolved all conflicts. This step is also necessary when there were no conflicts! $ hg commit

At this point, your fix is merged with all your other work, and you can just go on coding. Additionally the history shows clearly where you fixed the bug, so you'll always be able to check where the bug was.

Note:

Most merges will just work. You only need resolve, when merge complains.

So now you can initialize repositories, save changes, update to previous changes and develop in a nonlinear history by committing in earlier changesets and merging the changes into the current code.

Note:

If you fix a bug in an earlier revision, and some later revision copied or moved that file, the fix will be propagated to the target file(s) when you merge. This is the main reason why you should always use hg cp and hg mv.

## Separate features

### Use Case

At times you'll be working on several features in parallel. If you want to avoid mixing incomplete code versions, you can create clones of your local repository and work on each feature in its own code directory.

After finishing your feature you then pull it back into your main directory and merge the changes.

### Workflow

#### Work in different clones

First create the feature clone and do some changes

$hg clone project feature1$ cd feature1
$(do some changes and commits) Now check what will come in when you pull from feature1, just like you can use diff before committing. The respective command for pulling is incoming $ cd ../project
$hg incoming ../feature1 Note: If you want to see the diffs, you can use hg incoming --patch just as you can do with hg log --patch for the changes in the repository. If you like the changes, you pull them into the project $ hg pull ../feature1

Now you have the history of feature1 inside your project, but the changes aren't yet visible. Instead they are only stored inside a ".hg" directory of the project (more information on the store).

Note:

From now on we'll use the name "repository" for a directory which has a .hg directory with Mercurial history.

If you didn't do any changes in the project, while you were working on feature1, you can just update to tip (hg update tip), but it is more likely that you'll have done some other changes in between changes. In that case, it's time for merging.

Merge feature1 into the project code

$hg merge If there are conflicts use hg resolve - that's also what merge tells you to do in case of conflicts. After you merge, you have to commit explicitly to make your merge final $ hg commit
(enter commit message, for example "merged feature1")

You can create an arbitrary number of clones and also carry them around on USB sticks. Also you can use them to synchronize your files at home and at work, or between your desktop and your laptop.

Note:

You also have to commit after a merge when there are no conflicts, because merging creates new history and you might want to attach a specific message to the merge (like "merge feature1").

#### Rollback mistakes

Now you can work on different features in parallel, but from time to time a bad commit might sneak in. Naturally you could then just go back one revision and merge the stray error, keeping all mistakes out of the merged revision. However, there's an easier way, if you realize your error before you do another commit or pull: rollback.

Rolling back means undoing the last operation which added something to your history.

Imagine you just realized that you did a bad commit - for example you didn't see a spelling error in a label. To fix it you would use

hg rollback

And then redo the commit

hg commit -m "message"

If you can use the command history of your shell and you added the previous message via commit -m "message", that following commit just means two clicks on the arrow-key "up" and one click on "enter".

But beware, that a rollback itself can't be undone. If you rollback and then forget to commit, you can't just say "give me my old commit back". You have to create a new commit.

Note:

Rollback is possible, because Mercurial uses transactions when recording changes, and you can use the transaction record to undo the last transaction. This means that you can also use rollback to undo your last pull, if you didn't yet commit anything new.

## Sharing changes

### Use Case

Now we go one step further: You are no longer alone, and you want to share your changes with others and include their changes.

The basic requirement for that is that you have to be able to see the changes of others.

Mercurial allows you to do that very easily by including a simple webserver from which you can pull changes just as you can pull changes from local clones.

Note:

There are a few other ways to share changes, though. Instead of using the builtin webserver, you can also send the changes by email or setup a shared repository, to where you push changes instead of pulling them. We'll cover one of those later.

### Workflow

#### Using the builtin webserver

This is the easiest way to quickly share changes.

First the one who wants to share his changes creates the webserver

$hg serve Now all others can point their browsers to his IP address (for example 192.168.178.100) at port 8000. They will then see all his history there and can decide if they want to pull his changes. $ firefox http://192.168.178.100:8000

If they decide to include the changes, they just pull from the same URL

$hg pull http://192.168.178.100:8000 At this point you all can work as if you had pulled from a local repository. All the data is now in your individual repositories and you can merge the changes and work with them without needing any connection to the served repository. #### Sending changes by email Often you won't have direct access to the repository of someone else, be it because he's behind a restrictive firewall, or because you live in different timezones. You might also want to keep your changes confidential and prefer internal email (if you want additional protection, you can also encrypt the emails, for example with GnuPG). In that case, you can easily export your changes as patches and send them by email. Another reason to send them by email can be that your policy requires manual review of the changes when the other developers are used to reading diffs in emails. I'm sure you can think of more reasons. Sending the changes via email is pretty straightforward with Mercurial. You just export your changes and attach (or copy paste) it in your email. Your colleagues can then just import them. First check which changes you want to export $ cd project
$hg log We assume that you want to export changeset 3 and 4 $ hg export 3 > change3.diff
$hg export 4 > change4.diff Now attach them to an email and your colleagues can just run import on both diffs to get your full changes, including your user information. To be careful, they first clone their repository to have an integration directory as sandbox $ hg clone project integration
$cd integration$ hg import change3.diff
$hg import change4.diff That's it. They can now test your changes in feature clones. If they accept them, they pull the changes into the main repository $ cd ../project
$hg pull ../integration Note: The patchbomb extension automates the email-sending, but you don't need it for this workflow. Note: You can also send around bundles, which are snippets of your actual history. Just create them via $ hg bundle --base FIRST_REVISION_TO_BUNDLE changes.bundle

Others can then get your changes by simply pulling them, as if your bundle were an actual repository

$hg pull path/to/changes.bundle #### Using a shared repository Sending changes by email might be the easiest way to reach people when you aren't yet part of the regular development team, but it creates additional workload: You have to bundle the changes, send mails and then import the bundles manually. Luckily there's an easier way which works quite well: The shared push repository. Till now we transferred all changes either via email or via pull. Now we use another option: pushing. As the name suggests it's just the opposite of pulling: You push your changes into another repository. But to make use of it, we first need something we can push to. By default hg serve doesn't allow pushing, since that would be a major security hole. You can allow pushing in the server, but that's no solution when you live in different timezones, so we'll go with another approach here: Using a shared repository, either on an existing shared server or on a service like BitBucket. Doing so has a bit higher starting cost and takes a bit longer to explain, but it's well worth the effort spent. If you want to use an existing shared server, you can use serve there and allow pushing. Also there are some other nice ways to allow pushing to a Mercurial repository, including simple access via SSH. Otherwise you first need to setup a BitBucket Account. Just signup at BitBucket. After signing up (and login) hover your mouse over "Repositories". There click the item at the bottom of the opening dialog which say "Create new". Give it a name and a description. If you want to keep it hidden from the public, select "private" $ firefox http://bitbucket.org

Now your repository is created and you see instructions for pushing to it. For that you'll use a command similar to the following (just with a different URL)

$hg push https://bitbucket.org/ArneBab/hello/ (Replace the URL with the URL of your created repository. If your username is "Foo" and your repository is named "bar", the URL will be https://bitbucket.org/Foo/bar/) Mercurial will ask for your BitBucket name and password, then push your code. Voilà, your code is online. Note: You can also use SSH for pushing to BitBucket. Now it's time to tell all your colleagues to sign up at BitBucket, too. After that you can click the "Admin" tab of your created repository and add the usernames of your colleagues on the right side under "Permission: Writers". Now they are allowed to push code to the repository. (If you chose to make the repository private, you'll need to add them to "Permission: Readers", too) If one of you now wants to publish changes, he'll simply push them to the repository, and all others get them by pulling. Publish your changes $ hg push https://bitbucket.org/ArneBab/hello/

Pull others changes into your local repository

$hg pull https://bitbucket.org/ArneBab/hello/ People who join you in development can also just clone this repository, as if one of you were using hg serve $ hg clone https://bitbucket.org/ArneBab/hello/ hello

That local repository will automatically be configured to pull/push from/to the online repository, so new contributors can just use hg push and hg pull without an URL.

Note:

To make this workflow more scalable, each one of you can have his own BitBucket repository and you can simply pull from the others repositories. That way you can easily establish workflows in which certain people act as integrators and finally push checked code to a shared pull repository from which all others pull.

Note:

You can also use this workflow with a shared server instead of BitBucket, either via SSH or via a shared directory. An example for an SSH URL with Mercurial is be ssh://user@example.com/path/to/repo. When using a shared directory you just push as if the repository in the shared directory were on your local drive.

## Summary

Now let's take a step back and look where we are.

With the commands you already know, a bit reading of hg help <command> and some evil script-fu you can already do almost everything you'll ever need to do when working with source code history. So from now on almost everything is convenience, and that's a good thing.

First this is good, because it means, that you can now use most of the concepts which are utilized in more complex workflows.

Second it aids you, because convenience lets you focus on your task instead of focusing on your tool. It helps you concentrate on the coding itself. Still you can always go back to the basics, if you want to.

A short summary of what you can do which can also act as a short check, if you still remember the meaning of the commands.

### create a project

$hg init project$ cd project
$(add some files)$ hg add
$hg commit (enter the commit message) ### do nonlinear development $ (do some changes)
$hg commit (enter the commit message)$ hg update 0
$(do some changes)$ hg commit
(enter the commit message)
$hg merge$ (optionally hg resolve)
$hg commit (enter the commit message) ### use feature clones $ cd ..
$hg clone project feature1$ cd feature1
$(do some changes)$ hg commit
(enter the commit message)
$cd ../project$ hg pull ../feature1

### share your repository via the integrated webserver

$hg serve &$ cd ..
$hg clone http://127.0.0.1:8000 project-clone ### export changes to files $ cd project-clone
$(do some changes)$ hg commit
(enter the commit message)
$hg pull http://127.0.0.1:8000 ### Use shared repositories on BitBucket $ (setup bitbucket repo)
$hg push https://bitbucket.org/USER/REPO (enter name and password in the prompt)$ hg pull https://bitbucket.org/USER/REPO

Let's move on towards useful features and a bit more advanced workflows.

### Use Case

When you routinely pull code from others, it can happen that you overlook some bad change. As soon as others pull that change from you, you have little chance to get completely rid of it.

To resolve that problem, Mercurial offers you the backout command. Backing out a change means, that you tell Mercurial to create a commit which reverses the bad change. That way you don't get rid of the bad code in history, but you can remove it from new revisions.

Note:

The basic commands don't directly rewrite history. If you want to do that, you need to activate some of the extensions which are shipped with mercurial. We'll come to that later on.

### Workflow

Let's assume the bad change was revision 3, and you already have one more revision in your
repository. To remove the bad code, you can just backout of it. This creates a new
change which reverses the bad change. After backing out, you can then merge that new change
into the current code.

$hg backout 3$ hg merge
(potentially resolve conflicts)
$hg commit (enter commit message. For example: "merged backout") That's it. You reversed the bad change. It's still recorded that it was once there (following the principle "don't rewrite history, if it's not really necessary"), but it doesn't affect future code anymore. ## Collaborative feature development Now that you can share changes and reverse them if necessary, you can go one step further: Using Mercurial to help in coordinating the coding. The first part is an easy way to develop features together, without requiring every developer to keep track of several feature clones. ### Use Case When you want to split your development into several features, you need to keep track of who works on which feature and where to get which changes. Mercurial makes this easy for you by providing named branches. They are a part of the main repository, so they are available to everyone involved. At the same time, changes committed on a certain branch don't get mixed with the changes in the default branch, so features are kept separate, until they get merged into the default branch. Note: Cloning a repository always puts you onto the default branch at first. ### Workflow When someone in your group wants to start coding on a feature without disturbing the others, he can create a named branch and commit there. When someone else wants to join in, he just updates to the branch and commits away. As soon as the feature is finished, someone merges the named branch into the default branch. #### Working in a named branch Create the branch $ hg branch feature1
(do some changes)
$hg commit (write commit message) Update into the branch and work in it $ hg update feature1
(do some changes)
$hg commit (write commit message) Now you can commit, pull, push and merge (and anything else) as if you were working in a separate repository. If the history of the named branch is linear and you call "hg merge", Mercurial asks you to specify an explicit revision, since the branch in which you work doesn't have anything to merge. #### Merge the named branch When you finished the feature, you merge the branch back into the default branch. $ hg update default
$hg merge feature1$ hg commit
(write commit message)

And that's it. Now you can easily keep features separate without unnecessary bookkeeping.

Note:

Named branches stay in history as permanent record after you finished your work. If you don't like having that record in your history, please have a look at some of the advanced workflows.

## Tagging revisions

### Use Case

Since you can now code separate features more easily, you might want to mark certain revisions as fit for consumption (or similar). For example you might want to mark releases, or just mark off revisions as reviewed.

For this Mercurial offers tags. Tags add a name to a revision and are part of the history. You can tag a change years after it was committed. The tag includes the information when it was added, and tags can be pulled, pushed and merged just like any other committed change.

Note:

A tag must not contain the char ":", since that char is used for specifying multiple revisions - see "hg help revisions".

Note:

To securely mark a revision, you can use the gpg extension to sign the tag.

### Workflow

Let's assume you want to give revision 3 the name "v0.1".

$hg tag -r 3 v0.1 See all tags $ hg tags

When you look at the log you'll now see a line in changeset 3 which marks the Tag. If someone wants to update to the tagged revision, he can just use the name of your tag

$hg update v0.1 Now he'll be at the tagged revision and can work from there. ## Removing history ### Use Case At times you will have changes in your repository, which you really don't want in it. There are many advanced options for removing these, and most of them use great extensions (Mercurial Queues is the most often used one), but in this basic guide, we'll solve the problem with just the commands we already learned. But we'll use an option to clone which we didn't yet use. This workflow becomes inconvenient when you need to remove changes, which are buried below many new changes. If you spot the bad changes early enough, you can get rid of them without too much effort, though. ### Workflow Let's assume you want to get rid of revision 2 and the highest revision is 3. The first step is to use the "--rev" option to clone: Create a clone which only contains the changes up to the specified revision. Since you want to keep revision 1, you only clone up to that $ hg clone -r 1 project stripped

Now you can export the change 3 from the original repository (project) and import it into the stripped one

$cd project$ hg export 3 > ../changes.diff
$cd ../stripped$ hg import ../changes.diff

If a part of the changes couldn't be applied, you'll see that part in *.rej files. If you have *.rej files, you'll have to include or discard changes by hand

$cat *.rej (apply changes by hand)$ hg commit
(write commit message)

That's it. hg export also includes the commit message, date, committer and similar metadata, so you are already done.

Note:

removing history will change the revision IDs of revisions after the removed one, and if you pull from someone else who still has the revision you removed, you will pull the removed parts again. That's why rewriting history should most times only be done for changes which you didn't yet publicise.

## Summary

So now you can work with Mercurial in private, and also share your changes in a multitude of ways.

Additionally you can remove bad changes, either by creating a change in the repository which reverses the original change, or by really rewriting history, so it looks like the change never occurred.

And you can separate the work on features in a single repository by using named branches and add tags to revisions which are visible markers for others and can be used to update to the tagged revisions.

With this we can conclude our practical guide.

# More Complex Workflows

If you now want to check some more complex workflows, please have a look at the general workflows wikipage.

To deepen your understanding, you should also check the basic concept overview.

Have fun with Mercurial!

Learning Mercurial in Workflows - A practical guide to version tracking / source code management with Mercurial
Copyright © 2011 Arne Babenhauserheide (main author), David Soria Parra, Augie Fackler, Benoit Boissinot, Adrian Buehlmann, Nicolas Dumazet and Steve Losh.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.

The official workflow guide for Mercurial, mirrored from mercurial.selenic.com/guide. License: GPLv2 or later.It delves into nonlinear history and merging right from the beginning and uses only features you get without activating extensions. Due to this it offers efficient and safe workflows without danger of losing already committed work. Basic workflows Log keeping Lone developer with nonlinear history Separate features Sharing changes Summary Advanced workflows Backing out bad revisions Collaborative feature development Tagging revisions Removing history Summary More complex workflows License

# Mercurial Workflow: Feature seperation via named branches

Also published on Mercurials Workflows wikipage. Originally written for PyHurd: Python bindings for the GNU Hurd.

## For Whom?

If you

1. want to develop features collaboratively and you want to be able to see later for which feature a given change was added or
2. want to do changes concurrently which would likely affect each other negatively while they are not finished, but which need to be developed in a group with minimal overhead,

then this workflow might be right for you.

Note: If you have a huge number of small features (2000 and upwards), the number of persistent named branches can create some performance problems for listing the branches (but, as different example, pushing is unaffected: Linear history is just as fast as 2000 branches). For features which need no collaboration or need only a few commits, this workflow also has much unnecessary overhead. It is best used for features which will be developed side by side with default for some time (and many commits), so tracking the default branch against the feature is relevant. To mark single-commit features as belonging to a feature, just use the commit message.

Note: The difference between Mercurial named branches and git branches is that git branches don’t stay in history. They don’t allow you to find out later in which branch a certain commit was added. If you want git-style branching, just use bookmarks.

Note: If you avoid using stable as branch name, you can always upgrade this workflow to the complete branching model later on.

## What you need

Just vanilla Mercurial.

## Workflow

The workflow is 6-stepped:

1. create the new feature,
2. Implement and share,
3. merge other changes into it,
4. merge stable features,
5. close finished features and
6. reopen features.

Let’s see the steps in detail.

#### 1. New feature

First start a new branch with the name of the feature (starting from default).

hg branch feature-x
\# do some changes
hg commit -m "Started implemented feature-x"


#### 2. Implement and share

Then commit away and push whenever you finish something which might be of interest to others, regardless how marginal.

You can push to a shared repository, or to your own clone or even send the changes via email to other contributors (for example via the mailbomb extension).

#### 3. Merge in default

Merge changes in the default branch into your feature as often as possible to reduce the work necessary when you want to merge the feature later on.

hg update feature-x
hg merge default
hg commit -m "merged default into feature-x"


#### 4. Merge stable features

When your feature is stable, merge it into default.

hg update default
hg merge feature-x
hg commit -m "merged feature-x"


#### 5. Close the branch when it’s done

And when the feature needs no more work, close the branch.

\# start from default, automatic when using a fresh clone
hg update default
hg branch feature-x
\# do some changes
hg commit -m "started feature X"
hg push

\# commit and push as you like
hg update default
hg merge feature-x
hg ci -m "merged feature X into default"
hg commit --close-branch -m "finished feature X"


This hides the branch from the output of hg branches, so you don’t clutter your history.

#### 6. Reopen the feature

To improve a feature after it was officially closed, first merge default into the feature branch (to get it up to date), then work just as if you had started it.

hg up feature-x
hg merge default
hg ci -m "merged default into feature X"
\# commit, push, repeat, finish


Generally merge default into your feature as often as possible.

## Epilog

If this workflow helps you, I’d be glad to hear from you!

For a more extensive project-workflow, have a look at the Complete Mercurial Branching Strategy. It extends the feature branches workflow to account for release cycles.

*Also published on Mercurials [Workflows wikipage](http://mercurial.selenic.com/wiki/Workflows#Feature_seperation_through_named_branches). Originally written for [PyHurd](http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/pyhurd/): Python bindings for the [GNU Hurd](http://hurd.gnu.org).*## For Whom?If you 1. want to develop features collaboratively and you want to be able to see later for which feature a given change was added or2. want to do changes concurrently which would likely affect each other negatively while they are not finished, but which need to be developed in a group with minimal overhead, then this workflow might be right for you.*Note: If you have a huge number of small features (2000 and upwards), the number of persistent named branches can create [some performance problems for *listing* the branches](http://www.selenic.com/pipermail/mercurial/2011-June/038718.html) (but, as different example, pushing is unaffected: [Linear history is just as fast as 2000 branches](http://www.selenic.com/pipermail/mercurial/2011-June/038715.html)). For features which need no collaboration or need only a few commits, this workflow also has much unnecessary overhead. It is best used for features which will be developed side by side with default for some time (and many commits), so tracking the default branch against the feature is relevant. **To mark single-commit features** as belonging to a feature, just **use the commit message**.**Note: The difference between Mercurial named branches and git branches is that git branches don’t stay in history. They don’t allow you to find out later in which branch a certain commit was added. If you want git-style branching, just use bookmarks.**Note: If you avoid using stable as branch name, you can always upgrade this workflow to the [complete branching model](/light/english/mercurial/complete-branching-strategy) later on.*

# Mercurial for two Programmers who are (mostly) new to SCM

Written in the Mercurial mailing list

Hi Bernard,

Am Dienstag 03 Februar 2009 20:19:14 schrieb ... ...:
> Most of the docs I can find seem to assume the reader is familiar with
> existing software developemnt tools and methodologies.
>
> This is not the case for me.

It wasn't for me either, and I can assure you that using Mercurial becomes
natural quite quickly.

> Now, I need to coordinate with a second (also SCM clueless) programmer.
...
> I envision us both working the main trunk for many small day-to-day
> changes, and our own isolated repo for larger additions that we will each
> be working on.

I don't know about a HOWTO, but I can give you a short description about basic
usage and the workflow I'd use:

Basic usage

• Just commit as you'd have done in SVN via "hg commit".
• To get changes from others, do "hg pull -u".
The "-u" says 'update my files'. Always commit before you pull. Otherwise "hg pull -u" will try to merge the new changes.
• If you already committed and then pull changes from someone else, you merge
the changes with yours via "hg merge". Merging is quite painless in Mercurial, so you can easily do it often.
• Once you want to share your changes, do "hg push".
Should that complain about "adding heads", pull and merge, then do the push again. If you really want to create new remote heads, you can use "hg push -f".

Workflow

• Firstoff: Create a main repository you both can push changes to. If you have ssh access to a shared machine, that's as simple as creating a repository on that machine via "hg init project".
• Now both of you clone from that repository via

(ADDRESS can be either a host or an IP).

That's your repository for the small day to day changes.

• If you want to do bigger changes, you create a feature clone via
hg clone project feature1

In that clone you simply work, pull and commit as usual, but you only push after you finished the feature.

Once you finished the feature, you push the changes from the feature clone via "hg push" in feature1 (which gets them into your main working clone) and then push then onward into the shared repository.

That's it - or rather that's what I'd do. It might be right for you, too, and
if it isn't, don't be shy of experimenting. As long as you have a backup clone
lying around (for example cloned to a USB stick via "hg clone project
path/to/stick/project"), you can't do too much damage :)

I hope I could provide a bit of help :)

Written in the Mercurial mailing listHi Bernard, Am Dienstag 03 Februar 2009 20:19:14 schrieb ... ...: > Most of the docs I can find seem to assume the reader is familiar with > existing software developemnt tools and methodologies. > > This is not the case for me.It wasn't for me either, and I can assure you that using Mercurial becomes natural quite quickly.

# Test of the hg evolve extension for easier upstreaming

## 1 Rationale

PDF-version (for printing)

orgmode-version (for editing)

repository (for forking)

Currently I rework my code extensively before I push it into upstream SVN. Some of that is inconvenient and it would be nicer to have easy to use refactoring tools.

hg evolve might offer that.

This test uses the mutable-hg extension in revision c70a1091e0d8 (24 changesets after 2.1.0). It will likely be obsolete, soon, since mutable-hg is currently moved into Mercurial core by Pierre-Yves David, its main developer. I hope it will be useful for you, to assess the future possibilities of Mercurial today. This is not (only) a pun on “obsolete”, the functionality at the core of evolve which allows safe, collaborative history rewriting ☺

## 2 Tests

# Tests for refactoring history with the evolve extension
export LANG=C # to get rid of localized strings
export PS1="$" rm -r testmy testother testpublic  ### 2.1 Init Initialize the repos I need for the test. We have one public repo and 2 nonpublishing repos. # Initialize the test repo hg init testpublic # a public repo hg init testmy # my repo hg init testother # other repo # make the two private repos nonpublishing for i in my other do echo "[ui] username =$i
[phases]
publish = False" > test${i}/.hg/hgrc done  note: it would be nice if we could just specify nonpublishing with the init command. ### 2.2 Prepare Prepare the content of the repos. cd testmy echo "Hello World" > hello.txt hg ci -Am "Hello World" hg log -G cd ..   adding hello.txt @ changeset: 0:c19ed5b17f4f tag: tip user: my date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:40 2013 +0100 summary: Hello World  ### 2.3 Amend Add a bad change and amend it. cd testmy sed -i s/World/Evoluton/ hello.txt hg ci -m "Hello Evolution" echo hg log -G cat hello.txt # FIX this up sed -i s/Evoluton/Evolution/ hello.txt hg amend -m "Hello Evolution" # pass the message explicitely again to avoid having the editor pop up echo hg log -G cd ..   @ changeset: 1:83a5e89adea6 | tag: tip | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:41 2013 +0100 | summary: Hello Evolution | o changeset: 0:c19ed5b17f4f user: my date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:40 2013 +0100 summary: Hello World Hello Evoluton @ changeset: 3:129d59901401 | tag: tip | parent: 0:c19ed5b17f4f | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:42 2013 +0100 | summary: Hello Evolution | o changeset: 0:c19ed5b17f4f user: my date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:40 2013 +0100 summary: Hello World  ### 2.4 …together Add a bad change. Followed by a good change. Pull both into another repo and amend it. Do a good change in the other repo. Then amend the bad change in the original repo, pull it into the other and evolve. #### 2.4.1 Setup Now we change the format to planning a roleplaying session to have a more complex task. We want to present this as coherent story on how to plan a story, so we want clean history. First I do my own change. cd testmy # Now we add the bad change echo "Wishes: - The Solek wants Action - The Judicator wants Action " >> plan.txt hg ci -Am "What the players want" # show what we did echo hg log -G -r tip # and the good change echo "Places: - The village - The researchers cave " >> plan.txt hg ci -m "The places" echo hg log -G -r 1: cd ..   adding plan.txt @ changeset: 4:b170dda0a4a7 | tag: tip | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:44 2013 +0100 | summary: What the players want | @ changeset: 5:2a37053027cc | tag: tip | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:45 2013 +0100 | summary: The places | o changeset: 4:b170dda0a4a7 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:44 2013 +0100 | summary: What the players want | o changeset: 3:129d59901401 | parent: 0:c19ed5b17f4f | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:42 2013 +0100 | summary: Hello Evolution |  Now my file contains the wishes of the players as well as the places. We pull the changes into the repo of another gamemaster with whom we plan this game. hg -R testother pull -u testmy hg -R testother log -G -r 1:  pulling from testmy requesting all changes adding changesets adding manifests adding file changes added 4 changesets with 4 changes to 2 files 2 files updated, 0 files merged, 0 files removed, 0 files unresolved @ changeset: 3:2a37053027cc | tag: tip | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:45 2013 +0100 | summary: The places | o changeset: 2:b170dda0a4a7 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:44 2013 +0100 | summary: What the players want | o changeset: 1:129d59901401 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:42 2013 +0100 | summary: Hello Evolution |  note: the revisions numbers are different because the other repo only gets those obsolete revisions which are ancestors to non-obsolete revisions. That way evolve slowly cleans out obsolete revisions from the history without breaking repositories which already have them (but giving them a clear and easy path for evolution). He then adds the important people: cd testother echo "People: - The Lost - The Specter " >> plan.txt hg ci -m "The people" echo hg log -G -r 1: cd ..   @ changeset: 4:65cc97fc774a | tag: tip | user: other | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:48 2013 +0100 | summary: The people | o changeset: 3:2a37053027cc | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:45 2013 +0100 | summary: The places | o changeset: 2:b170dda0a4a7 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:44 2013 +0100 | summary: What the players want | o changeset: 1:129d59901401 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:42 2013 +0100 | summary: Hello Evolution |  #### 2.4.2 Fix my side And I realize too late, that my estimate of the wishes of the players was wrong. So I simply amend it. cd testmy hg up -r -2 sed -i "s/The Solek wants Action/The Solek wants emotionally intense situations/" plan.txt hg amend -m "The wishes of the players" hg log -G -r 1: cd ..  1 files updated, 0 files merged, 0 files removed, 0 files unresolved 1 new unstable changesets @ changeset: 7:86e7a5305c9e | tag: tip | parent: 3:129d59901401 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:50 2013 +0100 | summary: The wishes of the players | | o changeset: 5:2a37053027cc | | user: my | | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:45 2013 +0100 | | summary: The places | | | x changeset: 4:b170dda0a4a7 |/ user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:44 2013 +0100 | summary: What the players want | o changeset: 3:129d59901401 | parent: 0:c19ed5b17f4f | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:42 2013 +0100 | summary: Hello Evolution |  Now I amended my commit, but my history does not look good, yet. Actually it looks evil, since I have 2 heads, which is not so nice. The changeset under which we just pulled away the bad change has become unstable, because its ancestor has been obsoleted, so it has no stable foothold anymore. In other DVCSs, this means that we as users have to find out what was changed and fix it ourselves. Changeset evolution allows us to evolve our repository to get rid of dependencies on obsolete changes. cd testmy hg evolve hg log -G -r 1: cd ..  move:[5] The places atop:[7] The wishes of the players merging plan.txt @ changeset: 8:0980732d20e0 | tag: tip | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:45 2013 +0100 | summary: The places | o changeset: 7:86e7a5305c9e | parent: 3:129d59901401 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:50 2013 +0100 | summary: The wishes of the players | o changeset: 3:129d59901401 | parent: 0:c19ed5b17f4f | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:42 2013 +0100 | summary: Hello Evolution |  Now I have nice looking history without any hassle - and without having to resort to low-level commands. #### 2.4.3 Be a nice neighbor But I rewrote history. What happens if my collegue pulls this? hg -R testother pull testmy hg -R testother log -G  pulling from testmy searching for changes adding changesets adding manifests adding file changes added 2 changesets with 2 changes to 1 files (+1 heads) (run 'hg heads' to see heads, 'hg merge' to merge) 1 new unstable changesets o changeset: 6:0980732d20e0 | tag: tip | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:45 2013 +0100 | summary: The places | o changeset: 5:86e7a5305c9e | parent: 1:129d59901401 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:50 2013 +0100 | summary: The wishes of the players | | @ changeset: 4:65cc97fc774a | | user: other | | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:48 2013 +0100 | | summary: The people | | | x changeset: 3:2a37053027cc | | user: my | | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:45 2013 +0100 | | summary: The places | | | x changeset: 2:b170dda0a4a7 |/ user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:44 2013 +0100 | summary: What the players want | o changeset: 1:129d59901401 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:42 2013 +0100 | summary: Hello Evolution | o changeset: 0:c19ed5b17f4f user: my date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:40 2013 +0100 summary: Hello World  As you can see, he is told that his changes became unstable, since they depend on obsolete history. No need to panic: He can just evolve his repo to be state of the art again. But the unstable change is the current working directory, so evolve does not change it. Instead it tells us, that we might want to call it with –any. And as it is the case with most hints in hg, that is actually the case. hg -R testother evolve  nothing to evolve here (1 troubled changesets, do you want --any ?)  note: that message might be a candidate for cleanup. hg -R testother evolve --any hg -R testother log -G -r 1:  move:[4] The people atop:[6] The places merging plan.txt @ changeset: 7:058175606243 | tag: tip | user: other | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:48 2013 +0100 | summary: The people | o changeset: 6:0980732d20e0 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:45 2013 +0100 | summary: The places | o changeset: 5:86e7a5305c9e | parent: 1:129d59901401 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:50 2013 +0100 | summary: The wishes of the players | o changeset: 1:129d59901401 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:42 2013 +0100 | summary: Hello Evolution |  And as you can see, everything looks nice again. ### 2.5 …safely Publishing the changes into a public repo makes them immutable. Now imagine, that my co-gamemaster publishes his work. Mercurial will then store that his changes were published and warn us, if we try to change them. cd testother hg up > /dev/null echo "current phase" hg phase . hg push ../testpublic echo "phase after publishing" hg phase . cd ..  current phase 7: draft pushing to ../testpublic searching for changes adding changesets adding manifests adding file changes added 5 changesets with 5 changes to 2 files phase after publishing 7: public  Now trying to amend history will fail (except if we first change the phase to draft with hg phase –force –draft .). cd testother hg amend -m "change published history" # change to draft hg phase -fd . hg phase . # now we could amend, but that would defeat the point of this section, so we go to public again. hg phase -p . cd ..   abort: can not rewrite immutable changeset 058175606243 7: draft  Once I pull from that repo, the revisions which are in there will also switch phase to public in my repo. So by pushing the changes into a publishing repo, you can get the Mercurial of all contributors to track which revisions are safe to change - and which are not. An alternative is using hg phase -p REV. ### 2.6 Fold Do multiple commits to create a patch, then fold them into one commit. Now I go into a bit of a planning spree. cd testmy echo "Scenes:" >> plan.txt hg ci -m "we need scenes" echo "- Lost appears" >> plan.txt hg ci -m "scene" echo "- People vanish" >> plan.txt hg ci -m "scene" echo "- Portals during dreamtime" >> plan.txt hg ci -m "scene" echo hg log -G -r 9: cd ..   @ changeset: 12:fbcce7ad7369 | tag: tip | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:06 2013 +0100 | summary: scene | o changeset: 11:189c0362a80f | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:05 2013 +0100 | summary: scene | o changeset: 10:715a31ac9dee | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:05 2013 +0100 | summary: scene | o changeset: 9:dfa4c226150b | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:05 2013 +0100 | summary: we need scenes |  Yes, I tend to do that… But we actually only need one change, so make it one by folding the last 4 changes changes into a single commit. Since fold needs an interactive editor (it does not take -m, yet), we will leave that out. The commented commands allow you to fold the changesets. cd testmy # hg fold -r "-1:-4" # hg log -G -r 9: cd ..  ### 2.7 Split Do one big commit, then split it into two atomic commits. Now I apply the scenes to wishes, places and people. Which is not useful: First I should apply them to the wishes and check if all wishes are fullfilled. But while writing I forgot that, and anxious to show my co-gamemaster, I just did one big commit. cd testmy sed -i "s/The Judicator wants Action/The Judicator wants Action - portals/" plan.txt sed -i "s/The village/The village - lost, vanish, portals/" plan.txt hg ci -m "Apply Scenes to people and places." echo hg log -G -r 12: cd ..   @ changeset: 13:5c83a3540c37 | tag: tip | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:10 2013 +0100 | summary: Apply Scenes to people and places. | o changeset: 12:fbcce7ad7369 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:06 2013 +0100 | summary: scene |  Let’s fix that: uncommit it and commit it as separate changes. Normally I would just use hg record to interactively select changes to record. Since this is a non-interactive test, I manually undo and redo changes instead. cd testmy hg uncommit --all # to undo all changes, not just those for specified files hg diff sed -i "s/The village - lost, vanish, portals/The village/" plan.txt hg amend -m "Apply scenes to wishes" sed -i "s/The village/The village - lost, vanish, portals/" plan.txt hg commit -m "Apply scenes to places" echo hg log -G -r 12: cd ..  new changeset is empty (use "hg kill ." to remove it) diff --git a/plan.txt b/plan.txt --- a/plan.txt +++ b/plan.txt @@ -1,10 +1,10 @@ Wishes: - The Solek wants emotionally intense situations -- The Judicator wants Action +- The Judicator wants Action - portals Places: -- The village +- The village - lost, vanish, portals - The researchers cave Scenes: @ changeset: 17:f8cc86f681ac | tag: tip | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:13 2013 +0100 | summary: Apply scenes to places | o changeset: 16:6c8918a352e2 | parent: 12:fbcce7ad7369 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:12 2013 +0100 | summary: Apply scenes to wishes | o changeset: 12:fbcce7ad7369 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:06 2013 +0100 | summary: scene |  ### 2.8 …as afterthought Do one big commit, add an atomic commit. Then split the big commit. Let’s get the changes from our co-gamemaster and apply people to wishes, places and scenes. Then add a scene we need to fullfill the wishes and clean the commits afterwards. First get the changes: cd testmy hg pull ../testother hg merge --tool internal:merge tip # the new head from our co-gamemaster # fix the conflicts sed -i "s/<<<.*local//" plan.txt sed -i "s/====.*/\n/" plan.txt sed -i "s/>>>.*other//" plan.txt # mark them as solved. hg resolve -m hg commit -m "merge people" echo hg log -G -r 12: cd ..  pulling from ../testother searching for changes adding changesets adding manifests adding file changes added 1 changesets with 1 changes to 1 files (+1 heads) (run 'hg heads .' to see heads, 'hg merge' to merge) merging plan.txt warning: conflicts during merge. merging plan.txt incomplete! (edit conflicts, then use 'hg resolve --mark') 0 files updated, 0 files merged, 0 files removed, 1 files unresolved use 'hg resolve' to retry unresolved file merges or 'hg update -C .' to abandon @ changeset: 19:8bf8d55739fa |\ tag: tip | | parent: 17:f8cc86f681ac | | parent: 18:058175606243 | | user: my | | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:16 2013 +0100 | | summary: merge people | | | o changeset: 18:058175606243 | | parent: 8:0980732d20e0 | | user: other | | date: Sat Jan 12 00:17:48 2013 +0100 | | summary: The people | | o | changeset: 17:f8cc86f681ac | | user: my | | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:13 2013 +0100 | | summary: Apply scenes to places | | o | changeset: 16:6c8918a352e2 | | parent: 12:fbcce7ad7369 | | user: my | | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:12 2013 +0100 | | summary: Apply scenes to wishes | | o | changeset: 12:fbcce7ad7369 | | user: my | | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:06 2013 +0100 | | summary: scene | |  Now we have all changes in our repo. We begin to apply people to wishes, places and scenes. cd testmy sed -i "s/The Solek wants emotionally intense situations/The Solek wants emotionally intense situations | specter, Lost/" plan.txt sed -i "s/Lost appears/Lost appears | Lost/" plan.txt sed -i "s/People vanish/People vanish | Specter/" plan.txt hg commit -m "apply people to wishes, places and scenes" echo hg log -G -r 19: cat plan.txt cd ..   @ changeset: 20:c00aa6f24c3f | tag: tip | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:18 2013 +0100 | summary: apply people to wishes, places and scenes | o changeset: 19:8bf8d55739fa |\ parent: 17:f8cc86f681ac | | parent: 18:058175606243 | | user: my | | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:16 2013 +0100 | | summary: merge people | | Wishes: - The Solek wants emotionally intense situations | specter, Lost - The Judicator wants Action - portals Places: - The village - lost, vanish, portals - The researchers cave Scenes: - Lost appears | Lost - People vanish | Specter - Portals during dreamtime People: - The Lost - The Specter  As you can see, the specter only applies to the wishes, and we miss a person for the action. Let’s fix that. cd testmy sed -i "s/- The Specter/- The Specter\n- Wild Memories/" plan.txt sed -i "s/- Portals during dreamtime/- Portals during dreamtime\n- Unconnected Memories/" plan.txt hg ci -m "Added wild memories to fullfill the wish for action" echo hg log -G -r 19: cd ..   @ changeset: 21:5393327d2d3f | tag: tip | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:20 2013 +0100 | summary: Added wild memories to fullfill the wish for action | o changeset: 20:c00aa6f24c3f | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:18 2013 +0100 | summary: apply people to wishes, places and scenes | o changeset: 19:8bf8d55739fa |\ parent: 17:f8cc86f681ac | | parent: 18:058175606243 | | user: my | | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:16 2013 +0100 | | summary: merge people | |  Now split the big change into applying people first to wishes, then to places and scenes. cd testmy # go back to the big change hg up -r -2 # uncommit it hg uncommit --all # Now rework it into two commits sed -i "s/- Lost appears | Lost/- Lost appears/" plan.txt sed -i "s/- People vanish | Specter/- People vanish/" plan.txt hg amend -m "Apply people to wishes" sed -i "s/- Lost appears/- Lost appears | Lost/" plan.txt sed -i "s/- People vanish/- People vanish | Specter/" plan.txt hg commit -m "Apply people to scenes" # let’s mark this for later use hg book splitchanges # and evolve to get rid of the obsoletes echo hg evolve --any hg log -G -r 19: cd ..  1 files updated, 0 files merged, 0 files removed, 0 files unresolved new changeset is empty (use "hg kill ." to remove it) 1 new unstable changesets move:[21] Added wild memories to fullfill the wish for action atop:[24] Apply people to wishes merging plan.txt @ changeset: 26:ab48ecaceb01 | tag: tip | parent: 24:909bb640d4fc | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:20 2013 +0100 | summary: Added wild memories to fullfill the wish for action | | o changeset: 25:76083662b263 |/ bookmark: splitchanges | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:23 2013 +0100 | summary: Apply people to scenes | o changeset: 24:909bb640d4fc | parent: 19:8bf8d55739fa | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:23 2013 +0100 | summary: Apply people to wishes | o changeset: 19:8bf8d55739fa |\ parent: 17:f8cc86f681ac | | parent: 18:058175606243 | | user: my | | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:16 2013 +0100 | | summary: merge people | |  You can see the additional commit sticking out. We want to get the history easy to follow, so we just graft the last last change atop the split changes. note: We seem to have the workdir on the new changeset instead of on the one we did before the evolve. I assume that’s a bug to fix. cd testmy hg up splitchanges hg graft -O tip hg log -G -r 19: cd ..  1 files updated, 0 files merged, 0 files removed, 0 files unresolved grafting revision 26 merging plan.txt @ changeset: 27:4d3a40c254b4 | bookmark: splitchanges | tag: tip | parent: 25:76083662b263 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:20 2013 +0100 | summary: Added wild memories to fullfill the wish for action | o changeset: 25:76083662b263 | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:23 2013 +0100 | summary: Apply people to scenes | o changeset: 24:909bb640d4fc | parent: 19:8bf8d55739fa | user: my | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:23 2013 +0100 | summary: Apply people to wishes | o changeset: 19:8bf8d55739fa |\ parent: 17:f8cc86f681ac | | parent: 18:058175606243 | | user: my | | date: Sat Jan 12 00:18:16 2013 +0100 | | summary: merge people | |  note: We use graft here, because using a second amend would just change the changeset in between but not add another change. If there had been more changes after the single followup commit, we would simply have called evolve to fix them, because graft -O left an obsolete marker on the grafted changeset, so evolve would have seen how to change all its children. That’s it. All that’s left is finishing plan.txt, but I’ll rather do that outside this guide :) ## 3 Conclusion Evolve does a pretty good job at making it convenient and safe to rework history. If you’re an early adopter, I can advise testing it yourself. Otherwise, it might be better to wait until more early adopters tested it and polished its rough edges. note: hg amend was subsumed into hg commit –amend, so the dedicated command will likely disappear. PS: In case you’re interested: The roleplaying session worked out wonderfully and a good deal of our planning actually survived the contact with the players - enough that we could wing the rest with short coordination meetings in which we two game masters enthusiastically told each other what happened in the respective group, planned the next steps and enjoyed the evil gamemasters giggle ☺. note: This guide was created by Arne Babenhauserheide with emacs org-mode and turned to html via M-x org-export-as-html - including results of the evaluation of the code snippets. Date: 2013-01-12T00:18+0100 Org version 7.9.2 with Emacs version 24 Validate XHTML 1.0 1 RationalePDF-version (for printing)orgmode-version (for editing)repository (for forking)Currently I rework my code extensively before I push it into upstream SVN. Some of that is inconvenient and it would be nicer to have easy to use refactoring tools.hg evolve might offer that.This test uses the mutable-hg extension in revision c70a1091e0d8 (24 changesets after 2.1.0). It will likely be obsolete, soon, since mutable-hg is currently moved into Mercurial core by Pierre-Yves David, its main developer. I hope it will be useful for you, to assess the future possibilities of Mercurial today. This is not (only) a pun on “obsolete”, the functionality at the core of evolve which allows safe, collaborative history rewriting ☺ AnhangGröße hg-evolve-2013-01-12.pdf254.54 KB hg-evolve-2013-01-12.org13.19 KB # Track your scientific scripts with Mercurial If you want to publish your scientific scripts, as Nick Barnes advises in Nature, you can very easily do so with Mercurial. All my stuff (not just code), excempting only huge datasets, is in a Mercurial source repository.1 Whenever I change something and it does anything new, I commit the files with a simple commit (even if it’s only “it compiles!”). With that I can always check “which were the last things I did” (look into the log) or “when did I change this line, and why?” (annotate the file). Also I can easily share my scripts folder with others and Mercurial can merge my work and theirs, so if they fix a line and I fix another line, both fixes get integrated without having to manually copy-paste them around. For all that it doesn’t need much additional expertise: The basics can be learned in just 15 minutes — and you’ll likely never need more than these for your work.2 Update 2013: Nowadays I include the revision of scripts I use in the name of their output files or folders, so I always know which version of my scripts I used to create some result. 1. Mercurial is free software for versiontracking: http://mercurial.selenic.com 2. You can use Mercurial in three main ways: If you want to publish your scientific scripts, as Nick Barnes [advises in Nature](http://www.nature.com/news/2010/101013/full/467753a.html), you can very easily do so with Mercurial. All my stuff (not just code), excempting only huge datasets, is in a Mercurial source repository.[^mercurial][^mercurial]: Mercurial is free software for versiontracking: [http://mercurial.selenic.com](http://mercurial.selenic.com)Whenever I change something and it does anything new, I commit the files with a simple commit (even if it’s only “it compiles!”). # workflow concept: automatic trusted group of committers ## Goal A workflow where the repository gets updated only from repositories whose heads got signed by at least a certain percentage or a certain number of trusted committers. ## Requirements Mercurial, two hooks for checking and three special files in the repo. The hooks do all the work - apart from them, the repo is just a normal Mercurial repository. After cloning it, you only need to setup the hooks to activate the workflow. Extensions: gpg Hooks: prechangegroup and pretxnchangegroup Files: .hgtrustedkeys , .hgbackuprepos , .hgtrustminimum ## concept ### Hooks • prechangegroup: Copy the local versions of the files for access in the pretxnchangegroup hook (might be unnecessary by letting the pretxnchangegroup hook use the rollback-info). • pretxnchangegroup: • per head: check if the tipmost non-signature changeset has been GnuPG signed by enough trusted keys. • If not all heads have enough signatures, rollback, discard the current default repo and replace it with the backup repo which has the most changesets we lack. Continue discarding bad repos until you find one with enough signatures. ### Special Files .hgtrustedkeys contains a list of public GnuPG keys. .hgbackuprepos contains a list of (pull) links to backup repositories. .hgtrustminimum contains the percentage or number of keys from which a signature is needed for a head to be accepted. ## Notes With this workflow you can even do automatic updates from the repository. It should be ideal for release repositories of distributed projects. If you want to work on the project, a very worthwhile goal might be implementing it in infocalypse: anonymous code collaboration via Freenet and Mercurial, built to survive the informational apocalypse (and any kind of censorship). ## GoalA workflow where the repository gets updated only from repositories whose heads got signed by at least a certain percentage or a certain number of trusted committers. ## Requirements[Mercurial](http://mercurial-scm.org), two hooks for checking and three special files in the repo. The hooks do all the work - apart from them, the repo is just a normal Mercurial repository. After cloning it, you only need to setup the hooks to activate the workflow. Extensions: gpgHooks: prechangegroup and pretxnchangegroup # Politics and Free Software Being unpolitical means being political without realizing it. — Arne Babenhauserheide Here you’ll find texts about politics and free software. Some of my creative works on the topic can be found under Songs, though. *Being unpolitical means being political without realizing it. — Arne Babenhauserheide*Here you’ll find texts about politics and free software. Some of my creative works on the topic can be found under [Songs](/english/songs/light), though. # For me, Gentoo is about *convenient* choice It's often said, that Gentoo is all about choice, but that doesn't quite fit what it is for me. After all, the highest ability to choose is Linux from scratch and I can have any amount of choice in every distribution by just going deep enough (and investing enough time). What really distinguishes Gentoo for me is that it makes it convenient to choose. Since we all have a limited time budget, many of us only have real freedom to choose, because we use Gentoo which makes it possible to choose with the distribution-tools. Therefore only calling it “choice” doesn't ring true in general - it misses the reason, why we can choose. So what Gentoo gives me is not just choice, but convenient choice. Some examples to illustrate the point: ## KDE 4 without qt3 I recently rebuilt my system after deciding to switch my disk layout (away from reiserfs towards a simple ext3 with reiser4 for the portage tree). When doing so I decided to try to use a "pure" KDE 4 - that means, a KDE 4 without any remains from KDE3 or qt3. To use kde without any qt3 applications, I just had to put "-qt3" and "-qt3support" into my useflags in /etc/make.conf and "emerge -uDN world" (and solve any arising conflicts). Imagine doing the same with a (K)Ubuntu... ## Emacs support Similarly to enable emacs support on my GentooXO (for all programs which can have emacs support), I just had to add the "emacs" useflag and "emerge -uDN world". ## Selecting which licenses to use Just add ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FSF-APPROVED @FSF-APPROVED-OTHER"  to your /etc/make.conf to make sure you only get software under licenses which are approved by the FSF. For only free licenses (regardless of the approved state) you can use: ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"  All others get marked as masked by license. Default (no ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf) is “* -@EULA”: No unfree software. You can check your setting via emerge --info | grep ACCEPT_LICENSE. More information… ## One program (suite) in testing, but the main system rock stable Another part where choosing is made convenient in Gentoo are testing and unstable programs. I remember my pain with a Kubuntu, where I wanted to use the most recent version of Amarok. I either had to add a dedicated Amarok-only testing repository (which I'd need for every single testing program), or I had to switch my whole system into testing. I did the latter and my graphical package manager ceased to work. Just imagine how quickly I ran back to Gentoo. And then have a look at the ease of deciding to take one package into testing in Gentoo: • emerge --autounmask-write =cathegory/package-version • etc-update • emerge =cathegory/package-version EDIT: Once I had a note here “It would be nice to be able to just add the missing dependencies with one call”. This is now possible with --autounmask-write. And for some special parts (like KDE 4) I can easily say something like • ln -s /usr/portage/local/layman/kde-testing/Documentation/package.keywords/kde-4.3.keywords /etc/portage/package.keywords/kde-4.3.keywords (I don't have the kde-testing overlay on my GentooXO, where I write this post, so the exact command might vary slightly) ## Closing remarks So to finish this post: For me, Gentoo is not only about choice. It is about convenient choice. And that means: Gentoo gives everybody the power to choose. I hope you enjoy it as I do! It's often said, that Gentoo is all about choice, but that doesn't quite fit what it is for me. After all, the highest ability to choose is Linux from scratch and I can have any amount of choice in every distribution by just going deep enough (and investing enough time). What really distinguishes Gentoo for me is that it makes it *convenient* to choose. # Automatic updates in Gentoo GNU/Linux To keep my Gentoo up to date, I use daily and weekly update scripts which also always run revdep-rebuild after the saturday night update :) My daily update is via pkgcore to pull in all important security updates: pmerge @glsa  That pulls in the Gentoo Linux Security Advisories - important updates with mostly short compile time. (You need pkgcore for that: "emerge pkgcore") Also I use two cron scripts. Note: It might be useful to add the lafilefixer to these scripts (source). The following is my daily update (in /etc/cron.daily/update_glsa_programs.cron ) ## Daily Cron \#! /bin/sh \### Update the portage tree and the glsa packages via pkgcore \# spew a status message echo$(date) "start to update GLSA" >> /tmp/cron-update.log

\# Sync only portage
pmaint sync /usr/portage

\# security relevant programs
pmerge -uDN @glsa > /tmp/cron-update-pkgcore-last.log || cat \
/tmp/cron-update-pkgcore-last.log >> /tmp/cron-update.log

\# And keep everything working
revdep-rebuild

\# Finally update all configs which can be updated automatically
cfg-update -au

echo $(date) "finished updating GLSA" >> /tmp/cron-update.log  And here's my weekly cron - executed every saturday night (in /etc/cron.weekly/update_installed_programs.cron ): ## Weekly Cron \#!/bin/sh \### Update my computer using pgkcore, \### since that also works if some dependencies couldn't be resolved. \# Sync all overlays eix-sync \## First use pkgcore \# security relevant programs (with build-time dependencies (-B)) pmerge -BuD @glsa \# system, world and all the rest pmerge -BuD @system pmerge -BuD @world pmerge -BuD @installed \# Then use portage for packages pkgcore misses (inlcuding overlays) \# and for *EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS="--keep-going"* in make.conf emerge -uD @security emerge -uD @system emerge -uD @world emerge -uD @installed \# And keep everything working emerge @preserved-rebuild revdep-rebuild \# Finally update all configs which can be updated automatically cfg-update -au  To keep my Gentoo up to date, I use [daily](#daily-cron) and [weekly](#weekly-cron) update scripts which also always run revdep-rebuild after the saturday night update :) My daily update is via pkgcore to pull in all important security updates: pmerge @glsaThat pulls in the Gentoo Linux Security Advisories - important updates with mostly short compile time. (You need pkgcore for that: "emerge pkgcore")Also I use two cron scripts. # pkgcore vs. eix → pix (find packages in Gentoo) For a long time it bugged me, that eix uses a seperate database which I need to keep up to date. But no longer: With pkgcore as fast as it is today, I set up pquery to replace eix. The result is pix: alias pix='pquery --raw -nv --attr=keywords'  (put the above in your ~/.bashrc) The output looks like this: $ pix pkgcore
* sys-apps/pkgcore
versions: 0.5.11.6 0.5.11.7
installed: 0.5.11.7
repo: gentoo
description: pkgcore package manager
homepage: http://www.pkgcore.org
keywords: ~alpha ~amd64 ~arm ~hppa ~ia64 ~ppc ~ppc64 ~s390 ~sh ~sparc ~x86

It’s still a bit slower than eix, but it operates directly on the portage tree and my overlays — and I no longer have to use eix-sync for syncing my overlays, just to make sure eix is updated.

## Some other treats of pkgcore

Aside from pquery, pkgcore also offers pmerge to install packages (almost the same syntax as emerge) and pmaint for synchronizing and other maintenance stuff.

From my experience, pmerge is hellishly fast for simple installs like pmerge kde-misc/pyrad, but it sometimes breaks with world updates. In that case I just fall back on portage. Both are Python, so when you have one, adding the other is very cheap (spacewise).

Also pmerge has the nice pmerge @glsa feature: Get Gentoo Linux security updates. Due to it’s almost unreal speed (compared to portage) checking for security updates now doesn’t hurt anymore.

# How to make a million dollars in pay-what-you-want — thoughts on the Humble Indie Bundle

Some thoughts1 on how the humble Indie Bundle managed to get more than 1.25 Million Dollars2 in one and a half weeks — more than one quarter of that from GNU/Linux users.

Let me repeat that: One quarter of the money came from GNU/Linux users. And the average GNU/Linux user paid almost twice as much for the game as the average Windows user.

How they did it? If I could give you a simple recipe which is certain to work for everyone, I might just hire up at Blizzard.

But I think a big part is that (from my view — and obviously from the view of others, too) they did everything right. And I mean everything:

• The games are great.

• The message the name “humble indie bundle” conveys is great.

• You could pay whatever you want. From 1 cent to a million. The highest single contribution was 3,333.33$, with an average contribution of$9.17 over all platforms and $14.52 from the average GNU/Linux user3. • You could directly see how much money they made on the front page, along with an info about the average contribution, split by platform. • Normally each game would have cost 20$, so the average payment for all games also was a significant price drop.

• They donated about one third to charitable organizations. The buyers could decide how much should go to whom.

• Payment was easy via Paypal and others.

• All games work on GNU/Linux, MacOSX and Windows out of the box.

• They use no DRM or similar, so I can show the games to friends and won’t be troubled by use restrictions.

• And on the last day they announced that for 4 of the 6 games the code would become free software if they would crack the 1 million dollar boundary. It took just over 16 more hours to raise additional 200,000$. And they followed up on their pledge with 2 games already freed and 2 more to follow as soon as the code is cleaned up. To wrap it up: They did everything right, so almost everybody who saw it was delighted and there was nothing to break the viral network effects. And I think that getting any one of these points wrong would have killed a major part of the network effect, because the naysayers are far stronger in the networking game than the fans. Any foul trick would have cost them many fans, because someone would have been bound to find out and go viral with it. 1. Originally written as comment to Why Games don't get ported to Linux...A game dev speaks 2. Stats directly from the Website of the Humble Indie Bundle 3. More exactly: • Total revenue:$1,273,593
• Number of contributions: 138,812
• Average contribution: $9.17 • Windows:$8.05
• MacOSX: $10.18 • GNU/Linux:$14.52

Some thoughts[^source] on how the humble Indie Bundle managed to get more than 1.25 Million Dollars[^stats1] in one and a half weeks — more than one quarter of that from GNU/Linux users. [^stats1]: Stats directly from the [Website of the Humble Indie Bundle](http://www.wolfire.com/humble).[^source]: Originally written as comment to [Why Games don't get ported to Linux...A game dev speaks](http://linuxlock.blogspot.com/2010/05/why-games-dont-get-ported-to-linuxa.html).

# Motivation and Reward

Debunking the myth that you can increase the performance of creative workers with carrot and stick.

Update: I sent this text to the gnu maintainers, and after the original article had been offline for several years, they now managed to convince Alfie Kohn to allow them to distribute the article again. So Studies Find Reward Often No Motivator is finally online again! → gnu.org/p/motivation.html
My text might not have been included on the GNU websites, but it fullfilled its purpose - though in a different way than I had expected.

Update: I got the feedback that some messages in this article are still unclear. It should not implicate, that “in order to increase motivation in the free software world people need to be offered a high income and a long term contract”. Paying a good income in a long term contract is a way to avoid the harmful effect payment can have on performance while enabling someone to work full-time on the project. An empirical study found, that the source and intensity of motivation of free software developers does not differ significantly between people who work for hire and people who work without payment, so many companies employing free software developers seem to do it right (or only the companies who do it right can keep their free software programmers).1

A few months ago, the GNU project had to withdraw its article on motivation and monetary reward, because its author did not allow them to spread it anymore. So I recreated its core - with references to solid research.

## Executive Summary

For creative tasks, the quality of performance strongly correllates with intrinsic motivation: Being interested in the task itself.

The main factors which are commonly associated with intrinsic motivation are:

• Positive verbal feedback which increases intrinsic motivation.
• Payment independent of performance which actually has no effect.
• Payment dependent on performance which reduces the motivation on the long term.
• Negative verbal feedback which directly reduces intrinsic motivation.
• Threatening someone with punishment which strongly reduces intrinsic motivation.

To make it short: Anything which diverts the focus from the task at hand towards some external matter (either positive or negative) reduces the intrinsic motivation and that in turn reduces work performance.

If you want to help people perform well, make sure that they don’t have to worry about other stuff besides their work and give them positive verbal feedback about the work they do.

Note: In the paper »Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free/Open Source Software Projects« from 2005, Karim R. Lakhani and Robert G Wolf showed empirically that the payment people get to work in free software projects has no detrimental effect on their intrinsic motivation. In their sample 40% of the developers were paid for their work on free software projects and their intrinsic motivation was as high as the motivation of unpaid developers.

## Background

Since this claim goes pretty much against the standard ideology of market-trusting economists, I want to back it with solid scientific background.

The easiest way to do that is going to google scholar and searching for research on motivation and rewards. It gives a meta-analysis of experiments on the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation:

A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.
— E.L. Deci, R Koestner, R.M. Ryan - Psychological bulletin, 1999 - psycnet.apa.org

This paper is cited by 2324 other papers Google knows about, which is an indicator of being accepted by the psychological community (except if it should have 2324 rebuttals) - an indicator which even those can understand who are not really versed in that community (for example me).

I dug into the paper to find solid scientific research on the effects of payment on motivation. And that led me to this older paper from Edward L. Deci:

The Effects of Contingent and Noncontingent Rewards and Controls on Intrinsic Motivation
— Edward L. Deci, University of Rochester, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 1972

Their research question was trying to find out if money paid unconditionally weakens intrinsic motivation like money paid for good performance:

» Two recent papers (Deci, 1971, 1972) have presented evidence that when money was paid to subjects for performing intrinsically motivated activities, and when that money was made contingent on their performance, they were less intrinsically motivated after the experience with money than were subjects who performed the same activity for no pay.«

This is about intrinsic motivation: The kind of motivation which fuels artists and other creative people and allows them to do great deeds.

It’s the kind of motivation, a company should try to inspire in every employee who does anything remotely creative or complex.

### What reduces intrinsic motivation

There was previous research which showed a reduction of intrinsic motivation due to payment. To make their research solid, the first thing E.L. Deci and his group did was a replication to ensure that the basic theory is correct.

In another experiment using the one-session paradigm, Deci and Cascio (1972) showed that negative feedback resulting from bad performance on an intrinsically motivated activity caused a decrease in intrinsic motivation.

In my words: Tell people that they do bad work and you reduce their motivation - not surprisingly.

“Your performance sucks” → intrinsic motivation decreases.

Further, Deci and Caseio (1972) reported that when subjects were threatened with punishment for poor performance, their intrinsic motivation also decreased.

Threaten people, and their motivation gets reduced, too.

“If you fail, you’re fired” → intrinsic motivation decreases.

[…]Deci (1972) replicated the finding that subjects who were paid one dollar per puzzle solved showed a decrease in intrinsic motivation.

Pay people for good performance and you reduce their motivation.

“For each housing loan you sell, you get 20€” → intrinsic motivation decreases.

This is the result which actually marks all the performance-based payment schemes which are so popular with the administration folks as utter nonsense - at least for creative and complex jobs.

For those jobs your employees enjoy doing, bonusses actually decrease performance on the long run. These are the kinds of jobs in which people can work overnight and concentrated for hours and lose track of time while they work on systems which are too complex for most people to even pretend to understand. The kind of jobs where some people get into the flow and do more work in an hour than other people do in a week. Jobs in science, in programming and actually in any other topic in which you do not just follow prescribed rules but actually solve problems.

The kind of jobs which is more and more common, because jobs with prescribed rules can just as well be done by machines.

And social jobs, the other kind of jobs for which you need people, because people doing social jobs work with people and anything involving people is a complex problem by definition. At least if you want really good results.

Or, seen from a different perspective: If two companies compete in a segment of the market and one has motivated people and the other doesn’t - and other factors are mostly equal - then the company with motivated people wins.

So you want motivated people. And in creative, complex or social jobs, you want them intrinsically motivated. You want them to do a good job for the sake of doing a good job.

Which means, you want to avoid

• giving them negative feedback,
• threatening them and
• paying them based on their performance.

With that in mind, let us go on: How can we actually motivate people?

### What enhances motivation

To answer that, let’s listen to research again:

On the other hand, Deei (1971, 1972) has reported that verbal reinforcements do not decrease intrinsic motivation; in fact, they appear to enhance it.

So, to increase motivation, tell people that they do good work.

„I like that plan! Go for it!“ → intrinsic motivation increases.

That’s all you can do. Tell them that they do good work. Encourage them.

But isn’t there a paradox? How can we actually employ people, if paying them money for good work decreases their motivation?

### How to pay motivated people?

That’s the real question, the paper from Edward L. Deci tackled:

While extrinsic rewards such as money can certainly motivate behavior, they appear to be doing so at the expense of intrinsic motivation. […but…] when payments were not contingent upon performance, intrinsic motivation did not decrease.

So the answer is pretty simple: Just pay them money independent of how well they do.

„You get 3000€ a month. Flat. That’s enough to lead a good life.“2 → intrinsic motivation stays stable.

The real trick is to just give them money, independent of how well they do. If motivated people work for you, ensure that they do not have to worry about money. Do all you can to take money concerns off their mind.

And tell them what they do well.

At least that’s what you should do if you want to base your actions on research instead of on the broken intuition of people who get paid for their performance in convincing you of their ideology (and consequently often do so in blatant, uncreative ways).

If you do that already: That’s great! Likely it’s really cool to work with you.

## Illustration

A very illustrative experiment on losing intrinsic interest due to external reward was done by Lepper, Mark R.; Greene, David; Nisbett, Richard E..3

They observed three groups of pre-school children. The first group was told that they would get a “certificate with a gold seal and ribbon” if they would draw something. The second group wasn’t told that they would get a reward, but got it after drawing, too. The third group did not get any reward and did not expect any.

Before the start of the experiment, their intrinsic interest in drawing was measured by observing how much time they spent drawing when they had the chance.

One to two weeks after the experiment, the intrinsic interest of the children was measured again by observing them through a one-way mirror.

In that subsequent measurement, the children who had been told that they would get the reward for drawing (and had gotten the reward) used half as much time for drawing as those who had not gotten any reward or those who had gotten an unexpected reward.

And even when the pictures which they had drawn during the initial test were compared, the pictures from the group who expected a reward were of significantly lower quality than the pictures from the two other groups. the difference between expected extrinsic reward and no reward was 2.18 vs. 2.69 on an independently judged quality scale between 1 (very poor) and 5 (very good).

So offering children a reward for drawing not only reduces their intrinsic interest in drawing, but also reduces the quality of the pictures they draw.

And this is perfectly in line with the results from the paper from Edward L. Deci on intrinsic motivation of adults.

## Summary

To increase the motivation of people, DO

• Pay them a good monthly income, so they don’t have to worry about money, and
• Give them positive verbal feedback on the things they do well.

And should you happen to be interested in helping a free software project with money, just employ some of the people hacking on the project - and give them a good, longterm contract with enough freedom of choice, so they don’t have to worry about money or what they are allowed to do, but can instead focus on working to make the project succeed - like they did before you employed them, but now with much more time at their disposal. And, as with anything else, give them positive feedback on the things they do well.

If you want to help people perform well, make sure that they don’t have to worry about other stuff besides their work and give them positive verbal feedback about the work they do.

1. We find […], that enjoyment-based intrinsic motivation, namely how creative a person feels when working on the project, is the strongest and most pervasive driver. The source and intensity of motivation of free software developers does not differ significantly between people who work for hire and people who work without payment. From Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free/Open Source Software Projects by Karim R. Lakhani* and Robert G Wolf** from the * MIT Sloan School of Management | The Boston Consulting Group and ** The Boston Consulting Group.

2. Actually the ideal yearly income would be 60.000€, but only few people earn that much. Which might be a societal problem in itself which limits the performance we could have as society. If that’s something you want to tackle: Head into politics and change the world - or found a company and do it right from the start. There’s a lot which even a small group of motivated people can achieve.

3. Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward by Mark R. Lepper and David Greene from Stanford University and Richard E. Nisbett from the University of Michigan, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 28(1), Oct 1973, 129-137. doi: 10.1037/h0035519

> *Debunking the myth that you can increase the performance of creative workers with carrot and stick.*> **Update**: I sent this text to the gnu maintainers, and after the original article had been offline for several years, they now managed to convince Alfie Kohn to allow them to distribute the article again. So [Studies Find Reward Often No Motivator](http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/motivation.html) is finally **online again**! → **[gnu.org/p/motivation.html](http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/motivation.html)** *My text might not have been included on the GNU websites, but it fullfilled its purpose - though in a different way than I had expected.*> **Update**: I got the feedback that some messages in this article are still unclear. It should not implicate, that *“in order to increase motivation in the free software world people need to be offered a high income and a long term contract”*. Paying a **good income in a long term contract** is a way to **avoid the harmful effect payment can have on performance** while **enabling someone to work full-time** on the project. An empirical study [found](/light/english/motivation-and-payment#fn:why-hackers-do), that *the source and intensity of motivation of free software developers does not differ significantly between people who work for hire and people who work without payment*, so many companies employing free software developers seem to do it right (or only the companies who do it right can keep their free software programmers).[^why-hackers-do][^why-hackers-do]: *We find […], thatenjoyment-based intrinsic motivation, namely how creative a person feels when working on theproject, is the strongest and most pervasive driver.* The source and intensity of motivation of free software developers does not differ significantly between people who work for hire and people who work without payment. From [Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free/Open Source Software Projects](http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/sloan-school-of-management/15-352-managing-innovation-emerging-trends-spring-2005/readings/lakhaniwolf.pdf) by Karim R. Lakhani* and Robert G Wolf** from the * MIT Sloan School of Management | The Boston Consulting Group and ** The Boston Consulting Group. *A few months ago, the [GNU project](http://gnu.org) had to withdraw its article onmotivation and monetary reward, because its author did not allow themto spread it anymore. So I recreated its core - with references to [solid research](http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/bul/125/6/627/).*## Executive SummaryFor *creative tasks*, the quality of performance strongly correllates with *intrinsic motivation*: Being interested in the task itself.This article will only talk about that.The main factors which are commonly associated with intrinsic motivation are:- *Positive verbal feedback* which *increases* intrinsic motivation.- *Payment independent* of performance which actually has *no effect*.- *Payment dependent* on performance which *reduces* the motivation on the long term.- *Negative verbal feedback* which directly *reduces* intrinsic motivation.- *Threatening someone with punishment* which *strongly reduces* intrinsic motivation.To make it short: Anything which diverts the focus from the task at handtowards some external matter (either positive or negative) reduces theintrinsic motivation and that in turn reduces work performance.> **If you want to help people perform well, make sure that they> don’t have to worry about other stuff besides their work > and give them positive verbal feedback about the work they do.**> **Note**: In the paper »[Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free/Open Source Software Projects](http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/sloan-school-of-management/15-352-managing-innovation-emerging-trends-spring-2005/readings/lakhaniwolf.pdf)« from 2005, Karim R. Lakhani and Robert G Wolf showed empirically that the payment people get to work *in free software projects* has *no detrimental effect* on their intrinsic motivation. In their sample 40% of the developers were paid for their work on free software projects and their intrinsic motivation was as high as the motivation of unpaid developers.

# No, it ain’t “forever” (GNU Hurd code_swarm from 1991 to 2010)

If the video doesn’t show, you can also download it as Ogg Theora & Vorbis “.ogv” or find it on youtube.

This video shows the activity of the Hurd coders and answers some common questions about the Hurd, including “How stagnated is Hurd compared to Duke Nukem Forever?”. It is created directly from commits to Hurd repositories, processed by community codeswarm.

Every shimmering dot is a change to a file. These dots align around the coder who did the change. The questions and answers are quotes from todays IRC discussions (2010-07-13) in #hurd at irc.freenode.net.

You can clearly see the influx of developers in 2003/2004 and then again a strenthening of the development in 2008 with less participants but higher activity than 2003 (though a part of that change likely comes from the switch to git with generally more but smaller commits).

I hope you enjoyed the high-level look on the activity of the Hurd project!

PS: The last part is only the information title with music to honor Sean Wright for allowing everyone to use and adapt his Album Enchanted.

*If the video doesn’t show, you can also download it as Ogg Theora &amp; Vorbis “.ogv” or find it on youtube.*

# Some technical advantages of the Hurd

→ An answer to just accept it, truth hurds, where Flameeyes told his reasons for not liking the Hurd and asked for technical advantages (and claimed, that the Hurd does not offer a concept which got incorporated into other free software, contributing to other projects). Note: These are the points I see. Very likely there are more technical advantages which I don’t see well enough to explain them. Please feel free to point them out.

Information for potential testers: The Hurd is already usable, but it is not yet in production state. It progressed a lot during the recent years, though. Have a look at the status report if you want to see if it’s already interesting for you. See running the Hurd for testing it yourself.

## Influence on other systems: FUSE in Linux and limited translators in BSD

Firstoff: FUSE is essentially an implementation of parts of the translator system (which is the main building block of the Hurd) to Linux, and NetBSD recently got a port of the translators system of the Hurd. That’s the main contribution to other projects that I see.

## translator-based filesystem

On the bare technical side, the translator-based filesystem stands out: The filesystem allows for making arbitrary programs responsible for displaying a given node (which can also be a directory tree) and to start these programs on demand. To make them persistent over reboots, you only need to add them to the filesystem node (for which you need the right to change that node). Also you can start translators on any node without having to change the node itself, but then they are not persistent and only affect your view of the filesystem without affecting other users. These translators are called active, and you don’t need write permissions on a node to add them.

## network transparency on the filesystem level

The filesystem implements stuff like Gnome VFS (gvfs) and KDE network transparency on the filesystem level, so those are available for all programs. And you can add a new filesystem as simple user, just as if you’d just write into a file “instead of this node, show the filesystem you get by interpreting file X with filesystem Y” (this is what you actually do when setting a translator but not yet starting it (passive translator)).

One practical advantage of this is that the following works:

settrans -a ftp\: /hurd/hostmux /hurd/ftpfs /
dpkg -i ftp://ftp.gnu.org/path/to/*.deb


This installs all deb-packages in the folder path/to on the FTP server. The shell sees normal directories (beginning with the directory “ftp:”), so shell expressions just work.

You could even define a Gentoo mirror translator (settrans mirror\: /hurd/gentoo-mirror), so every program could just access mirror://gentoo/portage-2.2.0_alpha31.tar.bz2 and get the data from a mirror automatically: wget mirror://gentoo/portage-2.2.0_alpha31.tar.bz2

## unionmount as user

Or you could add a unionmount translator to root which makes writes happen at another place. Every user is able to make a readonly system readwrite by just specifying where the writes should go. But the writes only affect his view of the filesystem.

## persistent translators, started when needed

Starting a network process is done by a translator, too: The first time something accesses the network card, the network translator starts up and actually provides the device. This replaces most initscripts in the Hurd: Just add a translator to a node, and the service will persist over restarts.

It’s a surprisingly simple concept, which reduces the complexity of many basic tasks needed for desktop systems.

And at its most basic level, Hurd is a set of protocols for messages which allow using the filesystem to coordinate and connect processes (along with helper libraries to make that easy).

## add permissions at runtime (capabilities)

Also it adds POSIX compatibility to Mach while still providing access to the capabilities-based access rights underneath, if you need them: You can give a process permissions at runtime and take them away at will. For example you can start all programs without permission to use the network (or write to any file) and add the permissions when you need them.

Different from Linux, you do not need to start privileged and drop permissions you do not need (goverened by the program which is run), but you start as unprivileged process and add the permissions you need (governed by an external process):

groups # → root
addauth -p $(ps -L) -g mail groups # → root mail  ## lightweight virtualization And then there are subhurds (essentially lightweight virtualization which allows cutting off processes from other processes without the overhead of creating a virtual machine for each process). But that’s an entire post of its own… ## Easy to test lowlevel hacking And the fact that a translator is just a simple standalone program means that these can be shared and tested much more easily, opening up completely new options for lowlevel hacking, because it massively lowers the barrier of entry. For example the current Hurd can use the Linux network device drivers and run them in userspace (via DDE), so you can simply restart them and a crashing driver won’t bring down your system. ## subdividing memory management And then there is the possibility of subdividing memory management and using different microkernels (by porting the Hurd layer, as partly done in the NetBSD port), but that is purely academic right now (search for Viengoos to see what its about). ## Summary So in short: The translator system in the Hurd is a simple concept which makes many tasks easy, which are complex with Linux (like init, network transparency, new filesystems, …). Additionally there are capabilities (give programs only the access they need - at runtime), subhurds and (academic) memory management. Best wishes, Arne PS: I decided to read flameeyes’ post as “please give me technical reasons to dispell my emotional impression”. PPS: If you liked this post, it would be cool if you’d flattr it: PPPS: Additional information can be found in Gaël Le Mignot’s talk notes, in niches for the Hurd and the GNU Hurd documentation pages. P4S: This post is also available in the Hurd Staging Wiki. *→ An answer to [just accept it, truth hurds](http://blog.flameeyes.eu/2011/05/15/just-accept-it-truth-hurds), where Flameeyes told his reasons for not liking the Hurd and asked for technical advantages (and claimed, that the Hurd does not offer a concept which got incorporated into other free software, contributing to other projects). Note: These are the points I see. Very likely there are more technical advantages which I don’t see well enough to explain them. Please feel free to [point them out](/comment/reply/447#comment-form).**__Information for potential testers:__ The Hurd is already usable, but it is not yet in production state. It progressed a lot during the recent years, though. Have a look at the [status report](http://www.gnu.org/software/hurd/hurd/status.html) if you want to see if it’s already interesting for you. See [running the Hurd](http://www.gnu.org/software/hurd/#index4h1) for testing it yourself.*Thanks for explaining your reasons. As answer: h2 {padding-left: 1em}## Influence on other systems: FUSE in Linux and limited translators in BSDFirstoff: [FUSE](http://fuse.sourceforge.net/) is essentially an implementation of parts of the [translator system](http://www.gnu.org/software/hurd/hurd/documentation/translators.html) (which is the main building block of the [Hurd](http://hurd.gnu.org)) to Linux, and NetBSD recently got a [port of the translators system of the Hurd](http://netbsd-soc.sourceforge.net/projects/hurdt/). That’s the main contribution to other projects that I see. ## translator-based filesystemOn the bare technical side, the **translator-based filesystem** stands out: The filesystem allows for making arbitrary programs responsible for displaying a given node (which can also be a directory tree) and to start these programs on demand. To make them persistent over reboots, you only need to add them to the filesystem node (for which you need the right to change that node). Also you can start translators on any node without having to change the node itself, but then they are not persistent and only affect your view of the filesystem without affecting other users. These translators are called active, and you don’t need write permissions on a node to add them. # (A)GPL as hack on a Python-powered copyright system AGPL is a hack on copyright, so it has to use copyright, else it would not compile/run. All the GPL licenses are a hack on copyright. They insert a piece of legal code into copyright law to force it to turn around on itself. You run that on the copyright system, and it gives you code which can’t be made unfree. To be able to do that, it has to be written in copyright language (else it could not be interpreted). my_code = "<your code>" def AGPL ( code ): """ >>> is_free ( AGPL ( code ) ) True """ return eval ( transform_to_free ( code ) ) copyright ( AGPL ( my_code ) )  You pass “AGPL ( code )” to the copyright system, and it ensures the freedom of the code. The transformation means that I am allowed to change your code, as long as I keep the transformation, because copyright law sees only the version transformed by AGPL, and that stays valid. Naturally both AGPL definition and the code transformed to free © must be ©-compatible. And that means: All rights reserved. Else I could go in and say: I just redefine AGPL and make your code unfree without ever touching the code itself (which is initially owned by you by the laws of ©): def AGPL ( code ): """ >>> is_free ( AGPL ( code ) ) False """ return eval ( transform_to_mine ( code ) )  In this Python-powered copyright-system, I could just define this after your definition but before your call to copyright(), and all calls to APGL ( code ) would suddenly return code owned by me. Or you would have to include another way of defining which exact AGPL you mean. Something like “AGPL, but only the versions with the sha1 hashes AAAA BBBB and AABA”. cc tries to use links for that, but what do you do if someone changes the DNS resolution to point creativecommons.org to allmine.com? Whose DNS server is right, then - legally speaking? In short: AGPL is a hack on copyright, so it has to use copyright, else it would not compile/run. *AGPL is a hack on copyright, so it has to use copyright, else it would not compile/run.*All the GPL licenses are a hack on copyright. They insert a piece of legal code into copyright law to force it to turn around on itself. You run that on the copyright system, and it gives you code which can’t be made unfree.To be able to do that, it has to be written in copyright language (else it could not be interpreted). my_code = "" def AGPL ( code ): """ >>> is_free ( AGPL ( code ) ) True """ return eval ( transform_to_free ( code ) ) copyright ( AGPL ( my_code ) )You pass “AGPL ( code )” to the copyright system, and it ensures the freedom of the code. # 7,26€ through Flattr last month Last month I earned 7,26€ through my Flattr account (Flattr is a voluntary payment service where people can make micropayments if they like something - after enjoying it). The flattrs came in through just 4 items: Thank you very much for your flattrs, dear supporters1! Thanks to you I could pay most of my server cost this month via the money from flattr - and that’s great!2 1. This month I was flattred by eileentso, esocom, Elleo and a user who wanted to stay anonymous. Thank you again! 2. And being able to pay the server might become much more important in the following months, as soon as my wife’s parental money runs out and I need to finance the family from a (50%) PhD-salary for a year… Last month I earned 7,26€ through my [Flattr account](https://flattr.com/profile/ArneBab) (Flattr is a voluntary payment service where people can make micropayments if they like something - *after* enjoying it). The flattrs came in through just 4 items: * The incremental [Mercurial](http://mercurial.selenic.com) guide, [“Learning Mercurial in Workflows”](http://draketo.de/light/english/mercurial/learning-mercurial-workflows).* The [Freenet](http://freenetproject.org) promotion [“I hope French Filesharers turn to Freenet”](http://draketo.de/light/english/comments/french-filesharers-turn-to-freenet) *(written in reply to news about millions of hadopi letters)*.* The [Esperanto]() version of my free one page pen-and-paper roleplaying game: The [“Slipoj-Rolludo”](http://1w6.org/esperanto/slipoj-rolludo).* And my free software song [“Infinite Hands”](http://infinite-hands.draketo.de).Thank you very much for your flattrs, dear supporters[^flattr-contrib]! Thanks to you I could pay most of my server cost this month via the money from flattr - and that’s great![^needed] [^flattr-contrib]: This month I was flattred by [eileentso](https://flattr.com/profile/eileentso), [esocom](https://flattr.com/profile/esocom), [Elleo](https://flattr.com/profile/esocom) and a user who wanted to stay anonymous. Thank you again![^needed]: And being able to pay the server might become much more important in the following months, as soon as my wife’s parental money runs out and I need to finance the family from a (50%) PhD-salary for a year… # A simple solution to the dining philosophers problem ### The problem 5 Philosophers do nothing but eat and think. They have a table with 5 chairs, 5 plates and 5 forks. Each of them eats with two forks. Ensure that none of them starves. ### The solution First I teach them to always take the left fork first. Then I smash one of their chairs. ### Explanation Since they can't repair the chair (they think, but they don't build), there are only 4 places left, and so they have one leftover fork which gets passed on, once one finished eating. Inspired by Willim Stallings' Operating systems: "Use a servant who lets only 4 dine at the same time" Naturally now they have to either change places or move chairs, so they might still need a servant :) The problem5 Philosophers do nothing but eat and think. They have a table with 5 chairs, 5 plates and 5 forks. Each of them eats with two forks. Ensure that none of them starves. The solutionFirst I teach them to always take the left fork first. Then I smash one of their chairs. Explanation # Censorship in the Streets — it’s idiocy everywhere A man in the streets faces a knife. Two policemen are there it once. They raise a sign: “Illegal Scene! Noone may watch this!”  The man gets robbed and stabbed and bleeds to death. The police had to hold the sign. Welcome to Europe, citizen. Censorship is beautiful. → Courtesy to Censilia, who wants censorship in the EU after it failed in Germany. You might also be interested in 11 more reasons why censorship is useless and harmful. PS: This poem is free and permissively licensed: Please feel free to use it anyway you like, as long as you provide a backlink. A man in the streets faces a knife. Two policemen are there it once. They raise a sign: “Illegal Scene! Noone may watch this!”The man gets robbed and stabbed and bleeds to death. The police had to hold the sign. …Welcome to Europe, citizen. Censorship is beautiful. *→ Courtesy to [Censilia](https://scusiblog.org/?p=3706), who wants censorship in the EU after it failed in Germany. You might also be interested in [11 more reasons](http://mrtopf.de/blog/en/10-reasons-against-access-blocking/) why censorship is useless and harmful.**PS: This poem is free and permissively licensed: Please feel free to use it anyway you like, as long as you provide a [backlink](http://draketo.de/light/english/censorship-streets-it-s-idiocy-everywhere).* # Communicating your project: honest marketing for free software projects Communicating your project is an essential step for getting users. Here I summarize my experience from working on several different projects including KDE (where I learned the basics of PR - yay, sebas!), the Hurd (where I could really make a difference by improving the frontpage and writing the Month of the Hurd), Mercurial (where I practiced the minimally invasive PR) and 1d6 (my own free RPG where I see how much harder it is to do PR, if the project to communicate is your own). Since voicing the claim that marketing is important often leads to discussions with people who hate marketing of any kind, I added an appendix with an example which illustrates nicely what happens when you don’t do any PR - and what happens if you do PR of the wrong kind. If you’re pressed for time and want the really short form, just jump to the questionnaire. ## What is good marketing? Before we jump directly to the guide, there is an important term to define: Good marketing. That is the kind of marketing, we want to do. The definition I use here is this: Good marketing ensures that the people to whom a project would be useful learn about the project. and Good marketing starts with the existing strengths of a project and finds people to whom these strengths are useful. Thus good marketing does not try to interfere with the greater plan of the project, though it might identify some points where a little effort can make the project much more interesting to users. Instead it finds users to whom the project as it is can be useful - and ensures that these know about the project. Be fair to competitors, be honest to users, put the project goals before generic marketing considerations As such, good marketing is an interface between the project and its (potential) users. ## How to communicate your project? This guide depends on one condition: Your project already has at least one area in which it excels over other projects. If that isn’t the case, please start by making your project useful to at least some people. The basic way for communicating your project to its potential users always follows the same steps. To make this text easier to follow, I’ll intersperse it with examples from the latest project where I did this analysis: GNU Guile: The GNU Ubiquitous Intelligent Language for Extensions. Guile provides a nice example, because its mission is clearly established in its name and it has lots of backing, but up until our discussion actually had a wikipedia-page which was unappealing to the point of being hostile against Guile itself. To improve the communication of our project, we first identify our target groups. ### Who are our Target Groups? To do so, we begin by asking ourselves, who would profit from our project: • What can we do well and how do we compare to others? • To whom would we already be useful or interesting if people knew about our strengths? • To whom are we already the best option? Try to find about 3 groups of people and give them names which identify them. Those are the people we must reach to grow on the short term. In the next step, we ask ourselves, whom we want or need as users to fullfill our mission (our long-term goal): • Where do we want to get? What is our goal? (do we have a mission statement?) • Whom do we need to get there? • Whom do we want as users? Those shape us as they take part in the development - either as users or as fellow developers. Again try to find about 3 groups of people and give them names which identify them. Those are the people we must reach to achieve our longterm goal. If while writing this down you find that one of the already identified groups which we could reach would actually detract us from our goal, mark them. If they aren’t direly needed, we would do best to avoid targeting them in our communication, because they will hinder us in our longterm progress: They could become a liability which we cannot get rid of again. Now we have about 6 target groups: Those are the people who should know about our project, either because they would benefit from it for pursuing their goals, or because we need to reach them to achieve our own goals. We now need to find out, which kind of information they actually need or search. #### Example: Target Groups for Guile GNU Guile is called The GNU Ubiquitous Intelligent Language for Extensions. So its mission is clear: Guile wants to become the de-facto standard language for extending programs - at least within the GNU project. ##### For whom are we already useful or interesting? Name them as Target-Groups. 1. Schemer: Wants to see what GNU Scheme can do. 2. Extender: GNU enthusiast wants to extend an existing program with a scripting language. 3. Learner: Free Software enthusiast thinks about using Guile to learn programming 4. Project-Starter: Experienced Programmer wants to start a new project. 5. 1337: Programmer wants the coolness-factor. 6. Emacser: Emacs users want to see what the potential future of Emacs would hold. ##### Whom do we want as users on the long run? Name them as Target-Groups. \7. GNU-folk: All GNU developers. ### What could they ask? This part just requires thinking ourselves into the role of each of the target groups. For each of the target groups, ask yourself: What would you want to know, if you were to read about our project? As result of this step, we have a set of answers. Judge them on their strengths: Would these answers make you want to invest time to test our project? If not, can we find a better answer? #### Example: Questions for the Target-Groups of Guile 1. Schemer: What can guile do better than other Schemes? 2. Extender: What does Guile offer my program? Why Guile and not Python/Lua? 3. Learner: How easy and how powerful is Guile Scheme? Why Guile and not Python? 4. Starter: What’s the advantage of starting my advanced project with guile? 5. 1337: Why is guile cool? 6. Emacser: What does Guile offer for Emacs? 7. GNU-folk: What does Guile offer my program? (Being a GNU package is a distinct advantage, so there is less competition by non-GNU languages) ### Whose wishes can we fullfill? If our answers for a given group are not yet strong enough, we cannot yet communicate our project convincingly to them. In that case it is best to postpone reaching out to that group, otherwise they could get a lasting weak image of our project which would make it harder to reach them when we have stronger answers at some point in the future. Remove all groups whose wishes we cannot yet fullfill, or for whom we do not see ourselves as the best choice. #### Example: Chosen Target-Groups 1. Schemer: Guile is a solid implementation of Scheme. For a comparison, see An opinionated Guide to Scheme implementations. 2. Extender: The guile manual offers a nicely detailed guide for extending a program with Guile. We’re a bit weak on the examples and existing extensions, though, especially on non-GNU-plattforms. 3. Learner: There aren’t yet tutorials for learning to program in Guile, though there are tutorials for learning to write scheme - and even one for understanding Scheme from the view of a Python-user. But our project resources cannot yet support people who cannot program at all well enough, so we have to restrict ourselves to programmers who want to learn a new language. 4. Starter: Guile has solid support for many unix-specific things, but it is not yet a complete project-publishing solution. So we have to restrict ourselves to targeting people who want to start a project which is mainly intended to be used in environments with proper package management (mostly GNU/Linux). 5. 1337: Guile is explicitely named in the GNU Coding Standards. It doesn’t get much cooler than that - at least for a certain idea of cool. We can’t get the Java-1337s, but we can get the Free Software-1337s. 6. Emacser: Guile provides foreign-function-call. If guile gets used as base for Emacs, Emacs users get direct access to all scheme functions, too - as well as real threading. And that’s pretty strong. Also Geiser provides solid Guile Scheme support in Emacs. 7. GNU-folk: They are either extenders or project starters or learners, so we don’t need to treat them as their own group. ### Provide those answers! Now we have answers for the target groups. When we now talk or write about our project, we should keep those target groups in mind. You can make that arbitrarily complex, for example by trying to find out which of our target groups use which medium. But lets keep it simple: Ensure that our website (and potentially existing wikipedia page) includes the information which matters to our target groups. Just take all the answers for all the target groups we can already reach and check whether the basic information contained in them is given on the front page of our website. And if not, find ways to add it. As next steps, we can make sure that the questions we found for the target groups not only get answered, but directly lead the target groups to actions: For example to start using our project. #### Example: The new Wikipedia-Page of Guile For Guile, we used this analysis to fix the Wikipedia-Page. The old-version mainly talked about history and weaknesses (to the point of sounding hostile towards Guile), and aside from the latest release number, it was horribly outdated. And it did not provide the information our target groups required. The current Wikipedia-Page of GNU Guile works much better - for the project as well as for the readers of the page. Just comare them directly and you’ll see quite a difference. But aside from sounding nicer, the new site also addresses the questions of our target groups. To check that, we now ask: Did we include information for all the potential user-groups? 1. Schemers: Yepp (it’s scheme and there’s a section on Guile Scheme 2. Extenders: Yepp (libguile) 3. Learners: Not yet. We might need a syntax-section with some examples. But wikipedians do not like Howto-Like sections. Also the interpreter should get a notice. 4. Project-Starters: Partly in the “core idea”-part in the section Guile Scheme. It might need one more paragraph showing advantages of Guile which make it especially suited for that. 5. 1337s: It is the preferred extension system for the GNU Project. If you’re not that kind of 1337: The Macro-System is hygienic (no surprising side-effects). 6. Emacs users: They got their own section. So there you go: Not perfect, but most of the groups are covered. And this also ensures that the Wikipedia-page is more interesting to its readers: A clear win-win. ### Further points Additional points which we should keep in mind: • On the website, do all of our target groups quickly find their way to advanced information about their questions? This is essential to keep the ones interested who aren’t completely taken by the short answers. • What is a common negative misconception about our project? We need to ensure that we do not write anything which strengthens this misconception. Is there an existing strength, which we can show to counter the negative misconception? • Where do we want to go? Do we have a mission statement? ## bab-com q: Arne Babenhauserheide’s Project Communication Questionaire • For whom are we already useful or interesting? Name them as Target-Groups. • (1) • (2) • (3) • Whom do we want as users on the long run? Name them as Target-Groups. • (4) • (5) • (6) • What could the Target-Groups ask? What are their needs? Formulate them as questions. • (1) • (2) • (3) • (4) • (5) • (6) • Answer their questions. • (1) • (2) • (3) • (4) • (5) • (6) • Whose needs can we already fulfill well? For whom do we see ourselves as the best choice? • (1) • (2) • (3) • (4) • Ensure that our communication includes the answers to these questions (i.e. website, wikipedia page, talks, …), at least for the groups who are likely to use the medium on which we communicate! Use bab-com to avoid bad-com ☺ ## Note: The mission statement The mission statement is a short paragraph in which a project defines its goal. A good example is: Our mission is to create a general-purpose kernel suitable for the GNU operating system, which is viable for everyday use, and gives users and programs as much control over their computing environment as possible.GNU Hurd mission explained Another example again comes from Guile: Guile was conceived by the GNU Project following the fantastic success of Emacs Lisp as an extension language within Emacs. Just as Emacs Lisp allowed complete and unanticipated applications to be written within the Emacs environment, the idea was that Guile should do the same for other GNU Project applications. This remains true today.Guile and the GNU project Closely tied to the mission statement is the slogan: A catch-phrase which helps anchoring the gist of your project in your readers mind. Guile does not have that, yet, but judging from its strengths, the following could work quite well for Guile 2.0 - though it falls short of Guile in general: GNU Guile scripting: Use Guile Scheme, reuse anything. ## Summary We saw why it is essential to communicate the project to the outside, and we discussed a simple structure to check whether our way of communication actually fits our projects strengths and goals. Finding the communication strategy actually boils down to 3 steps: • Target those who would profit from our project or whom we need. • Check what they need to know. • Answer that. Also a clear mission statement, slogan and project description help to make the project more tangible for readers. In this context, good marketing means to ensure that people learn about the real strengths of the project. With that I’ll conclude this guide. Have fun and happy hacking! — Arne Babenhauserheide ## Appendix: Why communicating your project? In free software we often think that quality is a guarantee for success. But in just the 10 years I’ve been using free software nowadays, I saw my share of technically great projects succumbing to inferior projects which simply reached more people and used that to build a dynamic which greatly outpaced the technically better product. One example for that are pkgcore and paludis. When portage, the package manager of Gentoo, grew too slow because it did ever more extensive tests, two teams set out to build a replacement. One of the teams decided that the fault of the low performance lay in Python, the language used by portage. That team built a package manager in C++ and had --wonderfully-long-command-options without shortcuts (have fun typing), and you actually had to run it twice: Once to see what would get installed and then again to actually install it (while portage had had an --ask option for ages, with -a as shortcut). And it forgot all the work it had done in the previous run, so you could wait twice as long for the result. They also had wonderful latin names, and they managed the feat of being even slower than portage, despite being written in C++. So their claim that C++ would be magically faster than python was simply wrong. They called their program paludis. Note: Nowadays paludis has a completely new commandline interface which actually supports short command options. That interface is called cave and looks sane. The other team did a performance analysis and realized that the low performance actually lay with the filesystem: The portage tree, which holds the required information, contains about 30,000 ebuilds and almost 200,000 files in total, and portage accessed far more of those files than actually needed for resolving the dependencies needed to install the package. They picked python as their language - just like portage. They used almost the same commandline options as portage, except for the places where functionality differed. And they actually got orders of magnitude faster than portage - so fast that their search command often finished after less than a second while. portage took over 10 seconds. They called their program pkgcore. Both had more exact resolution of packages and could break cyclic dependencies and so on. So, judging from my account of the quality, which project would you expect to succeed? I sure expected pkgcore to replace portage within a few months. But this is not what happened. And as I see it in hindsight, the difference lay purely in PR. The paludis team with their slow and hard-to-use program went all over the Gentoo forums claiming that Python is a horrible language and that a C program will kick portage any time. On their website they repeated their attacks against python and claimed superiority at every step. And they gathered quite a few zealots. While actually being slower than portage. Eventually they rebranded paludis as just better and more correct, not faster. And they created their own distribution (exherbo) as direct rival of Gentoo. With a new, portage-incompatible package format. As if they had read the book, how not to be a friendly competitor. The pkgcore team on the other hand focussed on good technology. They created the snakeoil library for high-performance python code, but they were friendly about it and actually contributed back to portage where code could be shared. But their website was out of date, often not noting the newest release and you actually had to run pmerge --help to see the most current commandline options (though you could simply guess them if you knew portage). And they got attacked by paludis zealots so much, that this year the main developer finally sacked the project: He told me on IRC that he had taken so much vitriol over the years that it simply wasn’t worth the cost anymore. So, what can we learn from this? Technical superiority does not gain you anything, if you fail to convince people to actually use your project. If you don't communicate your project, you don't get users. If you don’t get users, your chances of losing motivation are orders of magnitude higher than if you get users who support you. And aggressive marketing works, even if you cannot actually deliver on your promises. Today they have a better user-interface and even short option-names. But even to date, exherbo has much fewer packages in its repositories than Gentoo. If the number of files is any measure, the 10,000 files in their special repositories are just about 5% of the almost 200,000 files portage holds. But they managed quite well to fraction the Gentoo users - at least for some time. And their repeated pushes for new standards in the portage tree (EAPIs) created a constant pressure on pkgcore to adapt, which had the effect that nowadays pkgcore cannot install from the portage tree anymore (the search still works, though, and I still use it - I will curse mightily on the day they manage to also break that). So aggressive marketing and doing everything in the book of unfriendly competition might have allowed the paludis devs to gather some users and destroy the momentum of pkgcore, but it did not allow them to actually become a replacement of portage within Gentoo. Their behaviour alienated far too many people for that. So aggressive and unfriendly marketing is better than no marketing, but it has severe drawbacks which you will likely want to avoid. If you use overly aggressive, unfriendly or dishonest communication tactics, you get some users, but if your users know their stuff, you won’t win the mindshare you need to actually make a difference. If on the other hand you want to see communication done right, just take a look at KDE and Gnome nowadays. They cooperate quite well, and they compete on features and by improving their project so users can take an informed choice about the project they choose. And their number of contributors steadily keeps growing. So what do they do? Besides being technically great, it boils down to good marketing. Communicating your project is an essential step for gettingusers. Here I summarize my experience from working on several different projects including [KDE](http://kde.org) *(where I learned the basics of PR - yay, sebas!)*, the [Hurd](http://hurd.gnu.org) *(where I could really make a difference by improving the frontpage and writing the Month of the Hurd)*, [Mercurial](http://mercurial.selenic.com) *(where I practiced the minimally invasive PR)* and [1d6](http://1w6.org/english/flyerbook-rules) *(my own free RPG where I see how much harder it is to do PR, if the project to communicate is your own)*.Since voicing the claim that marketing is important often leads to discussions with peoplewho hate marketing of any kind, I added an [appendix](/light/english/communicate-your-project#why) with an example whichillustrates nicely what happens when you don’t do any PR - and whathappens if you do PR of the wrong kind.If you’re pressed for time and want the really short form, just jump to the [questionnaire](/light/english/communicate-your-project#bab-com).* [What is good marketing?](/light/english/communicate-your-project#good)* [How to comunicate your project?](/light/english/communicate-your-project#communicate) - [Who are our Target Groups?](/light/english/communicate-your-project#target) - [What could they ask?](/light/english/communicate-your-project#questions) - [Whose wishes can we fullfil?](/light/english/communicate-your-project#wishes) - [Provide those answers!](/light/english/communicate-your-project#answers) - [Further points](/light/english/communicate-your-project#further)* [bab-com Q: Short questionaire](/light/english/communicate-your-project#bab-com)* [Note: The mission statement](/light/english/communicate-your-project#mission)* [Summary](/light/english/communicate-your-project#summary)* [Appendix: Why communicating your project?](/light/english/communicate-your-project#why) # Download one page from a website with all its prerequisites Often I want to simply backup a single page from a website. Until now I always had half-working solutions, but today I found one solution using wget which works really well, and I decided to document it here. That way I won’t have to search it again, and you, dear readers, can benefit from it, too ☺ ## In short: This is the command: wget --no-parent --timestamping --convert-links --page-requisites --no-directories --no-host-directories --span-hosts --adjust-extension --no-check-certificate -e robots=off -U 'Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv:1.8.1.6) Gecko/20070802 SeaMonkey/1.1.4' [URL] Optionally add --directory-prefix=[target-folder-name] (see the meaning of the options and getting wget for some explanation) That’s it! Have fun copying single sites! (but before passing them on, ensure that you have the right to do it) ## Does this really work? As a test, how about running this: wget -np -N -k -p -nd -nH -H -E --no-check-certificate -e robots=off -U 'Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv:1.8.1.6) Gecko/20070802 SeaMonkey/1.1.4' --directory-prefix=download-web-site http://draketo.de/english/download-web-page-with-all-prerequisites (this command uses the short forms of the options) Then test the downloaded page with firefox: firefox download-web-site/download-web-page-all-prerequisites.html ## Getting wget If you run GNU/Linux, you likely already have it - and if not, then your package manager has it. GNU wget is one of the standard tools available everywhere. Some information in the (sadly) typically terse style can be found on the wget website from the GNU project: gnu.org/s/wget. In case you run Windows, have a look at Wget for Windows from the gnuwin32 project or at GNU Wgetw for Windows from eternallybored. Alternatively you can get a graphical interface via WinWGet from cybershade. Or you can get serious about having good tools and install MSYS or Cygwin - the latter gets you some of the functionality of a unix working environment on windows, including wget. If you run MacOSX, either get wget via fink, homebrew or MacPorts or follow the guide from osxdaily or the german guide from dirk (likely there are more guides - these two were just the first hits in google). ## The meaning of the options (and why you need them): • --no-parent: Only get this file, not other articles higher up in the filesystem hierarchy. • --timestamping: Only get newer files (don’t redownload files). • --page-requisites: Get all files needed to display this page. • --convert-links: Change files to point to the local files you downloaded. • --no-directories: Do not create directories: Put all files into one folder. • --no-host-directories: Do not create separate directories per web host: Really put all files in one folder. • --span-hosts: Get files from any host, not just the one with which you reached the website. • --adjust-extension: Add a .html extension to the file. • --no-check-certificate: Do not check SSL certificates. This is necessary if you’re missing one of the host certificates one of the hosts uses. Just use this. If people with enough power to snoop on your browsing would want to serve you a changed website, they could simply use one of the fake certifications authorities they control. • -e robots=off: Ignore robots.txt files which tell you to not spider and save this website. You are no robot, but wget does not know that, so you have to tell it. • -U 'Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv:1.8.1.6) Gecko/20070802 SeaMonkey/1.1.4': Fake being an old Firefox to avoid blocking based on being wget. • --directory-prefix=[target-folder-name]: Save the files into a subfolder to avoid having to create the folder first. Without that options, all files are created in the folder in which your shell is at the moment. Equivalent to mkdir [target-folder-name]; cd [target-folder-name]; [wget without --directory-prefix] ## Conclusion If you know the required options, mirroring single pages from websites with wget is fast and easy. Note that if you want to get the whole website, you can just replace --no-parent with --mirror. Happy Hacking! > *Often I want to simply backup a single page from a website. Until now I always had half-working solutions, but today I found one solution using [wget](https://gnu.org/s/wget/) which works really well, and I decided to document it here. That way I won’t have to search it again, and you, dear readers, can benefit from it, too ☺*## In short: This is the command:> wget --no-parent --timestamping --convert-links --page-requisites --no-directories --no-host-directories --span-hosts --adjust-extension --no-check-certificate -e robots=off -U 'Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv:1.8.1.6) Gecko/20070802 SeaMonkey/1.1.4' [URL]Optionally add --directory-prefix=[target-folder-name]_(see [the meaning of the options](/english/download-web-page-with-all-prerequisites#options) and [getting wget](/english/download-web-page-with-all-prerequisites#getting) for some explanation)_ # Fix Quod Libet empty panes on Gentoo GNU/Linux (bug solving process) PDF-version (for printing) orgmode-version (for editing) For a few days now my Quod Libet has been broken, showing only empty space instead of information panes. I investigated halfheartedly, but did not find the cause with quick googling. Today I decided to change that. I document my path here, because I did not yet write about how I actually tackle problems like these - and I think I would have profited from having a writeup like this when I started, instead of having to learn it by trial-and-error. Update: Quodlibet 2.6.3 is now in the Gentoo portage tree - using my ebuild. The update works seamlessly. So to get your Quodlibet 2.5 running again, just call emerge =media-sound/quodlibet-2.6.3 =media-plugins/quodlibet-plugins-2.6.3. Happy Hacking! Update: I got a second reply in the bug tracker which solved the plugins problem: I had user-plugins which require Quod Libet 3. Solution: mv ~/.quodlibet/plugins ~/.quodlibet/plugins.for-ql3. Quod Libet works completely again. Solution for the impatient: Update to Quod Libet 2.5.1. In Gentoo that’s easy. ## Table of Contents ## 1 Gathering Information As starting point I installed the Quod Libet plugins (media-libs/quodlibet-plugins), thinking that the separation between plugins and mediaplayer might not be perfect. That did not fix the problem, but a look at the plugin listing gave me nice backtraces: And these actually show the reason for the breakage: Cannot import GTK: Traceback (most recent call last): File "/home/arne/.quodlibet/plugins/songsmenu/albumart.py", line 51, in <module> from gi.repository import Gtk, Pango, GLib, Gdk, GdkPixbuf File "/usr/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/gi/__init__.py", line 27, in <module> from ._gi import _API, Repository ImportError: cannot import name _API  Let’s look which package this file belongs to: equery belongs /usr/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/gi/__init__.py   * Searching for /usr/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/gi/__init__.py ... dev-python/pygobject-3.8.3 (/usr/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/gi/__init__.py)  So I finally have an answer: pygobject changed the API. Can’t be hard to fix… (a realization process follows) ## 2 The solution-hunting process • let’s check the Gentoo forums for pygobject • pygobject now pulls systemd??? - and they wonder why I’m pissed off by systemd: hugely invasive changes just for some small packages… KDE gets rid of the monolithic approach, and now Gnome starts it, just much more invasive into the basic structure of all distros? • set the USE flag -systemd to avoid systemd (why didn’t I have that yet? I guess I did not expect that Gentoo would push that on me…) • check when I updated pygobject: qlop -l pygobject  ... Thu Dec 5 00:26:27 2013 >>> dev-python/pygobject-3.8.3  • a week ago - that fits the timeframe. Damn… pygobject-3.8.3, you have to go. echo =dev-python/pygobject-3.8.3 >> /usr/portage/package.mask emerge -u pygobject  • hm, no, the backtrace was for the plugin, but when I start Quod Libet from the shell, I see this: LANG=C quodlibet  /usr/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/quodlibet/qltk/songlist.py:44: GtkWarning: Unable to locate theme engine in module_path: "clearlooks", _label = gtk.Label().create_pango_layout("")  • emerge x11-themes/clearlooks-phenix to get clearlooks again. Looks nicer now, but still not fixed. • back to the drawing board. Let’s tackle this pygobject thing: emerge -C =dev-python/pygobject-3.8.3/, emerge -1 =dev-python/pygobject-2.28.6-r55. • not fixed. OK… let’s report a bug: empty information panes (screenshots attached). ## 3 The core solution In the bug report at Quod Libet I got a reply: Known issue with quodlibet 2.5 “which triggered a bug in a recent pygtk release, resulting in lists not showing”. The plugins seem to be unrelated. Solution to my immediate problem: Update to 2.5.1. That’s not yet in gentoo, but this is easy to fix: cd /usr/portage/media-sound/ # create the category in my local portage overlay, defined as # PORTAGE_OVERLAY=/usr/local/portage in /etc/make.conf mkdir -p /usr/local/portage/media-sound # copy over the quodlibet directory, keeping the permissiong with -p cp -rp quodlibet /usr/local/portage/media-sound # most times it is enough to simply rename the ebuild to the new version cd /usr/local/portage/media-sound/quodlibet mv quodlibet-2.5.ebuild quodlibet-2.5.1.ebuild # now prepare all the metadata portage needs - this requires # app-portage/gentoolkit ebuild quodlibet-2.5.1.ebuild digest compile # now it's prepared for the package manager. Just update it as usual: emerge -u quodlibet  I wrote the solution in the Gentoo bug report. I should also state, that the gentoo package for Quod Libet is generally out of date (releases 2.6.3 and 3.0.2 are not yet in the tree). Quod Libet works again. As soon as the ebuild in the portage tree is renamed, Quod Libet should work again for all Gentoo users. The plugins still need to be fixed, but I’ll worry about that later. ## 4 Conclusion Solving the core problem took me some time, but it wasn’t really complicated. The part of the solution process which got me forward boils down to: • checking the project bug tracker, • checking the distribution bug tracker, • reporting a bug for the project with the information I could gather - including screenshots (or anything else which shows the problem directly - see How to Report Bugs Effectively for hints on that), and • checking the reported bug again a few hours or days later - and synchronizing the information between the project bug tracker and the distribution bug tracker to help fixing the bug for all users of the distribution and of other distributions. And that’s it: To get something working again, check the bug trackers, report bugs and help synchronizing bug tracker info. PDF-version (for printing)orgmode-version (for editing)For a few days now my Quod Libet has been broken, showing only empty space instead of information panes.I investigated halfheartedly, but did not find the cause with quick googling. Today I decided to change that. I document my path here, because I did not yet write about how I actually tackle problems like these - and I think I would have profited from having a writeup like this when I started, instead of having to learn it by trial-and-error.> **Update**: Quodlibet 2.6.3 is now [in the Gentoo portage tree](http://packages.gentoo.org/package/media-sound/quodlibet) - using my ebuild. The update works seamlessly. So to get your Quodlibet 2.5 running again, just call emerge =media-sound/quodlibet-2.6.3 =media-plugins/quodlibet-plugins-2.6.3. Happy Hacking!> **Update**: I got a [second reply](http://code.google.com/p/quodlibet/issues/detail?id=1304#c4) in the bug tracker which solved the plugins problem: I had user-plugins which require Quod Libet 3. Solution: mv ~/.quodlibet/plugins ~/.quodlibet/plugins.for-ql3. Quod Libet works completely again.> **Solution** for the impatient: Update to Quod Libet 2.5.1. In [Gentoo](http://gentoo.org) that’s [easy](/english/quod-libet-bug-solution-process#sec-3). AnhangGröße 2013-12-11-quod-libet-broken.png49.59 KB 2013-12-11-quod-libet-broken-clearlooks.png50.44 KB 2013-12-11-quod-libet-broken-plugins.png27.47 KB 2013-12-11-quod-libet-fixed.png85.61 KB 2013-12-11-Mi-quodlibet-broken.org7.11 KB 2013-12-11-Mi-quodlibet-broken.pdf419.37 KB # Going from a simple Makefile to Autotools ## Table of Contents ## Links ## Intro I recently started looking into Autotools, to make it easier to run my code on multiple platforms. Naturally you can use cmake or scons or waf or ninja or tup, all of which are interesting in there own respect. But none of them has seen the amount of testing which went into autotools, and none of them have the amount of tweaks needed to support about every system under the sun. And I recently found pyconfigure which allows using autotools with python and offers detection of library features. I had already used Makefiles for easily storing the build information of anything from python projects (python setup.py build) to my PhD thesis with all the required graphs. I also had used scons for those same tasks. But I wanted to test, what autotools have to offer. And I found no simple guide which showed me how to migrate from a Makefile to autotools - and what I could gain through that. So I decided to write one. ## My Makefile The starting point is the Makefile I use for building my PhD. That’s pretty generic and just uses the most basic features of make. If you do not know it yet: A basic makefile has really simple syntax: # comments start with # thing : required source files # separated by spaces build command second build command # ^ this is a TAB.  The code above is a rule. If you put a file with this content into some folder using the filename Makefile and then run make thing in that folder (in a shell), the program “make” will check whether the source files have been changed after it last created the thing and if they have been changed, it will execute the build commands. You can use things from other rules as source file for your thing and make will figure out all the tasks needed to create your thing. My Makefile below creates plots from data and then builds a PDF from an org-mode file. all: doktorarbeit.pdf sink.pdf sink.pdf : sink.tex images/comp-t3-s07-tem-boas.png images/comp-t3-s07-tem-bona.png images/bona-marble.png images/boas-marble.png pdflatex sink.tex rm -f *_flymake* flymake* *.log *.out *.toc *.aux *.snm *.nav *.vrb # kill litter comp-t3-s07-tem-boas.png comp-t3-s07-tem-bona.png : nee-comp.pyx nee-comp.txt pyxplot nee-comp.pyx doktorarbeit.pdf : doktorarbeit.org emacs --batch --visit "doktorarbeit.org" --funcall org-export-as-pdf  ## Feature Equality The first step is simple: How can I replicate with autotools what I did with the plain Makefile? For that I create the files configure.ac and Makefile.am. The basic Makefile.am is simply my Makefile without any changes. The configure.ac sets the project name, inits automake and tells autoreconf to generate a Makefile. dnl run autoreconf -i to generate a configure script. dnl Then run ./configure to generate a Makefile. dnl Finally run make to generate the project. AC_INIT([Doktorarbeit Inverse GHG], [0.1], [arne.babenhauserheide@kit.edu]) dnl we use the build type foreign here instead of gnu because I do not have a NEWS file and similar, yet. AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE([foreign]) AC_CONFIG_FILES([Makefile]) AC_OUTPUT  Now, if I run autoreconf -i it generates a Makefile for me. Nothing fancy here: The Makefile just does what my old Makefile did. But it is much bigger, offers real –help output and can generate a distribution - which does not work yet, because it misses the source files. But it clearly tells me that with make distcheck. ## make dist: distributing the project Since make dist does not work yet, let’s change that. … easier said than done. It took me the better part of a day to figure out how to make it happy. Problems there: • I have to explicitely give automake the list of sources so it can copy them to the distributed package. • distcheck uses a separate build dir. Yes, this is the clean way, but it needs some hacking to get everything to work. • I use pyxplot for generating some plots. Pyxplot does not have a way (I know of) to search for datafiles in a different folder. I have to copy the files to the build dir and kill them after the build. But only if I use a separate build dir. • pdflatex can’t find included images. I have to adapt the TEXINPUT environment variable to give it the srcdir as additional search path. • Some of my commands litter the build directory with temporary or intermediate files. I have to clean them up. So, after much haggling with autotools, I have a working make distcheck: pdf_DATA = sink.pdf doktorarbeit.pdf sink = sink.tex pkgdata_DATA = images/comp-t3-s07-tem-boas.png images/comp-t3-s07-tem-bona.png dist_pkgdata_DATA = images/bona-marble.png images/boas-marble.png plotdir = . dist_plot_DATA = nee-comp.pyx nee-comp.txt doktorarbeit = doktorarbeit.org EXTRA_DIST =${sink} ${dist_pkgdata_DATA}${doktorarbeit}

MOSTLYCLEANFILES = \#* *~ *.bak # kill editor backups
CLEANFILES = ${pdf_DATA} DISTCLEANFILES =${pkgdata_DATA}

sink.pdf : ${sink}${pkgdata_DATA} ${dist_pkgdata_DATA} TEXINPUTS=${TEXINPUTS}:$(srcdir)/:$(srcdir)/images// pdflatex $< rm -f *_flymake* flymake* *.log *.out *.toc *.aux *.snm *.nav *.vrb # kill litter${pkgdata_DATA} : ${dist_plot_DATA}$(foreach i,$^,if test "$(i)" != "$(notdir$(i))"; then cp -u "$(i)" "$(notdir $(i))"; fi;)${MKDIR_P} images
pyxplot $<$(foreach i,$^,if test "$(i)" != "$(notdir$(i))"; then rm -f "$(notdir$(i))"; fi;)

doktorarbeit.pdf : ${doktorarbeit} if test "$<" != "$(notdir$<)"; then cp -u "$<" "$(notdir $<)"; fi emacs --batch --visit "$(notdir $<)" --funcall org-export-as-pdf if test "$<" != "$(notdir$<)"; then rm -f "$(notdir$<)"; rm -f $(basename$(notdir $<)).tex$(basename $(notdir$<)).tex~; else rm -f $(basename$<).tex $(basename$<).tex~; fi



You might recognize that this is not the simple Makefile anymore. It is now a setup which defines files for distribution and has custom rules for preparing script runs and for cleanup.

But I can now make a fully working distribution, so when I want to publish my PhD thesis, I can simply add the generated release tarball. I work in a Mercurial repo, so I would more likely just include the repo, but there might be reasons for leaving out the history - and be it only that the history might grow quite big.

An advantage is that in the process of preparing the dist, my automake file got cleanly separated into a section defining files and dependencies and one defining build rules.

But I now also understand where newer build tools like scons got their inspiration for the abstractions they use.

I should note, however, that if you were to build a software project in one of the languages supported by automake (C, C++, Python and quite a few others), I would not have needed to specify the build rules myself.

And being able to freely mix the dependency declaration in automake style with Makefile rules gives a lot of flexibility which I missed in scons.

## Finding programs

Now I can build and distribute my project, but I cannot yet make sure that the programs I need for building actually exist.

And that’s finally something which can really help my build, because it gives clear error messages when something is missing, and it allows users to specify which of these programs to use via the configure script. For example I could now build 5 different versions of Emacs and try the build with each of them.

Also I added cross compilation support, though that is a bit over the top for simple PDF creation :)

Firstoff I edited my configure.ac to check for the tools:

dnl run autoreconf -i to generate a configure script.
dnl Then run ./configure to generate a Makefile.
dnl Finally run make to generate the project.

AC_INIT([Doktorarbeit Inverse GHG], [0.1], [arne.babenhauserheide@kit.edu])
# Check for programs I need for my build
AC_CANONICAL_TARGET
AC_ARG_VAR([emacs], [How to call Emacs.])
AC_CHECK_TARGET_TOOL([emacs], [emacs], [no])
AC_ARG_VAR([pyxplot], [How to call the Pyxplot plotting tool.])
AC_CHECK_TARGET_TOOL([pyxplot], [pyxplot], [no])
AC_ARG_VAR([pdflatex], [How to call pdflatex.])
AC_CHECK_TARGET_TOOL([pdflatex], [pdflatex], [no])
AS_IF([test "x$pdflatex" = "xno"], [AC_MSG_ERROR([cannot find pdflatex.])]) AS_IF([test "x$emacs" = "xno"], [AC_MSG_ERROR([cannot find Emacs.])])
AS_IF([test "x$pyxplot" = "xno"], [AC_MSG_ERROR([cannot find pyxplot.])]) # Run automake AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE([foreign]) AM_MAINTAINER_MODE([enable]) AC_CONFIG_FILES([Makefile]) AC_OUTPUT  And then I used the created variables in the Makefile.am: See the @-characters around the program names. pdf_DATA = sink.pdf doktorarbeit.pdf sink = sink.tex pkgdata_DATA = images/comp-t3-s07-tem-boas.png images/comp-t3-s07-tem-bona.png dist_pkgdata_DATA = images/bona-marble.png images/boas-marble.png plotdir = . dist_plot_DATA = nee-comp.pyx nee-comp.txt doktorarbeit = doktorarbeit.org EXTRA_DIST =${sink} ${dist_pkgdata_DATA}${doktorarbeit}

MOSTLYCLEANFILES = \#* *~ *.bak # kill editor backups
CLEANFILES = ${pdf_DATA} DISTCLEANFILES =${pkgdata_DATA}

sink.pdf : ${sink}${pkgdata_DATA} ${dist_pkgdata_DATA} TEXINPUTS=${TEXINPUTS}:$(srcdir)/:$(srcdir)/images// @pdflatex@ $< rm -f *_flymake* flymake* *.log *.out *.toc *.aux *.snm *.nav *.vrb # kill litter${pkgdata_DATA} : ${dist_plot_DATA}$(foreach i,$^,if test "$(i)" != "$(notdir$(i))"; then cp -u "$(i)" "$(notdir $(i))"; fi;)${MKDIR_P} images
@pyxplot@ $<$(foreach i,$^,if test "$(i)" != "$(notdir$(i))"; then rm -f "$(notdir$(i))"; fi;)

doktorarbeit.pdf : ${doktorarbeit} if test "$<" != "$(notdir$<)"; then cp -u "$<" "$(notdir $<)"; fi @emacs@ --batch --visit "$(notdir $<)" --funcall org-export-as-pdf if test "$<" != "$(notdir$<)"; then rm -f "$(notdir$<)"; rm -f $(basename$(notdir $<)).tex$(basename $(notdir$<)).tex~; else rm -f $(basename$<).tex $(basename$<).tex~; fi


## Summary

With this I’m at the limit of the advantages of autotools for my simple project.

They allow me to create and check a distribution tarball with relative ease (if I know how to do it), and I can use them to check for tools - and to specify alternative tools via the commandline.

For a C or C++ project, autotools would have given me a lot of other things for free, but even the basic features shown here can be useful.

You have to judge for yourself if they outweight the cost of moving away from the dead simple Makefile syntax.

### Comparing SCons

A little bonus I want to share.

I also wrote an scons script as alternative to my Makefile which I think might be interesting to you. It is almost equivalent to my Makefile since it can build my files, but scons does not match the features of the full autotools build and distribution system. Missing: Clean up temporary files and create a validated distribution tarball.

You might notice that the more declarative style with explicit dependency information looks quite a bit more similar to automake than to plain Makefiles.

The following is my SConstruct file:

#!/usr/bin/env python
## I need a couple of special builders for my projects
# the $SOURCE replacement only uses the first source file.$SOURCES gives all.
# specifying all source files makes it possible to rerun the build if a single source file changed.
orgexportpdf = 'emacs --batch --visit "$SOURCE" --funcall org-export-as-pdf' pyxplot = 'pyxplot$SOURCE'
# pdflatex is quite dirty. I directly clean up after it with rm.
pdflatex = 'pdflatex $SOURCE -o$TARGET; rm -f  *_flymake* flymake* *.log *.out *.toc *.aux *.snm *.nav *.vrb'

# build the PhD thesis from emacs org-mode.
Command("doktorarbeit.pdf", "doktorarbeit.org",
orgexportpdf)

# create plots
Command(["images/comp-t3-s07-tem-boas.png",
"images/comp-t3-s07-tem-bona.png"],
["nee-comp.pyx",
"nee-comp.txt"],
pyxplot)

# build my sink.pdf
Command("sink.pdf",
["sink.tex",
"images/comp-t3-s07-tem-boas.png",
"images/comp-t3-s07-tem-bona.png",
"images/bona-marble.png",
"images/boas-marble.png"],
pdflatex)

# My editors leave tempfiles around. I want them gone after a build clean. This is not yet supported!
tempfiles = Glob('*~') + Glob('#*#') + Glob('*.bak')
# using this here would run the cleaning on every run.
#Command("clean", [], Delete(tempfiles))


If you want to integrate building with scons into a Makefile, the following lines allow you to run scons with make sconsrun. You might have to also mark sconsrun as .PHONY.

sconsrun : scons
python scons/bootstrap.py -Q

scons :
hg clone https://bitbucket.org/ArneBab/scons


Here you can see part of the beauty of autotools, because you can just add this to your Makefile.am instead of the Makefile and it will work inside the full autotools project (though without the dist-integration). So autotools is a real superset of simple Makefiles.

## Notes

If org-mode export keeps pestering you about selecting a TeX-master everytime you build the PDF, add the following to your org-mode file:

#+BEGIN_LaTeX
%%% Local Variables:
%%% TeX-master: t
%%% End:
#+END_LaTeX

Table of Contents1 Intro2 My Makefile3 Feature Equality4 make dist: distributing the project5 Finding programs6 Summary7 Comparing SCons8 Notes## Links- [Autotools: practitioner's guide](http://www.freesoftwaremagazine.com/books/autotools_a_guide_to_autoconf_automake_libtool) Useful examples — and *prefixes*.- [Autotools Mythbuster](http://www.flameeyes.eu/autotools-mythbuster/) With years of Gentoo ex­pe­ri­ence: How **not** to enrage your distributions.- [Autoconf Manual](http://www.gnu.org/savannah-checkouts/gnu/autoconf/manual/autoconf-2.69/html_node/index.html) The official manual. Detailed, huge and hard to digest. - [Automake Manual](http://www.gnu.org/software/automake/manual/html_node/) As above. Keep it handy as reference.IntroI recently started looking into Autotools, to make it easier to run my code on multiple platforms.Naturally you can use cmake or scons or waf or ninja or tup, all of which are interesting in there own respect. But none of them has seen the amount of testing which went into autotools, and none of them have the amount of tweaks needed to support about every system under the sun. And I recently found pyconfigure which allows using autotools with python and offers detection of library features.
AnhangGröße
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# How to make companies act ethically

→ comment on Slashdot concerning Unexpected methods to promote freedom?

Was it really Apple who ended DRM? Would they have done so without the protests and evangelizing against DRM? Without protesters in front of Apple Stores? And without the many people telling their friends to just not accept DRM?

That “preaching” created a situation where Apple could reap monetary gain from doing the right thing. You see how they act when the stakes are diffecent.

What you can do to make companies act ethically is to create a situation where they can make more money by working ethically than by ripping you off. The ways to do that are

1. Laws (breaking them costs money when you get caught),
2. Taxes on doing the wrong thing (i.e. pollution),
3. Offering your work in ways, which make it easier for people to make money ethically than unethically (that’s what copyleft licensing does),
4. Trying to convince people to do 3,
5. Trying to convince people to shun products which are created unethically (that’s what you call preaching),
6. Only paying for products which were produced ethically.

RMS does 3,4, 5 and 6, so he’s pretty much into gaming the market - and “preaching” is only one of the tools in his box. Though what he does is more convincing than preaching: He gives us reasons why unfree software is bad - and the mental tools to resist the preaching from the other side (for example via analyses of speech-tricks, like calling state-granted monopolies “property”).

*→ comment on Slashdot concerning [Unexpected methods to promote freedom?](http://interviews.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=3278789&cid=42121699)*Was it really Apple who ended DRM? Would they have done so without the protests and evangelizing against DRM? Without protesters in front of Apple Stores? And without the many people telling their friends to just not accept DRM?That “preaching” created a situation where Apple could reap monetary gain from doing the right thing.

# Never trust a company

I wouldn't begin bashing LW. They are a company, and you don't trust companies. Not because they are evil, but because they have to think of money first and foremost.

If they do not put money first, they go down and others come up who do - and their employees will lose their job. At least as long as people still buy products without regard for ethics.

I hold them in very high esteem for GPL-ling LimeWire and for standing up against the lawsuit.

They are a company, and that makes them non-trustworthy, but because they are a company, they can fight a battle which none of us others could fight.

Never trust a company, but don't judge them down for thinking money before morals or ethics from time to time, as long as they don't do it all the time.

And never ever deal with... - a Shadowrun saying :)

PS: Also keep in mind that a company in the stock market might actually be forced to do unethical but profitable things, because the CEO is liable to the stakeholders and could personally face legal action when refusing them. If it is not in the stock market, the company has a responsibility to the employees. Which is why you as customer can never trust it.

Answer to a thread in the Gnutella-Forums. I wouldn't begin bashing LW. They are a company, and you don't trust companies. Not because they are evil, but because they have to think of money first and foremost. If they do not put money first, they go down and others come up who do - and their employees will lose their job. At least as long as people still buy products without regard for ethics. I hold them in very high esteem for GPL-ling LimeWire and for standing up against the lawsuit.

# Huge datafiles in free culture projects under GPL

4 ways how large raw artwork files are treated in free culture projects to provide the editable source.1

In the discussion about license compatibility of the creativecommons sharealike license towards the GPL, Anthony asked how the source-requirement is solved for artwork which often has huge raw files. These are the 4 basic ways I described in my answer.

## 1. The Wesnoth Way

“The Source is what we have”

The project just asks artists for full resolution PNG image files (without all the layering information) - and only uses these to develop the art. This was spearheaded by the GPL-licensed strategy game Battle for Wesnoth.

This is a viable strategy and also allows developing art, though a bit less convenient than with the layered sources. For example the illustrator who created many of the images in the RPG I work on used our PNG instead of her photoshop file to extract a die from the cover she created for us. She took the chance to also touch up the colors a bit - she had learned some new tricks to improve her paintings.

This clearly complies with the GPL, because the GPL just requires providing the file used for editing published file. If the released file is what you actually use to change published files, then the published file is the source.

## 2. The External Storage

“Use the FTP, Luke”

Here, files which are too big to be versioned effectively or which most people don’t need when working with the project get version-numbers and are put into an external storage - like an FTP server.

I do that for gimp-files: I put these into our public release-listing via FTP. For example I used that for a multi-layer cover which gets baked into our PDF.

## 3. The Elegant Way

“Make it so!”

Here huge files are simply versioned alongside other files and the versions to be used are created directly from the multi-layered files. The usual way to do that is a Makefile in which scripts explicitly define how the derived file can be extracted.

This is most elegant, because it has no duplication of information, the source is always trivial to find, it’s always clear that the derived file really originated from the source and it is easy to avoid quality loss or even reduce it later.

The disadvantage is that it can be very cumbersome to force new developers to get all huge files and then create them before being able to really start developing.

The common way to do this is a Makefile - for example the one I use for building my PhD thesis.

## 4. Pragmatic Elegance

“Hybrids win”

All the ways above can be combined: Huge files are put in version control, but the derived files are included, too, to make it easier for new people to get in. Maybe the huge files are only included on request - for example they could be stubs with which the version control system can retrieve the full files when the user wants them. This can partially be done with the largefiles extension in Mercurial by just not getting the large files.

Also you can just keep separate raw files and derived files. This is also used in Battle for Wesnoth: Optimized files of the right size for the game are stored in one folder while the bigger full resolution files are stored separately.

If you want to include free art in a GPL-covered work, I hope this article gave you some inspiration!

> *4 ways how large raw artwork files are treated in free culture projects to provide the editable source.*[^die][^die]: The die was created by Trudy Wenzel (2013) and is licensed under GPLv3 or later.*In the discussion about license compatibility of the [creativecommons sharealike license](https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/) towards the [GPL](http://gnu.org/l/gpl), Anthony [asked](http://lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/cc-licenses/2014-May/007579.html) how the source-requirement is solved for artwork which often has huge raw files. These are the 4 basic ways I described in my answer.*

# Installing GNU Guix 0.6, easily

Org-Source (for editing)

PDF (for printing)

“Got a power-outage while updating? No problem: Everything still works”

GNU Guix is the new functional package manager from the GNU Project which complements the Nix-Store with a nice Guile Scheme based package definition format.

What sold it to me was “Got a power-outage while updating? No problem: Everything still works” from the Guix talk of Ludovico at the GNU Hacker Meeting 2013. My son once found the on-off-button of our power-connector while I was updating my Gentoo box. It took me 3 evenings to get it completely functional again. This would not have happened with Guix.

Update (2014-05-17): Thanks to zerwas from IRC @ freenode for the patch to guix 0.6 and nice cleanup!

## Intro

Installation of GNU Guix is straightforward, except if you follow the docs, but it’s not as if we’re not used to that from other GNU utilities, which often terribly short-sell their quality with overly general documentation ☺

So I want to provide a short guide how to setup and run GNU Guix with ease. My system natively runs Gentoo, My system natively runs Gentoo, so some details might vary for you. If you use Gentoo, you can simply copy the commands here into the shell, but better copy them to a text-file first to ensure that I do not try to trick you into doing evil things with the root access you need.

In short: This guide provides the First Contact and Black Triangle for GNU Guix.

## Getting GNU Guix

mkdir guix && cd guix
wget http://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/guix/guix-0.6.tar.gz
wget http://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/guix/guix-0.6.tar.gz.sig
gpg --verify guix-0.?.tar.gz.sig


## Installing GNU Guix

tar xf guix-0.?.tar.gz
cd guix-0.?
./configure && make -j16
sudo make install


## Setting up GNU Guix

### Build users

Build-users allow for strong separation of build processes: They cannot affect each other, because they actually run as different users.

sudo screen
for i in seq 1 10;
do
useradd -g guix-builder -G guix-builder           \
-d /var/empty -s which nologin          \
-c "Guix build user $i" --system \ guix-builder$i;
done
exit


(if you do not have GNU screen yet, you should get it. It makes working on remote servers enjoyable.

Also we want to run guix as regular user. We need to pre-create the user-specific build-directory. Note: This should really be done automatically.

sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/var/nix/profiles/per-user/$USER sudo chown -R$USER:$USER /usr/local/var/nix/profiles/per-user/$USER


### Fix store permissions

chgrp 1002 /nix/store; chmod 1775 /nix/store


### Starting the guix daemon and making it launch at startup

this might be quite Gentoo-specific.

sudo screen
echo "#\!/bin/sh" >> /etc/local.d/guix-daemon.start
echo "guix-daemon --build-users-group=guix-builder &" >> /etc/local.d/guix-daemon.start
echo "#\!/bin/sh" >> /etc/local.d/guix-daemon.stop
echo "pkill guix-daemon" >> /etc/local.d/guix-daemon.stop
chmod +x /etc/local.d/guix-daemon.start
chmod +x /etc/local.d/guix-daemon.stop
exit


(the pkill is not the nice way of killing the daemon. Ideally the daemon should have a –kill option)

To avoid having to restart, we just launch the daemon once, now.

sudo /etc/local.d/guix-daemon.start


Guix installs each state of the system in its own directory, which actually enables rollbacks. The current state is made available via ~/.guix-profile/, and so we need ~/.guix-profile/bin in our path:

echo "export PATH=$PATH:~/.guix-profile/bin" >> ~/.bashrc . ~/.bashrc  ## Using guix Guix comes with a quite complete commandline interface. The basics are • Update the package listing: guix pull • List available packages: guix package -A • Install a package: guix package -i PACKAGE • Update all packages: guix package -u ## Experience For a new distribution-tool, Guix is quite nice. Remember, though, that it builds on Nix: It is not a complete reinvention but rather “stands on the shoulders of giants”. The download speeds are abysmal, though. http://hydra.gnu.org seems to have a horribly slow internet connection… And what I direly missed is a short command explanation in the help output: $ guix --help
Usage: guix COMMAND ARGS...
Run COMMAND with ARGS.

COMMAND must be one of the sub-commands listed below:

build
gc
hash
import
package
pull
refresh
substitute-binary


Also I miss the categories I know from Gentoo: Having package-names like grue-hunter seems very unorganized compared to the games-text/grue-hunter which I know from Gentoo.

And it would be nice to have shorthands for the command names:

• "guix pa -i" instead of "guix package -i" (though there is a namespace clash with guix pull :( )
• "guix pu" for "guix pull"

and so on.

But anyway: A very interesting project which I plan to keep tracking. It might allow me to do less risky local package installs of stuff I need, like small utilities I wrote myself.

The big advantage of that would be, that I could actually take them with me when I have to use different distros (though I’ve been a happy Gentoo user for ~10 years and I don’t see it as likely that I’ll switch completely: Guix would have to include all the roughly 30k packages in Gentoo to actually be a full-fledged alternative - and provide USE flags and all the convenient configurability which makes Gentoo such a nice experience).

Using guix for such small stuff would allow me to decouple experiments from my production environment (which has to keep working).

But enough talk: Have fun with GNU Guix and Happy Hacking!

Created: 2014-05-17 Sa 23:40

Emacs 24.3.1 (Org mode 8.2.5h)

Validate

[Org-Source](/files/2013-09-04-Mi-guix-install_5.org) (for editing)[PDF](/files/2013-09-04-Mi-guix-install_4.pdf) (for printing)“Got a power-outage while updating? No problem: Everything still works”GNU Guix is the new functional package manager from the GNU Project which complements the Nix-Store with a nice Guile Scheme based package definition format. What sold it to me was “Got a power-outage while updating? No problem: Everything still works” from the Guix talk of Ludovico at the GNU Hacker Meeting 2013. My son once found the on-off-button of our power-connector while I was updating my Gentoo box. It took me 3 evenings to get it completely functional again. This would not have happened with Guix.Update (2014-05-17): Thanks to zerwas from IRC @ freenode for the patch to guix 0.6 and nice cleanup!IntroInstallation of GNU Guix is straightforward, except if you follow the docs, but it’s not as if we’re not used to that from other GNU utilities, which often terribly short-sell their quality with overly general documentation ☺So I want to provide a short guide how to setup and run GNU Guix with ease. My system natively runs Gentoo, My system natively runs Gentoo, so some details might vary for you. If you use Gentoo, you can simply copy the commands here into the shell, but better copy them to a text-file first to ensure that I do not try to trick you into doing evil things with the root access you need.In short: This guide provides the First Contact and Black Triangle for GNU Guix. /*@licstart The following is the entire license notice for theJavaScript code in this tag.Copyright (C) 2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.The JavaScript code in this tag is free software: you canredistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNUGeneral Public License (GNU GPL) as published by the Free SoftwareFoundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option)any later version. The code is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESSFOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU GPL for more details.As additional permission under GNU GPL version 3 section 7, youmay distribute non-source (e.g., minimized or compacted) forms ofthat code without the copy of the GNU GPL normally required bysection 4, provided you include this license notice and a URLthrough which recipients can access the Corresponding Source.@licend The above is the entire license noticefor the JavaScript code in this tag.*/Table of ContentsIntroGetting GNU GuixInstalling GNU GuixSetting up GNU GuixUsing guixExperience
AnhangGröße
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2013-09-04-Mi-guix-install.pdf171.32 KB

# Installing Scipy and PyNIO on a Bare Cluster with the Intel Compiler

2 years ago I had the task of running a python-program using scipy on our university cluster, using the Intel Compiler. I needed all those (as well as PyNIO and some other stuff) for running TM5 with the python shell on the HC3 of KIT.

This proved to be quite a bit more challenging than I had expected - but it was very interesting, too (and there I learned the basics of GNU autotools which still help me a lot).

But no one should have to go to the same effort with as little guidance as I had, so I decided to publish the script and the patches I created for installing everything we needed.1

The script worked 2 years ago, so you might have to fix some bits. I won’t promise that this contains everything you need to run the script - or that it won’t be broken when you install it. Actually I won’t promise anything at all, except that if the stuff here had been available 2 years ago, that could have saved me about 2 months of time (each of the patches here required quite some tracking of problems, experimenting and fixing, until it provided basic functionality - but actually I enjoyed doing that - I learned a lot - I just don’t want to be forced to do it again). Still, this stuff contains quite some hacks - even a few ugly ones. But it worked.

## 2 libraries and programs which get installed (=requirements)

This script requires and installs quite a few libraries. I retrieved most of the following tarballs from my Gentoo distfiles dir after installing the programs locally. I uploaded them to draketo.de/dateien/scipy-pynio-deps. These files are included there:

satexputils.so also needs interpolatelevels.F90 which I think that I am not allowed to share, so you’re on your own there. Guess why I do not like using non-free (or not-guaranteed-to-be-free) software.

## 3 Known Bugs

### 3.1 HDF autotools patch throws away some CFLAGS

The hdf autotools patch only retrieves the last CFLAG instead of all:

export CC='gcc-4.8.1 -Wall -Werror'
echo $CC | grep \ - | sed 's/.* -/-/' -Werror  If you have the regexp-foo to fix that, please improve the patch! But without perl (otherwise we’d have to install perl, too). ### 3.2 SciPy inline-C via weaver does not work Udo Grabowski, the maintainer of our institutes sun-cluster somehow managed to get that working on OpenIndiana with the Sun-Compiler, but since I did not need it, I did not dig deeper to see whether I could adapt his solutions to the intel-compiler. ## 4 Patches Aside from some inline patches, the script uses the following patches: ## 5 Implementation This is the full install script I used to install all necessary dependencies. #!/bin/bash # Untar for i in *.tar* *.tgz; do tar xvf$i || exit
done

# Install

PREFIX=/home/ws/babenhau/
PYPREFIX=/home/ws/babenhau/python/

# Blas

cd BLAS
cp ../blas-make.inc make.inc || exit
#make -j9 clean
F77=ifort make -j9 || exit
#make -j9 install --prefix=$PREFIX # OR for Intel compiler: ifort -fPIC -FI -w90 -w95 -cm -O3 -xHost -unroll -c *.f || exit #Continue below irrespective of compiler: ar r libfblas.a *.o || exit ranlib libfblas.a || exit cd .. ln -s BLAS blas ## Lapack cd lapack-3.3.1 ln -s ../blas # this has a hardcoded absolute path to blas in it: replace is with the appropriate one for you. cp ../lapack-make.inc make.inc || exit make -j9 clean || exit make -j9 make -j9 || exit cp lapack_LINUX.a libflapack.a || exit #make -j9 install --prefix=$PREFIX
cd ..

# C interface

patch -p0 < lapacke-ifort.diff

cd lapacke
# patch for lapack 3.3.1 and blas
for i in gnu inc intel ; do
sed -i s/lapack-3\.2\.1\\/lapack\.a/lapack-3\.3\.1\\/lapack_LINUX.a/ make.$i; sed -i s/lapack-3\.2\.1\\/blas\.a/blas\\/blas_LINUX.a/ make.$i;
done

make -j9 clean || exit
#make -j9
LINKER=ifort LDFLAGS=-nofor-main make -j9 # || exit
cd ..

## ATLAS

cd ATLAS
cp ../Make.Linux_HC3 . || exit
echo "ATLAS needs manual intervention. Run make by hand first."
#echo "just say yes. It makes some stuff we need later."
#make
#mv bin/Linux_UNKNOWNSSE2_8 bin/Linux_HC3
#for i in bin/Linux_HC3/*; do sed -i s/UNKNOWNSSE2_8/HC3/ $i ; done #rm bin/Linux_HC3/Make.inc #cd bin/Linux_HC3/ #ln -s ../../Make.Linux_HC3 Make.inc #cd - make -j9 install arch=Linux_HC3 || exit cd lib for i in Linux_HC3/* ; do ln -s$i ; done
cd ../bin
for i in Linux_HC3/* ; do ln -s $i ; done cd ../include for i in Linux_HC3/* ; do ln -s$i ; done
cd ..
cd ..

# Numpy and SciPy with intel compilers

# patching

patch -p0 < SuiteSparse.diff  || exit
patch -p0 < SuiteSparse-umfpack.diff  || exit

rm numpy
ln -s numpy-*.*.*/ numpy
patch -p0 < numpy-icc.diff  || exit
patch -p0 < numpy-icpc.diff || exit
patch -p0 <<EOF
--- numpy/numpy/distutils/fcompiler/intel.py      2009-03-29 07:24:21.000000000 -0400
+++ numpy/numpy/distutils/fcompiler/intel.py  2009-08-06 23:08:59.000000000 -0400
@@ -47,6 +47,7 @@
module_include_switch = '-I'

def get_flags(self):
+        return ['-fPIC', '-cm']
v = self.get_version()
if v >= '10.0':
# Use -fPIC instead of -KPIC.
@@ -63,6 +64,7 @@
return ['-O3','-unroll']

def get_flags_arch(self):
+        return ['-xHost']
v = self.get_version()
opt = []
if cpu.has_fdiv_bug():
EOF
# include -fPIC in the fcompiler.
sed -i "s/w90/w90\", \"-fPIC/" numpy/numpy/distutils/fcompiler/intel.py
# and more of that
patch -p0 < numpy-ifort.diff

rm scipy
ln -s scipy-*.*.*/ scipy

patch -p0 < scipy-qhull-icc.diff || exit
patch -p0 < scipy-qhull-icc2.diff || exit

# # unnecessary!
# patch -p0 <<EOF
# --- scipy/scipy/special/cephes/const.c    2009-08-07 01:56:43.000000000 -0400
# +++ scipy/scipy/special/cephes/const.c        2009-08-07 01:57:08.000000000 -0400
# @@ -91,12 +91,12 @@
# double THPIO4 =  2.35619449019234492885;       /* 3*pi/4 */
# double TWOOPI =  6.36619772367581343075535E-1; /* 2/pi */
# #ifdef INFINITIES
# -double INFINITY = 1.0/0.0;  /* 99e999; */
# +double INFINITY = __builtin_inff();
# #else
# double INFINITY =  1.79769313486231570815E308;    /* 2**1024*(1-MACHEP) */
# #endif
# #ifdef NANS
# -double NAN = 1.0/0.0 - 1.0/0.0;
# +double NAN = __builtin_nanf("");
# #else
# double NAN = 0.0;
# #endif
# EOF

# building

# TODO: try again later

cd SuiteSparse

make -j9 -C AMD || exit
make -j9 -C UMFPACK || exit

cd ..

# TODO: build numpy again and make sure it has blas and lapack (and ATLAS?)

cd numpy
python setup.py -v build_src config --compiler=intel build_clib \
--compiler=intel build_ext --compiler=intel || exit
python setup.py install --prefix=$PYPREFIX || exit cd .. # scons and numscons cd scons-2.0.1 python setup.py -v install --prefix=/home/ws/babenhau/python/ || exit cd .. git clone git://github.com/cournape/numscons.git cd numscons python setup.py -v install --prefix=/home/ws/babenhau/python/ || exit cd .. # adapt /home/ws/babenhau/python/lib/python2.7/site-packages/numpy/distutils/fcompiler/intel.py by hand to include fPIC for intelem cd scipy PYTHONPATH=/home/ws/babenhau/python//lib/scons-2.0.1/ ATLAS=../ATLAS/ \ LAPACK=../lapack-3.3.1/libflapack.a LAPACK_SRC=../lapack-3.3.1 BLAS=../BLAS/libfblas.a \ F77=ifort f77_opt=ifort python setup.py -v config --compiler=intel --fcompiler=intelem build_clib \ --compiler=intel --fcompiler=intelem build_ext --compiler=intel --fcompiler=intelem \ -I../SuiteSparse/UFconfig # no exit, because we do the linking by hand later on. # one file is C++ :( icpc -fPIC -I/home/ws/babenhau/python/include/python2.7 -I/home/ws/babenhau/python/lib/python2.7/site-packages/numpy/core/include -I/home/ws/babenhau/python/lib/python2.7/site-packages/numpy/core/include -c scipy/spatial/qhull/src/user.c -o build/temp.linux-x86_64-2.7/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/user.o || exit # linking by hand # for x in csr csc coo bsr dia; do # icpc -xHost -O3 -fPIC -shared \ # build/temp.linux-x86_64-2.7/scipy/sparse/sparsetools/${x}_wrap.o \
#        -o build/lib.linux-x86_64-2.7/scipy/sparse/sparsetools/_${x}.so || exit # done #icpc -xHost -O3 -fPIC -openmp -shared \ # build/temp.linux-x86_64-2.7/scipy/interpolate/src/_interpolate.o \ # -o build/lib.linux-x86_64-2.7/scipy/interpolate/_interpolate.so || exit # build again with the C++ file already compiled PYTHONPATH=/home/ws/babenhau/python//lib/scons-2.0.1/ ATLAS=../ATLAS/ \ LAPACK=../lapack-3.3.1/libflapack.a LAPACK_SRC=../lapack-3.3.1 BLAS=../BLAS/libfblas.a \ F77=ifort f77_opt=ifort python setup.py config --compiler=intel --fcompiler=intelem build_clib \ --compiler=intel --fcompiler=intelem build_ext --compiler=intel --fcompiler=intelem \ -I../SuiteSparse/UFconfig || exit # make sure we have cephes cd scipy/special PYTHONPATH=/home/ws/babenhau/python//lib/scons-2.0.1/ ATLAS=../../../ATLAS/ \ LAPACK=../../../lapack-3.3.1/libflapack.a LAPACK_SRC=../lapack-3.3.1 BLAS=../../../BLAS/libfblas.a \ F77=ifort f77_opt=ifort python setup.py -v config --compiler=intel --fcompiler=intelem build_clib \ --compiler=intel --fcompiler=intelem build_ext --compiler=intel --fcompiler=intelem \ -I../../../SuiteSparse/UFconfig cd ../.. # install PYTHONPATH=/home/ws/babenhau/python//lib/scons-2.0.1/ ATLAS=../ATLAS/ \ LAPACK=../lapack-3.3.1/libflapack.a LAPACK_SRC=../lapack-3.3.1 BLAS=../BLAS/libfblas.a \ F77=ifort f77_opt=ifort python setup.py config --compiler=intel --fcompiler=intelem build_clib \ --compiler=intel --fcompiler=intelem install --prefix=$PYPREFIX || exit

cd ..

# PyNIO

# netcdf-4

patch -p0 < netcdf-patch1.diff || exit
patch -p0 < netcdf-patch2.diff || exit

cd netcdf-4.1.3

CPPFLAGS="-I/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/hdf5-1.8.7/include -I/home/ws/babenhau/include" LDFLAGS="-L/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/hdf5-1.8.7/lib/ -L/home/ws/babenhau/lib -lsz -L/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/szip-2.1/lib -L/opt/intel/Compiler/11.1/080/lib/intel64/libifcore.a -lifcore" ./configure --prefix=/home/ws/babenhau/ --enable-netcdf-4 --enable-shared || exit

make -j9; make check install -j9 || exit

cd ..

# NetCDF4
cd netCDF4-0.9.7
HAS_SZIP=1 SZIP_PREFIX=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/szip-2.1/ HAS_HDF5=1 HDF5_DIR=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/hdf5-1.8.7 HDF5_PREFIX=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/hdf5-1.8.7 HDF5_includedir=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/hdf5-1.8.7/include HDF5_libdir=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/hdf5-1.8.7/lib HAS_NETCDF4=1 NETCDF4_PREFIX=/home/ws/babenhau/ python setup.py build_ext --compiler="intel" --fcompiler="intel -fPIC" install --prefix $PYPREFIX cd .. # parallel netcdf and hdf5: ~/libbutz/ patch -p0 < pynio-fix-no-grib.diff || exit cd PyNIO-1.4.1 HAS_SZIP=1 SZIP_PREFIX=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/szip-2.1/ HAS_HDF5=1 HDF5_DIR=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/hdf5-1.8.7 HDF5_PREFIX=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/hdf5-1.8.7 HDF5_includedir=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/hdf5-1.8.7/include HDF5_libdir=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/hdf5-1.8.7/lib HAS_NETCDF4=1 NETCDF4_PREFIX=/home/ws/babenhau/ python setup.py install --prefix=$PYPREFIX || exit
# TODO: Make sure that the install goes to /home/ws/.., not home/ws/...
cd ..

# satexp_utils.so

f2py -c -m satexp_utils --f77exec=ifort --f90exec=ifort interpolate_levels.F90 || exit

## pyhdf

# recompile hdf with fPIC - grr!
cd hdf-4*/
# Fix configure for compilers with - in the name.
patch -p0 < ../hdf-fix-configure.ac.diff
autoconf
FFLAGS="-ip -O3 -xHost -fPIC -r8" CFLAGS="-ip -O3 -xHost -fPIC" CXXFLAGS="$CFLAGS -I/usr/include/rpc -DBIG_LONGS -DSWAP" F77=ifort ./configure --prefix=/home/ws/babenhau/ --disable-netcdf --with-szlib=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/szip-2.1 # --with-zlib=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/zlib-1.2.5 --with-jpeg=/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/jpeg-8c # finds zlib and jpeg due to LD_LIBRARY_PATH (hack but works…) make make install cd .. # build pyhdf cd pyhdf-0.8.3/ INCLUDE_DIRS="/home/ws/babenhau/include:/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/szip-2.1/include" LIBRARY_DIRS="/home/ws/babenhau/lib:/home/ws/babenhau/libbutz/szip-2.1/lib" python setup.py build -c intel --fcompiler ifort install --prefix=/home/ws/babenhau/python cd .. ## matplotlib cd matplotlib-1.1.0 patch -p0 < ../matplotlib-add-icc-support.diff python setup.py build -c intel install --prefix=/home/ws/babenhau/python cd .. # GEOS → http://download.osgeo.org/geos/geos-3.3.2.tar.bz2 cd geos*/ ./configure --prefix=/home/ws/babenhau/ make make check make install cd .. # basemap easy_install --prefix /home/ws/babenhau/python basemap # fails but should now have all dependencies. cd basemap-*/ python setup.py build -c intel install --prefix=/home/ws/babenhau/python cd ..  ## 6 Appendix ### 6.1 All patches inline To ease usage and upstreaming of my fixes, I include all the patches below, so you can find them directly in this text instead of having to browse external textfiles. #### 6.1.1 SuiteSparse-umfpack.diff --- SuiteSparse/UMFPACK/Lib/GNUmakefile 2009-11-11 21:09:54.000000000 +0100 +++ SuiteSparse/UMFPACK/Lib/GNUmakefile 2011-09-09 14:18:57.000000000 +0200 @@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ C =$(CC) $(CFLAGS)$(UMFPACK_CONFIG) \
-I../Include -I../Source -I../../AMD/Include -I../../UFconfig \
-I../../CCOLAMD/Include -I../../CAMD/Include -I../../CHOLMOD/Include \
-    -I../../metis-4.0/Lib -I../../COLAMD/Include
+    -I../../COLAMD/Include

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# source files


#### 6.1.2 SuiteSparse.diff

--- SuiteSparse/UFconfig/UFconfig.mk    2011-09-09 13:14:03.000000000 +0200
+++ SuiteSparse/UFconfig/UFconfig.mk    2011-09-09 13:15:03.000000000 +0200
@@ -33,11 +33,11 @@
# C compiler and compiler flags:  These will normally not give you optimal
# performance.  You should select the optimization parameters that are best
# for your system.  On Linux, use "CFLAGS = -O3 -fexceptions" for example.
-CC = cc
-CFLAGS = -O3 -fexceptions
+CC = icc
+CFLAGS = -O3 -xHost -fPIC -openmp -vec_report=0

# C++ compiler (also uses CFLAGS)
-CPLUSPLUS = g++
+CPLUSPLUS = icpc

# ranlib, and ar, for generating libraries
RANLIB = ranlib
@@ -49,8 +49,8 @@
MV = mv -f

# Fortran compiler (not normally required)
-F77 = f77
-F77FLAGS = -O
+F77 = ifort
+F77FLAGS = -O3 -xHost
F77LIB =

# C and Fortran libraries
@@ -132,13 +132,13 @@
# The path is relative to where it is used, in CHOLMOD/Lib, CHOLMOD/MATLAB, etc.
# You may wish to use an absolute path.  METIS is optional.  Compile
# CHOLMOD with -DNPARTITION if you do not wish to use METIS.
-METIS_PATH = ../../metis-4.0
-METIS = ../../metis-4.0/libmetis.a
+# METIS_PATH = ../../metis-4.0
+# METIS = ../../metis-4.0/libmetis.a

# If you use CHOLMOD_CONFIG = -DNPARTITION then you must use the following
# options:
-# METIS_PATH =
-# METIS =
+METIS_PATH =
+METIS =

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# UMFPACK configuration:
@@ -194,7 +194,7 @@
# -DNSUNPERF       for Solaris only.  If defined, do not use the Sun
#          Performance Library

-CHOLMOD_CONFIG =
+CHOLMOD_CONFIG = -DNPARTITION

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# SuiteSparseQR configuration:


#### 6.1.3 hdf-fix-configure.ac.diff (fixes a bug but still contains another known bug - see Known Bugs!)

--- configure.ac    2012-03-01 15:00:28.000000000 +0100
+++ configure.ac    2012-03-01 15:00:40.000000000 +0100
@@ -815,7 +815,7 @@
dnl Report anything stripped as a flag in CFLAGS and
dnl only the compiler in CC_VERSION.
CC_NOFLAGS=echo $CC | sed 's/ -.*//' -CFLAGS_TO_ADD=echo$CC | grep - | sed 's/.* -/-/'
+CFLAGS_TO_ADD=echo $CC | grep \ - | sed 's/.* -/-/' if test -n$CFLAGS_TO_ADD; then
CFLAGS="$CFLAGS_TO_ADD$CFLAGS"
fi


#### 6.1.4 lapacke-ifort.diff

--- lapacke/make.intel.old  2011-10-05 13:24:14.000000000 +0200
+++ lapacke/make.intel  2011-10-05 16:17:00.000000000 +0200
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@
# Ensure that the libraries have the same data model (LP64/ILP64).
#
LAPACKE = lapacke.a
-LIBS = ../../../lapack-3.3.1/lapack_LINUX.a ../../../blas/blas_LINUX.a -lm
+LIBS = /opt/intel/Compiler/11.1/080/lib/intel64/libifcore.a ../../../lapack-3.2.1/lapack.a ../../../lapack-3.2.1/blas.a -lm -ifcore
#
#  The archiver and the flag(s) to use when building archive (library)
#  If your system has no ranlib, set RANLIB = echo.


diff -r 38c2a32c56ae matplotlib-1.1.0/setup.py
--- a/matplotlib-1.1.0/setup.py Fri Mar 02 12:29:47 2012 +0100
+++ b/matplotlib-1.1.0/setup.py Fri Mar 02 12:30:39 2012 +0100
@@ -31,6 +31,13 @@
if major==2 and minor1<4 or major<2:
raise SystemExit("""matplotlib requires Python 2.4 or later.""")

+if "intel" in sys.argv or "icc" in sys.argv:
+    try: # make it compile with the intel compiler
+        from numpy.distutils import intelccompiler
+    except ImportError:
+        print "Compiling with the intel compiler requires numpy."
+        raise
+
import glob
from distutils.core import setup
from setupext import build_agg, build_gtkagg, build_tkagg,\


#### 6.1.6 netcdf-patch1.diff

--- netcdf-4.1.3/fortran/ncfortran.h    2011-07-01 01:22:22.000000000 +0200
+++ netcdf-4.1.3/fortran/ncfortran.h    2011-09-14 14:56:03.000000000 +0200
@@ -658,7 +658,7 @@
* The following is for f2c-support only.
*/

-#if defined(f2cFortran) && !defined(pgiFortran) && !defined(gFortran)
+#if defined(f2cFortran) && !defined(pgiFortran) && !defined(gFortran) &&!defined(__INTEL_COMPILER)

/*
* The f2c(1) utility on BSD/OS and Linux systems adds an additional


#### 6.1.7 netcdf-patch2.diff

--- netcdf-4.1.3/nf_test/fortlib.c  2011-09-14 14:58:47.000000000 +0200
+++ netcdf-4.1.3/nf_test/fortlib.c  2011-09-14 14:58:38.000000000 +0200
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
#include "../fortran/ncfortran.h"

-#if defined(f2cFortran) && !defined(pgiFortran) && !defined(gFortran)
+#if defined(f2cFortran) && !defined(pgiFortran) && !defined(gFortran) &&!defined(__INTEL_COMPILER)
/*
* The f2c(1) utility on BSD/OS and Linux systems adds an additional
* underscore suffix (besides the usual one) to global names that have


#### 6.1.8 numpy-icc.diff

--- numpy/numpy/distutils/intelccompiler.py 2011-09-08 14:14:03.000000000 +0200
+++ numpy/numpy/distutils/intelccompiler.py 2011-09-08 14:20:37.000000000 +0200
@@ -30,11 +30,11 @@
""" A modified Intel x86_64 compiler compatible with a 64bit gcc built Python.
"""
compiler_type = 'intelem'
-    cc_exe = 'icc -m64 -fPIC'
+    cc_exe = 'icc -m64 -fPIC -xHost -O3'
cc_args = "-fPIC"
def __init__ (self, verbose=0, dry_run=0, force=0):
UnixCCompiler.__init__ (self, verbose,dry_run, force)
-        self.cc_exe = 'icc -m64 -fPIC'
+        self.cc_exe = 'icc -m64 -fPIC -xHost -O3'
compiler = self.cc_exe
self.set_executables(compiler=compiler,
compiler_so=compiler,


#### 6.1.9 numpy-icpc.diff

--- numpy-1.6.1/numpy/distutils/intelccompiler.py   2011-10-06 16:55:12.000000000 +0200
+++ numpy-1.6.1/numpy/distutils/intelccompiler.py   2011-10-10 10:26:14.000000000 +0200
@@ -10,11 +10,13 @@
def __init__ (self, verbose=0, dry_run=0, force=0):
UnixCCompiler.__init__ (self, verbose,dry_run, force)
self.cc_exe = 'icc -fPIC'
+   self.cxx_exe = 'icpc -fPIC'
compiler = self.cc_exe
+   compiler_cxx = self.cxx_exe
self.set_executables(compiler=compiler,
compiler_so=compiler,
-                             compiler_cxx=compiler,
+                             compiler_cxx=compiler_cxx,

class IntelItaniumCCompiler(IntelCCompiler):


#### 6.1.10 numpy-ifort.diff

--- numpy-1.6.1/numpy/distutils/fcompiler/intel.py.old  2011-10-10 17:52:34.000000000 +0200
+++ numpy-1.6.1/numpy/distutils/fcompiler/intel.py  2011-10-10 17:53:51.000000000 +0200
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@
executables = {
'version_cmd'  : None,          # set by update_executables
'compiler_f77' : [None, "-72", "-w90", "-fPIC", "-w95"],
-        'compiler_f90' : [None],
+        'compiler_f90' : [None, "-fPIC"],
'compiler_fix' : [None, "-FI"],
'archiver'     : ["ar", "-cr"],
@@ -129,7 +129,7 @@
'version_cmd'  : None,
'compiler_f77' : [None, "-FI", "-w90", "-fPIC", "-w95"],
'compiler_fix' : [None, "-FI"],
-        'compiler_f90' : [None],
+        'compiler_f90' : [None, "-fPIC"],
'archiver'     : ["ar", "-cr"],
'ranlib'       : ["ranlib"]
@@ -148,7 +148,7 @@
'version_cmd'  : None,
'compiler_f77' : [None, "-FI", "-w90", "-fPIC", "-w95"],
'compiler_fix' : [None, "-FI"],
-        'compiler_f90' : [None],
+        'compiler_f90' : [None, "-fPIC"],
'archiver'     : ["ar", "-cr"],
'ranlib'       : ["ranlib"]
@@ -180,7 +180,7 @@
'version_cmd'  : None,
'compiler_f77' : [None,"-FI","-w90", "-fPIC","-w95"],
'compiler_fix' : [None,"-FI","-4L72","-w"],
-        'compiler_f90' : [None],
+        'compiler_f90' : [None, "-fPIC"],
'archiver'     : [ar_exe, "/verbose", "/OUT:"],
'ranlib'       : None
@@ -232,7 +232,7 @@
'version_cmd'  : None,
'compiler_f77' : [None,"-FI","-w90", "-fPIC","-w95"],
'compiler_fix' : [None,"-FI","-4L72","-w"],
-        'compiler_f90' : [None],
+        'compiler_f90' : [None, "-fPIC"],
'archiver'     : [ar_exe, "/verbose", "/OUT:"],
'ranlib'       : None


#### 6.1.11 pynio-fix-no-grib.diff

--- PyNIO-1.4.1/Nio.py  2011-09-14 16:00:13.000000000 +0200
+++ PyNIO-1.4.1/Nio.py  2011-09-14 16:00:18.000000000 +0200
@@ -98,7 +98,7 @@
if ncarg_dir == None or not os.path.exists(ncarg_dir) \
or not os.path.exists(os.path.join(ncarg_dir,"lib","ncarg")):
if not __formats__['grib2']:
-                return None
+                return "" # "", because an env variable has to be a string.
else:
print "No path found to PyNIO/ncarg data directory and no usable NCARG installation found"
sys.exit()


#### 6.1.12 scipy-qhull-icc.diff

--- scipy/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull_a.h 2011-02-27 11:57:03.000000000 +0100
+++ scipy/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull_a.h 2011-09-09 15:42:12.000000000 +0200
@@ -102,13 +102,13 @@
#elif defined(__MWERKS__) && defined(__INTEL__)
#   define QHULL_OS_WIN
#endif
-#if defined(__INTEL_COMPILER) && !defined(QHULL_OS_WIN)
-template <typename T>
-inline void qhullUnused(T &x) { (void)x; }
-#  define QHULL_UNUSED(x) qhullUnused(x);
-#else
+/*#if defined(__INTEL_COMPILER) && !defined(QHULL_OS_WIN)*/
+/*template <typename T>*/
+/*inline void qhullUnused(T &x) { (void)x; }*/
+/*#  define QHULL_UNUSED(x) qhullUnused(x);*/
+/*#else*/
#  define QHULL_UNUSED(x) (void)x;
-#endif
+*/#endif*/

/***** -libqhull.c prototypes (alphabetical after qhull) ********************/


#### 6.1.13 scipy-qhull-icc2.diff

--- scipy/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull_a.h 2011-09-09 15:43:54.000000000 +0200
+++ scipy/scipy/spatial/qhull/src/qhull_a.h 2011-09-09 15:45:17.000000000 +0200
@@ -102,13 +102,7 @@
#elif defined(__MWERKS__) && defined(__INTEL__)
#   define QHULL_OS_WIN
#endif
-/*#if defined(__INTEL_COMPILER) && !defined(QHULL_OS_WIN)*/
-/*template <typename T>*/
-/*inline void qhullUnused(T &x) { (void)x; }*/
-/*#  define QHULL_UNUSED(x) qhullUnused(x);*/
-/*#else*/
#  define QHULL_UNUSED(x) (void)x;
-*/#endif*/

/***** -libqhull.c prototypes (alphabetical after qhull) ********************/


#### 6.1.14 scipy-spatial-lifcore.diff

--- scipy-0.9.0/scipy/spatial/setup.py  2011-10-10 17:11:23.000000000 +0200
+++ scipy-0.9.0/scipy/spatial/setup.py  2011-10-10 17:11:09.000000000 +0200
@@ -22,6 +22,8 @@
get_numpy_include_dirs()],
# XXX: GCC dependency!
#extra_compiler_args=['-fno-strict-aliasing'],
+                       # XXX intel compiler dependency
+                       extra_compiler_args=['-lifcore'],
)

lapack = dict(get_info('lapack_opt'))


## 7 Summary

I hope this helps someone out there saving some time - or even better: improving the upstream projects. At least it should be a nice reference for all who need to get scipy working on not-quite-supported architectures.

Happy Hacking!

## Footnotes:

1

: Actually I already wanted to publish that script more than a year ago, but time flies and there’s always stuff to do. But at least I now managed to get it done.

Created: 2013-09-26 Do

Emacs 24.3.1 (Org mode 8.0.2)

Validate XHTML 1.0

2 years ago I had the task of running a python-program using scipy on our university cluster, using the Intel Compiler. I needed all those (as well as PyNIO and some other stuff) for running TM5 with the python shell on the HC3 of KIT.This proved to be quite a bit more challenging than I had expected - but it was very interesting, too (and there I learned the basics of GNU autotools which still help me a lot).But no one should have to go to the same effort with as little guidance as I had, so I decided to publish the script and the patches I created for installing everything we needed.1The script worked 2 years ago, so you might have to fix some bits. I won’t promise that this contains everything you need to run the script - or that it won’t be broken when you install it. Actually I won’t promise anything at all, except that if the stuff here had been available 2 years ago, that could have saved me about 2 months of time (each of the patches here required quite some tracking of problems, experimenting and fixing, until it provided basic functionality - but actually I enjoyed doing that - I learned a lot - I just don’t want to be forced to do it again). Still, this stuff contains quite some hacks - even a few ugly ones. But it worked.

# Internet, community cloud foo and control of my own data

## Why?

What I miss in the internet is the notion of being able to control what my apps access for data.

Why can’t a chat application just connect to a neighborhood- or community-server, and why can’t the activity-stream come from the people I know — and query only their systems, like jabber does?

Almost all geolocation services should be implementable over direct friend-to-friend connections like jabber, and I don’t really see why my local identi.ca program can’t also get the news from my local jabber contacts.

Or why I can’t set a local info-provider as geolocation source and have a “phone-book” of info-providers in each town.

And when it can do that, why can’t I have a general info-server which serves as synchronization and aggregation service for any of my devices, so all my programs on any device know which sources to use?

And why can’t I tell that server to allow my friends to access a subset of my data — selected by me?

Sadly I assume that the answer is “power”. Google and Apple don’t want to lose their control on synchronization and sharing. Otherwise most of the control and centralization (=moneymaking monopoly) of the internet would fade away.

## What?

For example I’d like to be able to select whose information I get, and I’d like to be able to also get the information my friends and their get. Without anyone outside knowing that I access that data (because I ask them directly). And ideally also without me knowing from which of their friends the data originates, but still being able to block those individually.

Then I could allow certain product information providers (=good advertisers) inside my network, so I get news about stuff I might like to spend money on. And automatically get information about the info-providers from my friends — or my community.

And all that without direct dependency on a single company or system.

It would make it infeasible to monopolize the services without making everyone trust you — and having to make sure most people trust you creates a reverse-dependency which could help to keep the information-providers honest.

## How?

And I think one key to that is to make that service less like a full-storage and more like update-collecting and synchronization services.

There’s no reason why a synchro-server should keep any data I already pulled to all my devices.

This would be similar to using a Mercurial push-cache of kinds: When I push data to a service, it just stores a bundle against the revision of the data on my least up-to-date device. All my devices can access that bundle, and when all are up to at least a certain state, the now useless data gets stripped out and only the new data remains.

Not yet pulled information could be stored as snapshots, until the first of my devices pulls it. Then it could get replaced by synchronization data — a compressed update-bundle. That would also make sure that incoming data has to be integrated and parsed only once.

Maybe Akonadi (from KDE) can someday accomplish something like that.

PS: Originally this started as a comment to The state of the internet operating system by O’Reilly.

Why?------What I miss in the internet is the notion of being able to control what my apps access for data. Why can’t a chat application just connect to a neighborhood- or community-server, and why can’t the activity-stream come from the people I know — and query only their systems, like jabber does? Almost all geolocation services should be implementable over direct friend-to-friend connections like jabber, and I don’t really see why my local identi.ca program can’t also get the news from my local jabber contacts.

# My answers to the Public Consultation on the review of the EU copyright rules.

The following PDF and ODF contains my answers to the Public Consultation on the review of the EU copyright rules.

If you want to comment, please use the contact form.

PS: And now I hear that the commission is trying to get into treaties with Canada (CETA) which make any positive changes to copyright impossible: CETA: Mehr Rechte für Musikkonzerne (german). I signed a petition against CETA (german) - maybe it’s time to march the streets again. But what do we actually need to change to stop these ever repeating attacks on our digital life?

# Neither Humble nor Indie Bundle

Comment to New Humble Bundle Is Windows Only, DRM Games.

The new Humble Indie Bundle is no longer free, indie, cross-plattform or user-respecting.

When the first bundle had a huge boost in last-minute sales after the devs offered to free the source of 4 of the 5 games, I had hoped, they would keep that. I was one of those who paid when they offered to free the games, and I’m pretty sure that they got a huge boost in people who knew the Humble Indie Bundle due to that.

But when the second bundle did not offer freeing the source, I did not pay. Unfree games aren’t worth much to me and I feared they would go further down that track.

Now Steam comes to GNU/Linux, so being cross-plasform isn’t unique for the Humble Indie Bundle anymore. And they dropped cross-platform support and added DRM. They replaced fans with short-term cash-cows who will happily switch to another project without second thoughts. Somehow I saw that coming…

Well, they sell their brand while it still holds, but by doing that they burn the ones who brought them where they are today.

Never put effort in a project where you have to trust the creator to not misuse it. Free copyleft licenses are a safeguard for contributors - not only the coders, but also for those who promote the project.1

1. That’s one of the reasons why I put the 1w6 roleplaying game completely under the GPL2 and why we are developing most of the stuff we do in a decentral versiontracking system. It makes it so easy for people to take over in case I should betray them that the benefit I could get from betrayal is small enough that I hope that I can withstand it on the long term.

2. 1w6 was freed completely in february 2009 by putting it under GPLv3. Before that it used a custom license, which was free but incompatible with other free works.

*[Comment](http://games.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=3284181&cid=42150253) to [New Humble Bundle Is Windows Only, DRM Games](http://games.slashdot.org/story/12/11/29/2326232/new-humble-bundle-is-windows-only-drm-games).*> The new Humble Indie Bundle is no longer free, indie, cross-plattform or user-respecting.

# Ogg Theora and h.264 - which video codec as standard for internet-video?

- Video encoder comparison - a much more thorough comparision than mine

We had a kinda long discussion on identi.ca about Ogg Theora and h.264, and since we lacked a simple comparision method, I hacked up a quick script to test them.

It uses frames from Big Buck Bunny and outputs the files bbb.ogg and bbb.264 (license: cc by).

The ogg file looks like this:

### Results

What you can see by comparing both is that h.264 wins in terms of raw image quality at the same bitrate (single pass).

So why am I still strongly in favor of Ogg Theora?

The reason is simple:

Due to licensing costs of h.264 (a few millions per year, due from 2015 onwards) making h.264 the standard for internet video would have the effect that only big companies would be able to make a video enabled browser - or we would get a kind of video tax for free software: if you want to view internet video with free software, you have to pay for the right to use the x264 library (else the developers couldn't cough up the money to pay for the parent license). And noone but the main developers and huge corporations could distribute the x264 library, because they’d have to pay license fees for that.

And noone could hack on the browser or library and distribute the changed version, so the whole idea of free software would be led ad absurdum. It wouldn't matter that all code would be free licensed, since only those with a h.264 patent license could change it.

So this post boils down to a simple message:

“Support !theora against h.264 and #flash [as video codec for the web]. Otherwise only big companies will be able to write video browsers - or we get a h.264 tax on !fs”

Theoras raw quality may still be worse, but the license costs and their implications provide very clear reasons for supporting Theora - which in my view are far more important than raw technical stuff.

### The test-script

 for k in {0..1}      do for i in {0..9}          do for j in {0..9}              do wget http://media.xiph.org/BBB/BBB-360-png/big_buck_bunny_00$k$i\$j.png          done      done done 

 mplayer -vo yuv4mpeg -ao null -nosound mf://*png -mf fps=50 

 theora_encoder_example -z 0 --soft-target -V 400 -o bbb.ogg stream.yuv 

 mencoder stream.yuv -ovc x264 -of rawvideo -o bbb.264 -x264encopts bitrate=400 -aspect 16:9 -nosound -vf scale=640:360,harddup 

Links: - Video encoder comparison - a much more thorough comparision than mineWe had a kinda long discussion on identi.ca about Ogg Theora and h.264, and since we lacked a simple comparision method, I hacked up a quick script to test them. It uses frames from Big Buck Bunny and outputs the files bbb.ogg and bbb.264 (license: cc by).
AnhangGröße
bbb-400bps.ogg212.88 KB
bbb-400bps.264214.39 KB
encode.sh428 Bytes

# Patent law overrides copyright breaks ownership

Concise and clear.

In patent law, copyright and property there are two pillars: protection and control.

## Protection

• Property: No person shall take that from me.
• Copyright: No person shall have the same without my permission. A monopoly.
• Patent Law: No person shall create something similar without my permission. An even stronger monopoly.

## Control

• Property: I decide what happens with this.
• Copyright: I decide what happens to everything which is the same. Takes another ones property. → a monopoly¹.
• Patent Law: I decide what happens to every similar thing. Takes the copyright and property of others. → An even stronger monopoly¹.

In short: Patent law overrides copyright breaks ownership.

¹: Others may have copyrights and property rights which they can only exercise with my permission. So effectively all their rights belong to me. If you want a longer argument on this, please read Intellectual Property Is Theft.

(translation of Patentrecht bricht Urheberrecht bricht Eigentum)

*Concise and clear.*In patent law, copyright and property there are two pillars: protection and control. ## Protection * Property: No person shall take **that** from me. * Copyright: No person shall have **the same** without my permission. A monopoly. * Patent Law: No person shall create **something similar** without my permission. An even stronger monopoly. ## Control * Property: I decide what happens with **this**. * Copyright: I decide what happens to everything which is **the same**. Takes another ones property. → a monopoly¹.

# Phoronix conclusions distort their results, shown with the example of GCC vs. LLVM/Clang On AMD's FX-8350 Vishera

Phoronix recently did a benchmark of GCC vs. LLVM on AMD hardware. Sadly their conclusion did not fit the data they showed. Actually it misrepresented the data so strongly, that I decided to speak up here instead of having my comments disappear in their forums. This post was started on 2013-05-14 and got updates when things changed - first for the better, then for the worse.

Update 3 (the last straw, 2013-11-09): In the recent most blatant attack by Phoronix on copyleft programs - this time openly targeted at GNU - Michael Larabel directly misrepresented a post from Josh Klint to badmouth GDB (Josh confirmed this1). Josh gave a report of his initial experience with GDB in a Kickstarter Update in which he reported some shortcomings he saw in GDB (of which the major gripe is easily resolved with better documentation2) and concluded with “the limitations of GDB are annoying, but I can deal with it. It's very nice to be able to run and debug our editor on Linux”. Michael Larabel only quoted the conclusion up to “annoying” and abused that to support the claim that game developers (in general) call GDB “crap” and for further badmouthing of GDB. With this he provided the straw which I needed to stop reading Phoronix: Michael Larabel is hostile to copyleft and in particular to GNU and he goes as far as rigging test results3 and misrepresenting words of others to further his agenda. I even donated to Phoronix a few times in the past. I guess I won’t do that again, either. I should have learned from the error of the german pirates and should have avoided reading media which is controlled by people who want to destroy what I fight for (sustainable free software).
Update 2 (2013-07-06): But the next went down the drain again… “Of course, LLVM/Clang 3.3 still lacks OpenMP support, so those tests are obviously in favor of GCC.” — I couldn’t find a better way to say that those tests are completely useless while at the same time devaluing OpenMP support as “ignore this result along with all others where GCC wins”…
Update (2013-06-21): The recent report of GCC 4.8 vs. LLVM 3.3 looks much better. Not perfect, but much better.

Taking out the OpenMP benchmarks (where GCC naturally won, because LLVM only processes those tests single-threaded) and the build times (which are irrelevant to the speed of the produced binaries), their benchmark had the following result:

LLVM is slower than GCC by:

• 10.2% (HMMer)
• 12.7% (MAFFT)
• 6.8% (BLAKE2)
• 9.1% (HIMENO)
• 42.2% (C-Ray)

With these results (which were clearly visible on their result summary on OpenBenchmarking, Michael Larabel from Phoronix concluded:

» The performance of LLVM/Clang 3.3 for most tests is at least comparable to GCC «

Nobu from their Forums supplied a conclusion which represents the data much better:

» GCC is much faster in anything which uses OpenMP, and moderately faster or equal in anything (except compile times) which doesn't [use OpenMP] «

But Michael from Phoronix did not stop at just ignoring the performance difference between GCC and LLVM. He went on claiming, that

In a few benchmarks LLVM/Clang is faster, particularly when it comes to build times.

And this is blatant reality-distortion which I am very tempted to ascribe to favoritism. LLVM is not “particularly” faster when it comes to build times.

LLVM on AMD FX-8350 Vishera is faster ONLY when it comes to build times!

This was not the first time that I read data-distorting conclusions on Phoronix - and my complaints about that in their forum did not change their actions. So I hope that my post here can help making them aware that deliberately distorting test results is unacceptable.

For my work, compiler performance is actually quite important, because I use programs which run for days or weeks, so 10% runtime reduction can mean saving several days - not counting the cost of using up cluster time.

To fix their blunders, what they would have to do is:

• Avoiding Benchmarks which only one compiler supports properly (OpenMP).
• Marking the compile time tests explicitely, so they strongly stand out from the rest, because they measure a completely different parameter than the other tests: Compiler Runtime vs. Performance of the Compiled Binaries.
• Writing conclusions which actually fit their results.

Their current approach gives a distinct disadvantage to GCC (even for the OpenMP tests, because they convey the notion that if LLVM only had OpenMP, it would be better in everything - which as this test shows is simply false), so the compiler-tests from Phoronix work as covert propaganda against GCC, even in tests where GCC flat-out wins. And I already don’t like open propaganda, but when the propaganda gets masked as objective testing, I actually get angry.

I hope my post here can help move them towards doing proper testing again.

PS: I write so strongly here, because I actually like the tests from Phoronix a lot. I think we need rather more than less testing and their testsuite actually seems to do a good job - when given the right parameters - so seeing Phoronix distorting the tests to a point where they become almost useless (except as political tool against GCC) is a huge disappointment to me.

1. Josh Klint from Leadwerks confirmed that Phoronix misrepresented his post and wrote a followup-post: » @ArneBab That really wasn't meant to be controversial. I was hoping to provide constructive feedback from the view of an Xcode / VS user.« » Slightly surprised my complaints about GDB are a hot topic. I can make just as many criticisms of other compilers and IDEs.« » The first 24 hours are the best for usability feedback. I figure if they notice a pattern some of those things will be improved.« » GDB Follwup «@Leadwerks, 2:04 AM - 11 Nov 13, 2:10 AM - 11 Nov 13 and @JoshKlint, 2:07 AM - 11 Nov 13, 8:48 PM - 11 Nov 13

2. The first-impression criticism from Josh Klint was addressed by a Phoronix reader by pointing to the frame command. I do not blame Josh for not knowing all tricks: He wrote a fair account of his initial experience with GDB (and he said later that he wrote the post after less than 24 hours of using GDB, because he considers that the best time to provide feedback) and his experience can serve as constructive criticism to improve tutorials, documentation and the UI of GDB. Sadly his visibility and the possible impact of his work on free software made it possible for Phoronix to abuse a personal report as support for a general badmouthing of the tool. In contrast the full message of Josh Klint ended really positive: Although some annoyances and limitations have been discovered, overall I have found Linux to be a completely viable platform for application development. — Josh Klint, Leadwerks

3. I know that rigging of tests is a strong claim. The actions of Michael Larabel deserve being called rigging for three main reasons: (1) Including compile-time data along with runtime performance without clear distinction between both, even though compile-time of the full code is mostly irrelevant when you use a proper build system and compile time and runtime are completely different classes of results, (2) including pointless tests between incomparable setups whose only use is to relativate any weakness of his favorite system and (3) blatantly lying in the summaries (as I show in this article).

# Python for beginning programmers

(written on ohloh for Python)

Since we already have two good reviews from experienced programmers, I'll focus on the area I know about: Python as first language.

My experience:

• I began to get into coding only a short time ago. I already knew about processes in programs, but not how to get them into code.
• I wanted to learn C/C++ and failed at general structure. After a while I could do it, but it didn't feel right.
• I tried my luck with Java and didn't quite get going.
• Then I tried Python, and got in at once.

• The structure of programs can be understood easily.
• The Python interpreter lets you experiment very quickly.
• You can realize complex programs, but Python also allows for quick and simple scripting.
• Code written by others is extremely readable.
• And coding just flows - almost like natural speaking/thinking.

How it looks:

def hello(user):
print("Hello " + user + "!")
hello("Fan")
# prints Hello Fan! on screen

As a bonus, there is the great open book How to Think Like a Computer Scientist which teaches Python and is being used for teaching Python and Programming at universities.

So I can wholeheartedly recommend Python to beginners in programming, and as the other reviews on Ohloh show, it is also a great language for experienced programmers and seems to be a good language to accompany you in your whole coding life.

PS: Yes, I know about the double meaning of "first language" :)

(written [on ohloh](http://www.ohloh.net/projects/26?p=Python) for Python)Since we already have two good reviews from experienced programmers, I'll focus on the area I know about: Python as first language. My experience:* I began to get into coding only a short time ago. I already knew about processes in programs, but not how to get them into code. * I wanted to learn C/C++ and failed at general structure. After a while I could do it, but it didn't feel right. * I tried my luck with Java and didn't quite get going. * Then I tried Python, and got in at once.

# Recursion wins!

I recently read the little schemer and that got me thinking about recursion and loops.

After starting my programming life with Python, I normally use for-loops to solve problems. But actually they are a much inferior mechanism to recursion, if the language provides proper syntactic support for that. Since that claim pretty much damns Python on a theoretical level (even though it is still a very good tool in practice and I still love it!), I want to share a simplified version of the code which made me realize this.

Let’s begin with how I would write that code in Python.

res = ""
instring = False
for letter in text:
if letter = "\"":
# special conditions for string handling go here
# lots of special conditions
# and more special conditions
# which cannot easily be moved out,
# because we cannot skip multiple letters
# in one step
instring = not instring
if instring:
res += letter
continue
# other cases


Did you spot the comment “special conditions go here”? That’s the point which damns for-loops: You cannot easily factor out these special conditions. In this example all the complexity is in the variable instring. But depending on the usecase, this could require lots of different states being tracked within the loop and cluttering up the namespace as well as entangling complexity from different parts of the loop.

This is how the same could be done with proper let-recursion:

; first get SRFI-71: multi-value let for syntactic support for what I
; want to do
use-modules : srfi srfi-71

let process-text
: res ""
letter : string-take text 1
unprocessed : string-drop text 1
when : equal? letter "\""
let
; all the complexity of string-handling is neatly
; confined in the helper-function consume-string
: to-res next-letter still-unprocessed : consume-string unprocessed
process-text
string-append res to-res
. next-letter
. still-unprocessed
; other cases


The basic code for recursion is a bit longer, because the new values in the next step of the processing are given explicitly. But it is almost trivial to shell out parts of the loop to another function. It just needs to return the next state of the recursion.

And that’s what consume-string does:

define : consume-string text
let
: res ""
next-letter : string-take text 1
unprocessed : string-drop text 1
; lots of special handling here
values res next-letter unprocessed


To recite from the Zen of Python:

Explicit is better than implicit.

It’s funny to see how Guile Scheme allows me to follow that principle more thoroughly than Python.

(I love Python, but this is a case where Scheme simply wins - and I’m not afraid to admit that)

PS: Actually I found this technique when thinking about use-cases for multiple return-values of functions.

PPS: This example uses wisp-syntax for the scheme-examples to avoid killing Pythonistas with parens.

I recently read the little schemer and that got me thinking about recursion and loops.After starting my programming life with Python, I normally use for-loops to solve problems. But actually they are a much inferior mechanism to recursion, if the language provides proper syntactic support for that. Since that claim pretty much damns Python on a theoretical level (even though it is still a very good tool in practice and I still love it!), I want to share a simplified version of the code which made me realize this.
AnhangGröße
2014-03-05-Mi-recursion-wins.org3.36 KB

# Reducing the Python startup time

The python startup time always nagged me (17-30ms) and I just searched again for a way to reduce it, when I found this:

The Python-Launcher caches GTK imports and forks new processes to reduce the startup time of python GUI programs.

Python-launcher does not solve my problem directly, but it points into an interesting direction: If you create a small daemon which you can contact via the shell to fork a new instance, you might be able to get rid of your startup time.

To get an example of the possibilities, download the python-launcher and socat and do the following:

PYTHONPATH="../lib.linux-x86_64-2.7/" python python-launcher-daemon &
echo pass > 1
for i in {1..100}; do
echo 1 | socat STDIN UNIX-CONNECT:/tmp/python-launcher-daemon.socket &
done


Todo: Adapt it to a given program and remove the GTK stuff. Note the & at the end: Closing the socket connection seems to be slow, so I just don’t wait for socat to finish. Breaks at somewhere over 200 simultaneous connections. Option: Use a datagram socket instead.

The essential trick is to just create a server which opens a socket. Then it reads all the data from the socket. Once it has the data, it forks like the following:

        pid = os.fork()
if pid:
return

signal.signal(signal.SIGPIPE, signal.SIG_DFL)
signal.signal(signal.SIGCHLD, signal.SIG_DFL)

glob = dict(__name__="__main__")
print 'launching', program
execfile(program, glob, glob)

raise SystemExit


Running a program that way 100-times took just 0.23 seconds for me so the Python startup time of 17ms got reduced to 2.3ms.

You might have to switch from forking to just executing the code instead of forking if you want to be even faster and the code snippets are small. For example when running the same test without the fork and the signals, 100 executions of the same code took just 0.09s, cutting down the startup time to an impressing 0.9ms - with the cost of no longer running in parallel.

(That’s what I also do with emacsclient… My emacs takes ~30s to start (due to excessive use of additional libraries I added), but emacsclient -c shows up almost instantly.)

I tested the speed by just sending a file with the following snippet to the server:

import time
with open("2", "a") as f:
f.write(str(time.time()) + "\n")


Note: If your script only needs the included python libraries (batteries) and no custom-installed libs, you can also reduce the startuptime by avoiding site initialization:

python -S [script]


Without -S python -c '' takes 0.018s for me. With -S I am down to

time python -S -c '' → 0.004s.


Note that you might miss some installed packages that way. This is slower than the daemon method by up to factor 4 (4ms instead of 0.9), but still faster than the default way. Note that cold disk buffers can make the difference much bigger on the first run which is not relevant in this case but very much relevant in general for the impression of startup speed.

PS: I attached the python-launcher 0.1.0 in case its website goes down. License: GPL and MIT; included. This message was originally written at stackoverflow.

The python startup time always nagged me (17-30ms) and I just searched again for a way to reduce it, when I found this: > The [Python-Launcher](http://blogs.gnome.org/johan/2007/01/18/introducing-python-launcher/) caches GTK imports and forks new processes to reduce the startup time of python GUI programs.Python-launcher does not solve my problem directly, but it points into an interesting direction: If you create a small daemon which you can contact via the shell to fork a new instance, you might be able to get rid of your startup time.
AnhangGröße
python-launcher-0.1.0.tar.gz11.11 KB

# Screencast: Tabbing of everything in KDE

I just discovered tabbing of everything in KDE:

Created with recordmydesktop, cut with kdenlive, encoded to ogg theora with ffmpeg2theora (encoding command).

Music: Beat into Submission on Public Domain by Tryad.

To embed the video on your own site you can simply use:

<video
src="http://draketo.de/files/screencast-tabbing-everywhere-kde.ogv"
controls=controls>
</video>


License: cc by-sa, because that’s the license of the song. If you omit the audio, you can also use one of my usual free licenses (or all of them, including the GPL). Here’s the raw recording (=video source).

¹: Feel free to upload the video to youtube or similar. I license my stuff under free licenses to make it easy for everyone to use, change and spread them.

²: Others have shown this before, but I don’t mind that. I just love the feature, so I want to show it :)

³: The command wheel I use for calling programs is the pyRad.

I just discovered tabbing of everything in KDE: ([download](/files/screencast-tabbing-everywhere-kde.ogv))*Created with [recordmydesktop](http://recordmydesktop.sourceforge.net/), cut with [kdenlive](http://www.kdenlive.org/), encoded to ogg theora with [ffmpeg2theora](http://v2v.cc/~j/ffmpeg2theora/) ([encoding command](http://draketo.de/light/english/screencast-tabbing-everything-kde#comment-350)).*
AnhangGröße
screencast-tabbing-everywhere-kde.ogv10.75 MB

# Shackle-Feats: The poisoned Apple

This is a mail I sent as listener comment to Free as in Freedom.

I am currently listening to your Steve Jobs show (yes, late, but time is scarce these days).

And I side with Karen (though I use KDE): Steve Jobs managed to make a user interface which feels very natural. And that is no problem in itself. Apple solved a problem: User interfaces are hard to use for people who don’t have computer experience and who don’t have time to learn using computers right.

But they then used that solution to lure people into traps they set up to get our money and our freedom.

As analogy: A friend of mine told me, that Photoshop gives her Freedom, because she can do things with it, which she can’t do with anything else. And she’s right on that: She gets a kind of freedom. But she has to give up other freedoms for that, for example the freedom to do freelancing work without paying 3000€ up front.

To make the problem with that kind of freedom visible, let’s use one more analogy: When I get a flying car with which I can visit the Himalaya without having to get a drivers license, then I just got the Freedom to actually visit Himalaya. But sadly that car comes with a rule, that I am not allowed to take friends with me, and it does not allow me to drive into cities ruled by left-wing politicians. It costs so much, that I can’t afford another car1, so now if I want to visit Himalaya, I can’t take friends with me even when I just want to drive to the next shop and I can’t visit left-wing friends.

That car would give me a kind of Freedom, but it would take away other freedoms I had before I used it. If all people used it, the effects would be horrible, and not just for left-wings and car owners: You would not be able to get a ride from a neighbor when you needed to get to the doctor fast.

Now imagine what would happen, if people would find ways to make money with that flying car. They would create a society, where you have to give up Freedom if you want to get one of the good jobs.

So creating a new kind of Freedom and coupling it with heavy shackles does not give you more Freedom. It creates a situation where people have a harder time living their life when they want to keep their basic freedom, because those shackle-feats become mandatory.

I need to remember the name shackle-feats :)

Apple kinda invented the shackle-feat “use shiny computers without understanding them”.
They managed to make shackles almost mandatory for parts of society by creating a pressure on people that they have to be able to do the feat, so they have to accept the shackles.

Now we have to recreate that feat without the shackles so people are able to keep up without losing their freedom. We have to do additional work, because society is being shaped by those who made the shackles.

Best wishes,
Arne Babenhauserheide

PS: Steve Jobs managed to create really nice interfaces. Sadly he used his abilities to shackle people. He once was a hero to me. Even today there is stuff he did that I admire. But he decided to use his abilities for shackling people.

1. Or it is so different from other cars, that using it for some time makes it necessary for me to relearn other stuff, so using any other car requires a high relearning effort. And for most people, time is as scarce as money.

*This is a mail I sent as listener comment to [Free as in Freedom](http://faif.us/).*Hi Bradley, Hi Karen, I am currently listening to your Steve Jobs show (yes, late, but time is scarce these days). And I side with Karen (though I use KDE): Steve Jobs managed to make a user interface which feels very natural. And that is no problem in itself. Apple solved a problem: User interfaces are hard to use for people who don’t have computer experience and who don’t have time to learn using computers right.

# The ease of losing the spirit of your project by giving in to short-term convenience

Yesterday I said to my father

» Why does your whole cooperative have to meet for some minor legalese update which does not have an actual effect? Could you not just put into your statutes, that the elected leaders can take decisions which don’t affect the spirit of the statutes? «

» That’s how dictatorships are started.«

With an Ermächtigungsbescheid.

I gulped a few times while I realized how easy it is to fall into the pitfalls of convenience - and lose the project in the process.

An answer to tanto in Sone (Freenet - official site)

Yesterday I said to my father > » Why does your whole cooperative have to meet for some minor legalese update which does not have an actual effect? Could you not just put into your statutes, that the elected leaders can take decisions which don’t affect the spirit of the statutes? «He answered me > » That’s how dictatorships are started.«With an Ermächtigungsbescheid.I gulped a few times while I realized how easy it is to fall into the pitfalls of convenience - and lose the project in the process.

# Simple positive trust scheme with threshholds

I don’t see a reason for negative reputation schemes — voting down is in my view a flawed concept.

That just allows for community censorship, which I see as incompatible with the goals of freenet.

Would it be possible to change that to use only positive votes and a threshhold?

• If I like what some people write, I give them positive votes.
• If I get too much spam, I increase the threshhold for all people.
• Effective positive votes get added. It suffices that some people I trust also trust someone else and I’ll see the messages.
• Effective trust is my trust (0..1) · the trust of the next in the chain (0..1) · …

Usecase:

• Zwister trusts Alice and Bob.
• Alice trusts Lilith.
• Bob hates Lilith.

In the current scheme (as I understand it), zwister wouldn’t see posts from Lilith.

In a pure positive scheme, zwister would see the posts. If zwister wants to avoid seeing the posts from Lilith, he has to untrust Alice or ask Alice to untrust Lilith. Add to that a personal (and not propagating) blocking option which allows me to “never see anything from Lilith again”.

Bob should not be able to interfere with me seeing the messages from Lilith, when Alice trusts Lilith.

If zwisters trust for Alice (0..1) multiplied with Alices trust for Lilith (0..1) is lower than zwisters threshhold, zwister doesn’t see the messages.

PS: somehow adapted from Credence, which would have brought community spam control to Gnutella, if Limewire had adopted it.

PPS: And adaption for news voting: You give positive votes on news which show up. Negative votes assign a private threshhold to the author of the news, so you then only see news from that author which enough people vote for.

I don’t see a reason for negative reputation schemes — voting down is in my view a flawed concept. *The rest of this article is written for freetalk inside [freenet](http://freenetproject.org), and also posted there with my nonanonymous ID.*That just allows for community censorship, which I see as incompatible with the goals of freenet. Would it be possible to change that to use only positive votes and a threshhold? * If I like what some people write, I give them positive votes. * If I get too much spam, I increase the threshhold for all people.

# Simple steps to attach the GNU Public License (GPL) to your project

Here's the simple steps to attach a GPL license to your source files (written after requests by DiggClone and Bandnet):

----------------following is the notice-----------------
/*
* Your Project Name - -you slogan-
*
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
* the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
* (at your option) any later version.
*
* This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
* MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
* GNU General Public License for more details.
*
* You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
* along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
* Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
*/
----------------------------------------------
the "2007 - 2007" needs to be adjusted to "year when you gave it the license in the first place" - "current year".

Then put the file gpl.txt into the source-folder or a docs folder: http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.txt

If you are developing together with other people, you need their permission to put the project under the GPL.

------

Just for additional Info, I found this license comparision paper by sun: http://mediacast.sun.com/share/webmink/SunLicensingWhitePaper042006.pdf

It does look nice, but it misses one point:

GPL is trust: Contributors can trust, that their contributions will keep helping the community, and that the software they contribute to will keep being accessible for the community.

(That's why I decided some years ago to only support GPL projects. My contributions to one semi-closed project got lost, because the project wasn't free and the developer just decided not to offer them anymore, and I could only watch hundreds of hours of work disappear, and that hurt.)

Best wishes,
Arne
PS: If anything's missing, please write a comment!

Here's the simple steps to attach a GPL license to your source files (written after requests by DiggClone and Bandnet): For your own project, just add the following text-notice to the header/first section of each of your source-files, commented out in whatever way your language uses: ----------------following is the notice----------------- /* * Your Project Name - -you slogan- * Copyright (C) 2007 - 2007 Your Name *

# Some Python Programs of mine

heavily outdated page. See bitbucket.org/ArneBab for many more projects…

Hi,

I created some projects with pyglet and some tools to facilitate 2D
game development (for me), and I though you might be interested.

• babglet: basic usage of pyglet for 2D games with optional collision
detection and avoidance.
• blob_swarm: a swarm of blobs with emerging swarm behaviour through only pair relations.
• blob_battle: a duel-style battle between two blobs (basic graphics,
control and movement done)
• fuzzy_collisions: 2 groups of blobs. One can be controlled. When two
blobs collide, they move away a (random) bit to avoid the collision.

They are avaible from the rpg-1d6 project on sourceforge:
-> https://sf.net/projects/rpg-1d6/

-> https://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=199744

heavily outdated page. See bitbucket.org/ArneBab for many more projects…Hi, I created some projects with pyglet and some tools to facilitate 2D game development (for me), and I though you might be interested. babglet: basic usage of pyglet for 2D games with optional collision detection and avoidance. blob_swarm: a swarm of blobs with emerging swarm behaviour through only pair relations. blob_battle: a duel-style battle between two blobs (basic graphics, control and movement done)

# Steve Jobs, Get Your Head out Of the Sand! - Broken Apple Heart

Dear Steve,

Do you understand that imposing Digital Restrictions Management (DRM) is unethical? That attempting to control our computers and electronic devices to monitor what we do with digital files is wrong and a danger to society?

The problem for DRM proponents is that DRM doesn't work as advertised - and you are helping perpetuate a lie. We know you know this, you've said as much about music and DRM yourself. So why do you persist in touting DRM for video?

What DRM does do is trample my rights and create a situation where, if I were to circumvent a DRM scheme to be in control of my computer, it would be a criminal act - thanks to legislation like the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA).

So what does DRM do? It monitors what I do, Often, it reports on my activities to a central authority. It locks me to one vendor of software. It limits what I do with the stuff i own. Yet Apple takes advantage of DRM to gain exactly this kind of control over its customers doesn't it?

We don't want DRM! We do want our music and video in formats free from proprietary restrictions. And we want the devices we buy to be under our control.

Do you still have Apple's head stuck in the sand?
I'm writing to suggest you take it out.
- http://defectivebydesign.com

Personal Comment:
I've been a Mac User my whole life. I left you with a broken heart, when you used the TPM chip to lock down _developer_ Macs.

Now I'm a GNU/Linux user (KDE), and even though I sometimes think back to Macs, to Shufflepuck (my first addiction), to professional video editing (With my old 66Mhz Mac), to the 6 months when I tried every beta of MacOSX even though my 266Mhz G3 was far too slow to render it in speed, and to the ease of music production on my Flat-Panel iMac, I won't come back to have my freedom taken.

You're creating great computers. Why do you still have to make them a tool for digital slavery, even though you now aknowledged yourself, that this slavery is bad?

The one who acts bad but doesn't know it, is a fool.
The one who acts bad and knows it, is a criminal, regardless of the laws.

Disappointed wishes with but a glimpse of hope,
Arne Babenhauserheide - Broken Apple Heart (german)

Dear Steve,Do you understand that imposing Digital Restrictions Management (DRM) is unethical? That attempting to control our computers and electronic devices to monitor what we do with digital files is wrong and a danger to society?The problem for DRM proponents is that DRM doesn't work as advertised - and you are helping perpetuate a lie. We know you know this, you've said as much about music and DRM yourself. So why do you persist in touting DRM for video?

# Surprising behaviour of Fortran (90/95)

## 1 Introduction

I recently started really learning Fortran (as opposed to just dabbling with existing code until it did what I wanted it to).

Here I document the surprises I found along the way.

As reference: I come from Python, C++ and Lisp, and I actually started to like Fortran while learning it. So the horror-stories I heard while studying were mostly proven wrong. I uploaded the complete code as base60-surprises.f90.

## 2 Testing Skelleton

This is a code sample for calculating a base60 value from an integer.

The surprises are taken out of the program and marked with double angle brackets («surprise»). They are documented in the chapter Surprises.

program base60
! first step: Base60 encode.
! reference: http://faruk.akgul.org/blog/tantek-celiks-newbase60-in-python-and-java/
! 5000 should be 1PL
implicit none
<<declare-function-type-program>>
<<function-test-calls>>
end program base60

<<declare-function-type-function>>
implicit none
!!! preparation
<<unchanged-argument>>
<<parameter>>
! work variables
integer :: n = 0
integer :: remainder = 0
! result
<<variable-declare-init>>
! actual algorithm
if (number == 0) then
<<return>>
end if
! calculate the base60 string
<<variable-reset>>
n = number ! the input argument: that should be safe to use.
! catch number = 0
do while(n > 0)
remainder = mod(n, 60)
n = n/60
<<indizes-start-at-1>>
! write(*,*) number, remainder, n
end do
<<return-end>>


### 2.1 Helpers

write(*,*) 0, trim(numtosxg(0))
write(*,*) 100000, trim(numtosxg(100000))
write(*,*) 1, trim(numtosxg(1))
write(*,*) 2, trim(numtosxg(2))
write(*,*) 60, trim(numtosxg(60))
write(*,*) 59, trim(numtosxg(59))


## 3 Surprises

### 3.1 I have to declare the return type of a function in the main program and in the function

! I have to declare the return type of the function in the main program, too.
character(len=1000) :: numtosxg

character(len=1000) function numtosxg( number )


Alternatively to declaring the function in its header, I can also declare its return type in the declaration block inside the function body:

function numtosxg (number)
character(len=1000) :: numtosxg
end function numtosxg


### 3.2 Variables in Functions accumulate over several function calls

This even happens, when I initialize the variable when I declare it:

character(len=1000) :: res = ""


Due to that I have to begin the algorithm with resetting the required variable.

res = "" ! I have to explicitely set res to "", otherwise it
! accumulates the prior results!


This provides a hint that initialization in a declaration inside a function is purely compile-time.

program accumulate
implicit none
integer :: acc
write(*,*) acc(), acc(), acc() ! prints 1 2 3
end program accumulate

integer function acc()
implicit none
integer :: ac = 0
ac = ac + 1
acc = ac
end function acc

program accumulate
implicit none
integer :: acc
write(*,*) acc(), acc(), acc() ! prints 1 1 1
end program accumulate

integer function acc()
implicit none
integer :: ac
ac = 0
ac = ac + 1
acc = ac
end function acc


### 3.3 parameter vs. intent(in)

Defining a variable as parameter gives a constant, not an unchanged function argument:

! constants: marked as parameter: not function parameters, but
! algorithm parameters!
character(len=61), parameter :: base60chars = "0123456789"&
//"ABCDEFGHJKLMNPQRSTUVWXYZ_abcdefghijkmnopqrstuvwxyz"


An argument the function is not allowed to change is defined via intent(in):

! input: ensure that this is purely used as input.
! intent is only useful for function arguments.
integer, intent(in) :: number


### 3.4 To return values from functions, assign the value to the function itself

This feels surprisingly obvious, but it was surprising to me nontheless.

numtosxg = "0"
return


The return statement is only needed when returning within a function. At the end of the function it is implied.

  numtosxg = res
end function numtosxg


### 3.5 Fortran array indizes start at 1 - and are inclusive

For an algorithm like the example base60, where 0 is identified by the first character of a string, this requires adding 1 to the index.

! note that fortran indizes start at 1, not at 0.
res = base60chars(remainder+1:remainder+1)//trim(res)


Also note that the indizes are inclusive. The following actually gets the single letter at index n+1:

base60chars(n+1:n+1)


In python on the other hand, the second argument of the array is exclusive, so to get the same result you would use [n:n+1]:

pythonarray[n:n+1]


### 3.6 I have to trim strings when concatenating

It is necessary to get rid of trailing blanks (whitespace) from the last char to the end of the declared memory space, otherwise there will be huge gaps in combined strings - or you will get missing characters.

program test
character(len=5) :: res
write(*,*) res ! undefined. In the last run it gave me null-bytes, but
! that is not guaranteed.
res = "0"
write(*,*) res ! 0
res = trim(res)//"a"
write(*,*) res ! 0a
res = res//"a"
write(*,*) res ! 0a: trailing characters are silently removed.
! who else expected to see 0aa?
write(res, '(a, "a")') trim(res) ! without trim, this gives an error!
! *happy*
write(*,*) res
end program test


Hint from Alexey: use trim(adjustl(…)) to get rid of whitespace on the left and the right side of the string. Trim only removes trailing blanks.

Emacs 24.3.1 (Org mode 8.0.2)

/*@licstart The following is the entire license notice for theJavaScript code in this tag.Copyright (C) 2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.The JavaScript code in this tag is free software: you canredistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNUGeneral Public License (GNU GPL) as published by the Free SoftwareFoundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option)any later version. The code is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESSFOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU GPL for more details.As additional permission under GNU GPL version 3 section 7, youmay distribute non-source (e.g., minimized or compacted) forms ofthat code without the copy of the GNU GPL normally required bysection 4, provided you include this license notice and a URLthrough which recipients can access the Corresponding Source.@licend The above is the entire license noticefor the JavaScript code in this tag.*/1 IntroductionI recently started really learning Fortran (as opposed to just dabbling with existing code until it did what I wanted it to). Here I document the surprises I found along the way.As reference: I come from Python, C++ and Lisp, and I actually started to like Fortran while learning it. So the horror-stories I heard while studying were mostly proven wrong. I uploaded the complete code as base60-surprises.f90.Table of Contents1. Introduction2. Testing Skelleton2.1. Helpers3. Surprises3.1. I have to declare the return type of a function in the main program and in the function3.2. Variables in Functions accumulate over several function calls3.3. parameter vs. intent(in)3.4. To return values from functions, assign the value to the function itself3.5. Fortran array indizes start at 1 - and are inclusive3.6. I have to trim strings when concatenating
AnhangGröße
surprises.org8.42 KB
accumulate.f90226 Bytes
accumulate-not.f90231 Bytes
base60-surprises.f901.6 KB
trim.f90501 Bytes
surprises.pdf206.83 KB
surprises.html22.47 KB

# Tail Call Optimization (TCO), dependency, broken debug builds in C and C++ — and gcc 4.8

TCO: Reducing the algorithmic complexity of recursion.
Debug without TCO: Obliterate any possibility of fixing recursion bugs.

“Never develop with optimizations which the debug mode of the compiler of the future maintainer of your code does not use.”°

UPDATE: GCC 4.8 gives us -Og -foptimize-sibling-calls which generates nice-backtraces, and I had a few quite embarrassing errors in my C - thanks to AKF for the catch!

## 1 Intro

Tail Call Optimization (TCO) makes this

def foo(n):
print(n)
return foo(n+1)
foo(1)


behave like this

def foo(n):
print(n)
return n+1
n = 1
while True:
n = foo(n)


I recently told a colleague how neat tail call optimization in scheme is (along with macros, but that is a topic for another day…).

Then I decided to actually test it (being mainly not a schemer but a pythonista - though very impressed by the possibilities of scheme).

So I implemented a very simple recursive function which I could watch to check the Tail Call behaviour. I tested scheme (via guile), python (obviously) and C++ (which proved to provide a surprise).

## 2 The tests

### 2.1 Scheme

(define (foo n)
(display n)
(newline)
(foo (1+ n)))

(foo 1)


### 2.2 Python

def foo(n):
print n
return foo(n+1)

foo(1)


### 2.3 C++

The C++ code needed a bit more work (thanks to AKF for making it less ugly/horrible!):

#include <stdio.h>

int recurse(int n)
{
printf("%i\n", n);
return recurse(n+1);
}

int main()
{
return recurse(1);
}


Additionally to the code I added 4 different ways to build the code: Standard optimization (-O2), Debug (-g), Optimized Debug (-g -O2), and only slightly optimized (-O1).

all : C2 Cg Cg2 C1

# optimized
C2 : tailcallc.c
g++ -O2 tailcallc.c -o C2

# debug build
Cg : tailcallc.c
g++ -g tailcallc.c -o Cg

# optimized debug build
Cg2 : tailcallc.c
g++ -g -O2 tailcallc.c -o Cg2

# only slightly optimized
C1 : tailcallc.c
g++ -O1 tailcallc.c -o C1



## 3 The results

So now, let’s actually check the results. Since I’m interested in tail call optimization, I check the memory consumption of each run. If we have proper tail call optimization, the required memory will stay the same over time, if not, the function stack will get bigger and bigger till the program crashes.

### 3.1 Scheme

Scheme gives the obvious result. It starts counting numbers and keeps doing so. After 10 seconds it’s at 1.6 million, consuming 1.7 MiB of memory - and never changing the memory consumption.

### 3.2 Python

Python is no surprise either: it counts to 999 and then dies with the following traceback:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "tailcallpython.py", line 6, in <module>
foo(1)
File "tailcallpython.py", line 4, in foo
return foo(n+1)
… repeat about 997 times …
RuntimeError: maximum recursion depth exceeded


Python has an arbitrary limit on recursion which keeps people from using tail calls in algorithms.

### 3.3 C/C++

C/C++ is a bit trickier.

First let’s see the results for the optimized run:

#### 3.3.1 Optimized

g++ -O2 C.c -o C2
./C2


Interestingly that runs just like the scheme one: After 10s it’s at 800,000 and consumes just 144KiB of memory. And that memory consumption stays stable.

#### 3.3.2 Debug

So, cool! C/C++ has tail call optimization. Let’s write much recursive tail call using code!

Or so I thought. Then I did the debug run.

g++ -g C.c -o Cg
./Cg


It starts counting just like the optimized version. Then, after about 5 seconds and counting to about 260,000, it dies with a segmentation fault.

And here’s a capture of its memory consumption while it was still running (thanks to KDEs process monitor):

Private

7228 KB   [stack]
56 KB [heap]
40 KB /usr/lib64/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/4.7.2/libstdc++.so.6.0.17
24 KB /lib64/libc-2.15.so
12 KB /home/arne/.emacs.d/private/journal/Cg


Shared

352 KB    /usr/lib64/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/4.7.2/libstdc++.so.6.0.17
252 KB    /lib64/libc-2.15.so
108 KB    /lib64/ld-2.15.so
60 KB /lib64/libm-2.15.so
16 KB /usr/lib64/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/4.7.2/libgcc_s.so.1


That’s 7 MiB after less than 5 seconds runtime - all of it in the stack, since that has to remember all the recursive function calls when there is no tail call optimization.

So we now have a program which runs just fine when optimized but dies almost instantly when run in debug mode.

But at least we have nice gdb traces for the start:
recurse (n=43) at C.c:5
5         printf("%i\n", n);
43
6         return recurse(n+1);


### 3.4 Optimized debug build

So, is all lost? Luckily not: We can actually specify optimization with debugging information.

g++ -g -O2 C.c -o Cg2
./Cg2


When doing so, the optimized debug build chugs along just like the optimized build without debugging information. At least that’s true for GCC.

But our debug trace now looks like this:
5         printf("%i\n", n);
printf (__fmt=0x40069c "%i\n") at /usr/include/bits/stdio2.h:105
105       return __printf_chk (__USE_FORTIFY_LEVEL - 1, __fmt, __va_arg_pack ());
5
6         return recurse(n+1);

That’s not so nice, but at least we can debug with tail call optimization. We can also improve on this (thanks to AKF for that hint!): We just need to enable tail call optimization separately:
g++ -g -O1 -foptimize-sibling-calls C.c -o Cgtco
./Cg

But this still gives ugly backtraces (if I leave out -O1, it does not do TCO). So let’s turn to GCC 4.8 and use -Og.
g++ -g -Og -foptimize-sibling-calls C.c -o Cgtco
./Cgtco

And we have nice backtraces!
recurse (n=n@entry=1) at C.c:4
4       {
5         printf("%i\n", n);
1
6         return recurse(n+1);
5         printf("%i\n", n);
2
6         return recurse(n+1);


### 3.5 Optimized for size

Can we invert the question? Is all well, now?

Actually not…

If we activate minor optimization, we get the same unoptimized behaviour again.

g++ -O1 C.c -o C1
./C1


It counts to about 260,000 and then dies from a stack overflow. And that is pretty bad™, because it means that a programmer cannot trust his code to work when he does not know all the optimization strategies which will be used with his code.

And he has no way to define in his code, that it requires TCO to work.

## 4 Summary

Tail Call Optimization (TCO) turns an operation with a memory requirement of O(N)1 into one with a memory requirement of O(1).

It is a nice tool to reduce the complexity of code, but it is only safe in languages which explicitely require tail call optimization - like Scheme.

And from this we can find a conclusion for compilers:

C/C++ compilers should always use tail call optimization, including debug builds, because otherwise C/C++ programmers should never use that feature, because it can make it impossible to use certain optimization settings in any code which includes their code.

And as a finishing note, I’d like to quote (very loosely) what my colleague told me from some of his real-life debugging experience:

“We run our project on an AIX ibm-supercomputer. We had spotted a problem in optimized runs, so we activated the debugger to trace the bug. But when we activated debug flags, a host of new problems appeared which were not present in optimized runs. We tried to isolate the problems, but they only appeared if we ran the full project. When we told the IBM coders about that, they asked us to provide a simple testcase… The problems likely happened due to some crazy optimizations - in our code or in the compiler.”

So the problem of undebuggable code due to a dependency of the program on optimization changes is not limited to tail call optimization. But TCO is a really nice way to show it :)

Let’s use that to make the statement above more general:

C/C++ compilers should always do those kinds of optimizations which lead to changes in the algorithmic cost of programs.

Or from a pessimistic side:

You should only rely on language features, which are also available in debug mode - and you should never develop your program with optimization turned on.

And by that measure, C/C++ does not have Tail Call Optimization - at least until all mainstream compilers include TCO in their default options. Which is a pretty bleak result after the excitement I felt when I realized that optimizations can actually give C/C++ code the behavior of Tail Call Optimization.

Never develop with optimizations which the debug mode of the compiler of the future maintainer of your code does not use.Never develop with optimizations which are not required by the language standard.

Note, though, that GCC 4.8 added the -Og option, which improves the debugging a lot (Phoronix wrote about plans for that last september). It still does not include -foptimize-sibling-calls in -Og, but that might be only a matter of time… I hope it is.

## Footnotes:

1 : O(1) and O(N) describe the algorithmic cost of an algorithm. If it is O(N), then the cost rises linearly with the size of the problem (N is the size, for example printing 20,000 consecutive numbers). If it is O(1), the cost is stable regardless of the size of the problem.

> **TCO**: Reducing the algorithmic complexity of recursion. > **Debug build**: Add overhead to a program to trace errors. > **Debug without TCO**: Obliterate any possibility of fixing recursion bugs.> *“Never develop with optimizations which the debug mode of the compiler of the future maintainer of your code does not use.”[°](/light/english/free-software/tco-debug#golden-rule)***UPDATE**: [GCC](http://gnu.org/s/gcc) 4.8 gives us -Og -foptimize-sibling-calls which generates [nice-backtraces](/light/english/free-software/tco-debug#nice-backtraces), and I had a few quite embarrassing errors in my C - thanks to AKF for the catch!1 IntroTail Call Optimization (TCO) makes thisdef foo(n): print(n) return foo(n+1)foo(1)behave like thisdef foo(n): print(n) return n+1n = 1while True: n = foo(n)

# Thank you for your Flattr’s! | Danke für eure Flattr! | Dankon por vian Flattrn!

It’s always a great feeling to see a flattr - Thank you for your support!
You can find new free works for you enjoyment on draketo.de (infrequent and bursty) and 1w6.org (currently weekly but mostly in German).

Es ist ein tolles Gefühl, geflattrd zu werden - Danke für eure Unterstützung!
Neue freie Werke von mir findet ihr auf draketo.de (unregelmäßig) und 1w6.org (zur Zeit wöchentlich).

Mi ĝojegas ricevi novan flattrn - Dankon por subteni min!
Nova verkoj estas en draketo.de (ne-regula) kaj 1w6.org (nuntempe ĉiusemajna, sed en la germana).

Best wishes,
Liebe Grüße,
Kore,
- Arne alias Drak

PS: This month I got >6€ via Flattr - 80% of my server costs.
_   Diesen Monat habe ich >6€ über Flattr bekommen - 80% der Serverkosten.
_   Tiu monato mi ricevis >6€ de Flattr - 80% de la kostoj por la servilo.

It’s always a great feeling to see a flattr - Thank you for your support! You can find new free works for you enjoyment on [draketo.de](http://draketo.de/licht-lumo-light) (infrequent and bursty) and [1w6.org](http://1w6.org) (currently weekly but mostly in German).> → [ArneBab on Flattr](https://flattr.com/profile/ArneBab)Es ist ein tolles Gefühl, geflattrd zu werden - Danke für eure Unterstützung!

# The assisted brain and the chained brain

PDF (to print)

Org (to change)

Who serves whom? Our tools can be our allies or our masters. Do your tools assist or chain?

## Lisa

Good morning, Lisa. Your group rescheduled the meeting, so you should get up early today. Do you want a suggestion for rescheduling your workplan to optimize for your biorhythm?

Yes, please. Use the “we had great sex” mode. I’d like fried eggs today, please search for a recipe.

What about “flaming chicken fun”? It’s a favorite of Marta and Dave.

Sounds good. is there anything urgent today?

No. Just send him a message “you can have all my data, but I don’t give it to moogle. Just come over at six”

This sounds like an appointment at six. But your schedule today ends at 7. Shall I adapt the schedule?

“You can have all my data, but I don’t give it to moogle. Just come over at six”, is that correct?

## Dave

Good morning, Dave. Your group-leader rescheduled the meeting, so you have to get up early today. Shall I reschedule your workplan to maximize your healthcare bonus?

Yes, please. Use the “latenight workout” profile.

I can’t do that, Dave. The “latenight workout” profile requires a workout token, but you met with Lisa who does not have a latenight-account. Your biosignals meet the criteria for “latenight workout”, though. Shall I request individual validation?

No! Just use the usual profile. And search for a recipe with fried eggs.

I can’t do that, Dave. You already bought ice cream yesterday. Ice cream and fried eggs without workout would violate your employee contract. May I suggest orange juice and a salad?

So be it. Is there anything urgent today?

Lisa replied to your request for her plan.

What request?

You asked for her plans, so I sent a request for uploading them. Fapple flagged her answer as aggressive and sleazy. Do you still want to read it?

Not yet. Notify me again after breakfast.

I can’t do that, Dave. Re-notification for aggressive messages makes users unhappy. If you do not read it, it will be deleted in 7 days.

Then say it.

Lisa says “you can have all my data, but I don’t want to give it to moogle. Just come over at six.” I filed a potential appointment at six in your moogle sheat. Do you want to acknowledge it?

PDF (to print)Org (to change)> *__Who serves whom?__ Our tools can be our allies or our masters. Do your tools assist or chain?*
AnhangGröße
assist-or-chain.pdf92.43 KB
assist-or-chain.org2.78 KB

# The danger of promoting dead closed clients

I had a strange feeling about people advertising the dead and closed source Gnutella client BearShare, but I only found one of the reasons for that gut feeling today.

Assumptions I use: We want Gnutella to continue to evolve and grow better.

To have Gnutella evolve, the developers of actively developed clients need feedback (and be it only encouragement).

If people now use a dead client, which won't evolve anymore, they don't provide essential feedback to actively developed clients, and it might even happen, that some developers waste time on trying to hack the dead client to make something work (again), instead of contributing to an active open client.

So every user who uses a dead closed client instead of an active open (and free licensed) client hinders the evolution of Gnutella.

That's not the fault of the user, and it's not per se damaging to the current state of the network (as long as the user shares, he contributes to the availaable files), but on the long term it hinders Gnutella from becoming better.

And that in mind, promoting a closed dead client directly damages Gnutella.

I know I'm human and as such prone to errors, so if you see anything I overlooked, please tell me about it.

I had a strange feeling about people advertising the dead and closed source Gnutella client BearShare, but I only found one of the reasons for that gut feeling today. Assumptions I use: We want Gnutella to continue to evolve and grow better. To have Gnutella evolve, the developers of actively developed clients need feedback (and be it only encouragement).

# The dynamics of free culture and the danger of noncommercial clauses

NC covered works trick people into investing in a dead end

Free licensing lowers the barrier of entry to creating cultural works, which unlocks a dynamic where people can realize their ideas much easier - and where culture can actually live, creating memes, adjusting them to new situations and using new approaches with old topics.

But for that to really take off, people have to be able to make a living from their creations - which build on other works. Then we have people who make a living by reshaping culture again and again - instead of the current culture where only a few (rich or funded by rich ones) can afford to reuse old works and all others have to start from scratch again and again.

Sharealike licensing gives those who allow others to reuse their works an edge over those who do not do that: They can access many resources early in their career which allow them to produce high-quality stuff without needing to pay huge amounts up front. And they hone their skills in working with free stuff. So when they become good enough that they can work in art for a living, they are deeply invested in free culture, so they have very good reasons for also licensing their new works under free licenses.

As a real-life example for the dynamic of free licensing, I’ve been working on a free tabletop roleplaying system in my free time for the last 10 years. For 3 or 4 years now it has been licensed under the GPL, so we could use images from Battle for Wesnoth in our books. And 2 years ago, I worked together with another roleplayer to create minimal roleplaying supplements on just one Flyer - where only half the images were from Battle for Wesnoth, because a great artist decided to contribute (All hail Trudy!).

All this would have been possible with NC licensing.

But about 2 months ago a roleplayer from a forum I discuss at unveiled his plans to create a german free rpg day and I realized that our minimal RPG would be a great fit for that - but that I could not afford myself to print it in high enough numbers and good enough quality to reach many people.

So I worked on the design and text to polish them, and when I was happy I started a 4-day fundraiser to finance printing the RPGs. Within just those 4 days I got over 200€ in donations which allowed me to print 2000 RPGs in great quality along with supplements and additional character cards which made every single RPG instantly playable - instead of 1500 RPGs with only one card so people would need 3 RPGs to actually play.

And this would have been plain illegal with NC material.

It is not yet “making a living with free art”, but it is a first step out of the purely hobby creation into a stronger dynamic. One which allows us to bring 2000 physical RPGs to people without going broke - and more importantly: One which started small and can grow organically.

An RPG might not be the best example here, because tabletop RPGs are notoriously bad for generating money. But it is the example I experienced myself.

As an example which might be closer to you: Imagine that you created a movie with free music and other material from free licensed works. Imagine that half of the visuals you use could have already been created - maybe for some other movie. By using free stuff, you could save half the effort for creating the movie.

But if that other stuff had been NC, you would not be allowed to start a fundraiser for getting it to blu-ray quality - at least not without replacing all NC parts, which would have added a high cost to be able to increase your outreach. Likely it would have been a blocking cost. It would have been easier to just create a new project than to polish the one you have to reach more people.

And polish is what allowed me to move the RPG from just being a hardly readable PDF to a work I can look at with pride.

To wrap it up: Free culture - just like free software - allows people to take little steps into creating culture and to move organically from just being a hobby artist towards making a living from their work - and spreading their work to many more people.

NC covered works on the other hand trick people into investing in a dead end, because they can never move beyond being a hobbyist without huge investments which bring no other benefit than recreating what they could directly use when they did not try to make a living. It’s like learning to use Photoshop and then realizing that you aren’t allowed to earn a little extra by improving wedding-images without shelling out 3000€ for a creative suite license. And that means, that you can’t move in small steps from a boring day job to a professional creative life.

(written in reply to a question from Keith, one of the makers of Software Wars, a movie about free software which is trying to fund going to a high-quality blu-ray release at the moment)

> *NC covered works trick people into investing in a dead end*Free licensing lowers the barrier of entry to creating cultural works, which unlocks a dynamic where people can realize their ideas much easier - and where culture can actually live, creating memes, adjusting them to new situations and using new approaches with old topics.But for that to really take off, people have to be able to make a living from their creations - which build on other works.

# The effect of the optional restrictions of the GPLv3

I just thought a bit about the restrictions the GPLv3 allows, and I think I just understood their purpose and effect for the first time (correct me, if I'm wrong :) ).

## What are the restrictions?

The GPLv3 allows developers (=copyright holders) to add selected restrictions, like forbidding the use of a certain brand name or similar.

The catch with them is, that any subsequent developer who adds anything is free to simply strip off the restrictions.

## What is their effect?

Now I wondered for a long time, what that really gains us. today I then realized that subsequent develoeprs are only free to strip off the restrictions, as long as that doesn't violate any license of some part of the program.

That means, the GPLv3 restrictions simply have the effect of adding compatibility to other licenses, while keeping the option to strip off any restriction, when you replace the part under the other license with a more liberal licensed part.

So this doesn't place any additional burden on packagers, because they already have to check those other licenses for their restrictions. Now the GPLv3 description of the whole package clearly states what additional restrictions are inferred by the parts which are under different but compatible licenses.

While those parts where under seperate licenses before (and had to be checked), they can now be impcoved with GPLv3 code with additional restrictions.

And as soon as the GPLv3 code can stand on its own feet, the more restrictive licensed part can be replaces with GPLv3 code, and the restrictions can be removed again, making the work of the packagers easier.

Better still, the GPLv3 shows clearly the sum of all restrictions of the individual (differently but compatible licensed) parts, so packagers only need to check the GPLv3 license information to see all restrictions in a standardized format (GPLv3 additional restrictions).

## Example

Let's assume I find this great piece of software which says "do what you want but don't touch my brand", and I want to build my GPLv3 program on it. Let's call the piece of software "foo". So I just begin coding and use the GPLv3 for my parts (simply copyright message in my code files). For the whole package I add a license information ("license.txt" or "COPYING" or similar) which give the information

  "This program is licensed under the GPLv3
with the additional restriction that the brand
'foo' may not be used for derived products.
The additional restriction is inferred by the package foo.

(plus license mumbo jumbo you can find at and copy


Now someone else takes my program and improves it. But he also uses the package "blah" which also says that it's brand must not be violated. Now the combined license would be:

  "This program is licensed under the GPLv3
with the additional restriction that the brand
'foo' and the brand 'blah' may not be used for
derived products.
The additional restriction for brand 'foo' is inferred by the package foo.
The additional restriction for brand 'blah' is inferred by the package blah.

(plus license mumbo jumbo you can find at and copy


So now a group of free software activists takes offense at the restrictions. They don't want anyone to be restricted by copyright from using a brand. One reason could be that the brand protection was voided by some trademark action.

Now they can't just say "that brand isn't protected anymore", since the protection was reinforced by copyright law.

But they can just replace the parts under the more restrictive licenses with honest GPLv3 licensed parts - either by writing them or by finding a drop-in replacement. Now let's suppose they write the packages "bar" and "baz" which implement the functionality of "foo" and "blah". They now no longer use any parts under licenses which require additional restrictions, so they are free to remove them. As they release their package, the license information might read as follows:

  "This program is licensed under the GPLv3.

(plus license mumbo jumbo you can find at and copy
`

If they are nice (and we assume they are) their changelog will also contain a line saying something like "replaced 'foo' and 'blah' which allowed us to remove the additional license restrictions to avoid using the brands 'foo' or 'blah'."

## Final remark

As you see (and if I understand it correctly), the additional restrictions can be a great tool for freeing software from restrictions, because they allow you to combine GPlv3 code with somewhat restrictive licensed code and get rid off the restrictions later by replacing the more restrictive licensed parts.

And since the only allowed additional restrictions are those which don't harm the four freedoms of free software, you can still make sure that you use ethically sound software by simply checking whether it is GPL licensed.

So kudos to the designers of the GPLv3. They did such a great job that it took me two years to realize one of the many powerful tools they gave us with the GPLv3 - and I did take part in the public discussion of the GPLv3 since draft 1 (but I never watched a GPLv3 speech...).

Also, since the GPLv3 allows combination with the AGPLv3 software (which adds the restriction, that the source code must also be supplied when the software is used over a network), it gives us a clear path into the future where people might use more and more software "as a service", so it doesn't get executed on their local machine and the normal GPL alone isn't enough to protect our freedom.

I just thought a bit about the restrictions the GPLv3 allows, and I think I just understood their purpose and effect for the first time (correct me, if I'm wrong :) ). What are the restrictions?--------------------------The GPLv3 allows developers (=copyright holders) to add selected restrictions, like forbidding the use of a certain brand name or similar. The catch with them is, that any subsequent developer who adds anything is free to simply strip off the restrictions. What is their effect?---------------------

# The generation of cultural freedom

I am part of a generation who experienced true cultural freedom - and who experienced that freedom being destroyed.

We had access to the largest public library which ever existed and saw it burned down for lust for control.